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With Some Account of the 
Earliest Australian Clergy 



Hon. Fellow of the Australian College of Theology, 

Archdeacon Emeritus of Hobart, and Vicar-General 

of the Diocese 



Set up, printed and bound 

in Australia by 

Halstead Printing Company 

Ltd., Nickson Street, Sydney 


Registered at the General 
Post Office, Sydney, for 
transmission through the 
post as a book 

Obtainable in London from 
the Australian Book Com- 
pany, S7 Great Russell 
Street, W.C.I. 























LASIA 160 




GOVERNMENT - - - - - - - 227 








INDEX 293 



HYDE PARK, SYDNEY, IN 1842 --'---- 4 










NIXON 112 













THE purpose of this book is to do something towards laying 
the foundation for the ecclesiastical history of Australia. 
While visiting England many years ago, the writer was a 
guest at St Augustine's College, Canterbury. One of the 
Fellows, after referring to the recently published English 
edition of the first Bishop of Adelaide's life, asked why no 
adequate biography of Bishop Broughton had been written, 
while lives of his contemporaries Perry, Tyrrell, and 
Short had all appeared, particularly as the Bishop was, 
| indirectly, the cause of the founding of St Augustine's. 
| Although entirely agreeing with this protest, the biographer 
| of Bishop Short felt unable to act upon the suggestion that 
| he should step into the breach. The task, he urged, should 
| be undertaken by a resident of New South Wales, the 
| centre of the labours of the Bishop of Australia, who must 
have left behind him much valuable information. But a 
promise was given to bring the subject before some of the 
leading clergy in Sydney. This was done, without effect, 
excepting a promise to give assistance in a work which 
everybody agreed ought to be undertaken. 

The appropriateness of publishing in Australia a biography 
of the Bishop of Australia at the time of the commem- 
oration of the centenary of Bishop Broughton's enthrone- 
ment on 5 June 1836 is obvious. And it is felt, by those 
who have been associated in the work, that it has been a 
privilege to make the production of this book a con- 
tribution to the centenary celebrations. One reason strongly 
pressed against venturing on a Broughton biography has 


been that, a century after a man's work had ended, it 
is difficult effectively to record his career with the personal 
element essential to revive an individuality that has been 
clouded by the passing of time. From the point of view 
of mere attractiveness this is true. But the object in handing 
on the life-story of public characters is to lay to heart 
the man's message to his own age and to try to apply it 
to the conditions of succeeding generations. 

Judged from this standpoint, William Grant Broughton's 
life richly deserves to be kept in mind. It is a common- 
place to bemoan the distracted conditions of the world of 
to-day. Broughton persistently taught that the first neces- 
sity in building up national life was an all embracing educa- 
tional system, based upon the cardinal truths of revealed 
religion. The political wise men of his time scouted the 
idea of an essential dogmatic faith, and following the fatal 
lure of the line of least resistance, have covered Australia 
with an undenominationalism which is causing deep anxiety 
even among many who earn their bread under its aegis. 

Next, as chairman of the committee of the early New 
South Wales Legislative Council (of which he was an ex 
officio member), Broughton produced a report of fifty printed 
foolscap pages, in which he pleaded for the settlement of 
the people on the Crown lands, and for a contribution, from 
the income derived from the public estate, towards a religious 
educational endowment for both higher and primary schools. 
In sermons, lectures, and speeches he has left a remarkable 
amount of literature containing records of the principles 
for which he pleaded. 

I am glad to be able, here, to express my gratitude to 
those who have helped in making this book : To Dr Micklem, 
rector of St James's, Sydney, the church so closely asso- 
ciated with Australia's first bishop. In the midst of a 
crowded parochial and diocesan life he came to the rescue 
when age and other infirmities threatened to hold up the 
project. Not only has he entirely contributed six chapters 


(XV, XVI, XVII, XVIII, XIX, XXI), but he has also 
given his scholarship and criticism in reviewing most of the 
book, and in reading and correcting the proofs ; and he has 
done all this pro ecclesh: to the beloved diocesan of Tas- 
mania, Bishop Montgomery, who, after his return to Eng- 
land, enlisted Dr Claude Jenkins, then librarian at Lambeth 
Palace, in research work among the Lambeth archives; and 
he himself, aided by Lady Montgomery, did much copying 
of documents: to my old chief at Hobart Cathedral, Dean 
Dundas ; and to my dear friends, the Rev. C. E. C. Lef roy, 
and the Rev. A, G. B. West. I am indebted, also, to many 
members of the laity, including Mr S. G. Boydell and the 
late Mr Charles B. Boydell, grandsons of Bishop Brough- 
ton; and to our Church Advocate in Tasmania, Mr W. F. 
D. Butler, B.A., L.C.B., B.Sc., who guided me in the legal 
questions that have often to be considered in publishing 
books. Great service has been rendered by the librarian and 
staff of the famous Mitchell Library, and the state and 
other libraries in Sydney; by the librarians of Melbourne 
and Hobart public libraries; and by the Church Registry 
staff at Sydney. 

The frontispiece portrait of Bishop Broughton is from a 
painting in the possession of Mrs E. E. Kemp of Sydney. A 
number of the portraits and of the views of old Sydney have 
been made available through the kindness of the Librarian of 
the Mitchell Library, Sydney. We are also indebted to the 
following: Mr William Dixson, of Sydney, the Bishop of 
Newcastle, the Rev. Frank Cash, and Mr H. B. Cowper. 
The illustration of the King's School, Canterbury, is from 
a photograph kindly lent by the Archbishop of Sydney, and 
that of Bishop Broughton's. tomb in Canterbury Cathedral 
from a photograph provided by the Rev. J. W. S. Tomlin, 
Warden of St Augustine's College, Canterbury. 

As this book was going through the press the Archbishop 
of Canterbury announced his intention of giving an address 
in Canterbury Cathedral in connexion with the Bishop 


Broughton Centenary and on the day (5 June 1836) on which 
is to be commemorated Broughton's enthronement as Bishop 
of Australia: and His Grace has arranged for the broad- 
casting of the address throughout the Empire. This pro- 
posed action on the part of the Primate of all England, 
speaking as he will as representative of the whole Anglican 
Communion, is an impressive justification of the claims 
which this book respectfully makes for a place among the 
historical records of the "ancient church of the English." 

Hobart, Lent-, 1935. 

"Bishop Broughton, the first Bishop of Australia, whom 
no distance wearied, no difficulty daunted, and whose far- 
reaching counsel, with an instinct that may without exag- 
geration be called prophetic, traced out the boundaries of 
Sees and Provinces which to ordinary minds seemed but 
the mere creatures of an idle fancy." REV. H. W. 
TUCKER: Memoir of the Life and Episcopate of George 
Augustus Selwyn, D.D., vol. i, p. 3, London. 




IT should help to provide a foundation for the better under- 
standing of the life and work of the first Bishop of Aus- 
tralia briefly to recall the state of religion in Australia 
prior to Bishop Broughton's time, even though it may have 
already received some notice. And, first, it is more. than 
interesting to rescue almost from oblivion the fact that 
originally Australia was not designed for a convict settle- 

Upon the revolt of the American colonies, and the con- 
sequent impossibility of continuing to send convicts there 
from England, attempts were made to found penal settle- 
ments on the west coast of Africa, but these failed because 
of the deadly climate. About this time James Matra, who 
had served as one of Captain Cook's crew in the Endeavour, 
suggested to the Government that the Loyalist folk who had 
been ruined by their faithfulness to the Crown in the con- 
flict with the American people, might be compensated by 
being given land to open up a new English colony in Aus- 
tralia. 1 He is said to have been supported in the scheme 
by Joseph Banks, the botanist of the Endeavour, from whom 
Botany Bay has its name. The Government at first looked 
favourably upon the plan. But Lord Sydney, the Home 
Secretary, saw that a more pressing problem would be 
solved by using the island continent for transportation pur- 

1 James Bonwick, F.R.G.S., Australia's First Preaoher, Chapter II 
(London, 1898). 



poses. And so he proposed to the Prime Minister, Pitt, 
that New South Wales might be "a very proper region 
for the reception of criminals." Matra ultimately con- 
curred, declaring that in the idea "good policy and humanity 
are united." The outlines for a new penal colony were 
accordingly drawn up and forwarded to the Government 
by the Lords of the Admiralty in August 1785, though 
Howe, the First Lord, is reported as having been against 
the proposal. In these outlines provision was made for 
each convict ship "to have a 'chaplain on board, together 
with a surgeon and one mate; the former to remain at the 
settlement," It is therefore a mistake to suggest, as many 
writers have done, that no thought was given to religion 
in the preliminary arrangements made for beginning to 
people Australia by establishing a convict settlement at 
Botany Bay. Possibly the ecclesiastical aspect of the scheme 
did not receive much detailed attention, for British Govern- 
ments generally content themselves with treating the re- 
ligious side of state affairs with all politeness, but as some- 
thing in the nature of an extra. At any rate the matter 
was not altogether ignored. 

While all the other preliminaries were being considered, 
the Prime Minister seems to have been in consultation with 
his fellow Commoner, William Wilberforce, for help in findr 
ing a clergyman for the Botany Bay expedition. Wilber- 
force consulted John Newton, the poet parson and friend 
of Cowper. Newton was the leading spirit of the Eclectic 
Society of clergy, Nonconformist ministers and laymen, out 
of which the Church Missionary Society finally developed, 
and whicH included among its clerical members, such notable 
men as Charles Simeon, Fletcher of Mandalay, Venn, and 
Baptist Noel; and of the laity Wilberforce, Cowper, and 
John Thornton, the wealthy merchant who is believed to have 
given away half of his yearly income. This great philan- 
thropist appears to have been a friend of a young clergy- 
man, Richard Johnson, who had just then been admitted 


to priest's orders. Born in Norfolk in 1753, he won at 
the grammar school of Kingston-upon-Hull a sizarship at 
Cambridge, where he graduated senior optime from Mag- 
dalene College in 1784. His name was introduced to the 
"Eclectics" as a suitable man for the Australian chaplaincy 
by Newton, and under date 28 October 1786, Henry Venn 
wrote to a kinswoman that Johnson "through the influence 
of Mr Wilberforce and Mr Pitt, is appointed chaplain to 
Botany Bay at the age of thirty-three, with a salary of 180 
per annum." To be exact, the official stipend was 182, 
that is, ten shillings a day. His nomination was submitted by 
the Government to the Archbishop of Canterbury and ap- 
proved. Yet despite the small salary and venturesome sphere 
of work, he succeeded in getting a wife, and the Government 
provided him with a parson's clerk. Newton spoke of him 
as "a humble and simple-minded man. I think he would 
not have thought of this service if it had not been proposed 
to him : for some time he wished to decline it, but he could 
not, he durst not." He seems to have been a true evange- 
lical, in the best sense of the word, but of a somewhat shy 
and reserved temperament, which did not help him in the 
rough task to which he had set his hand, nor was he 
physically robust. 

But although the authorities of the Church may not have 
taken the initiative in procuring the chaplain for Botany 
Bay, the Archbishop of Canterbury (Dr Moore) interested 
himself in getting some suitable literature for Johnson to 
carry with him, and in connexion herewith he was presented 
to the committees of the Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge, and the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel. There is this record in the S.P.C.K. minutes for 
14 November 1786, more than six months before the First 
Fleet left London : 

Dr Morice [secretary to the S.P.G. Society] reported to the Board 
that he was charged with a message from the Lord Archbishop of 
Canterbury recommending to this Society that they would furnish 


the Rev. Mr Johnson, who is going to Botany Bay as chaplain 
to the convicts, with some Bibles and other religious books for 
the use of his charge, and it was suggested that there was reason 
to believe a considerable number of books lately had by Mr Thornton, 
on Society's terms, were intended for this purpose. The secretary 
was therefore directed to write to that gentleman for information, 
whether all or any of the books are to be sent to Botany Bay. If 
so, the Board conceives His Grace's wish to have been already 
virtually complied with: if not, the Board resolves to reconsider 
the matter, at their next meeting and to adopt some conclusion agree- 
able to His Grace's wish. 

Upon hearing from Thornton that he intended half of the 
books mentioned for Johnson, the S.P.C.K. notified 
.the Archbishop "that they are most readily willing to make 
whatever addition thereto His Grace shall deem expedient," 
and the chaplain-elect attended a meeting of the Board and 
received a grant of 100 Bibles, 400 New Testaments, 100 
Prayer Books, 500 Psalters, and some 3000 tracts and 
other publications of the Society. The official record adds : 
"The Board expressed their most fervent wishes that the 
Divine blessing might go with him in his undertaking, and 
requested Mr Johnson to favour the Society from time to 
time with his correspondence." It would seem the 'chap- 
lain unfortunately omitted to comply with this request, ex- 
cepting by one letter written three years after his arrival 
in Australia. And it is singular that his diary of the voyage 
to New South Wales apparently has been lost, for it is 
clear that he kept one, as Newton wrote him on 24 June 
1789 : "I heard a part of your journal read in our Eclectic 

In response to an appeal made by Johnson in 1795, the 
S.P.G. agreed to provide grants in aid towards the salaries 
of four school-teachers in New South Wales; so both the 
venerable English missionary societies did something to 
assist the chaplain. 

The official commission granted to the first Australian 
clergyman seems now a curious document: 


George the Third, &c., to our trusty and well-beloved Richard 
Johnson, clerk, greeting: 

We do, by these presents, constitute and appoint you to be 
Chaplain to the settlement within our territory called New South 
Wales. You are, therefore, carefully and diligently to discharge 
the duty of chaplain, by doing and performing all and all manner 
of things thereunto belonging; and you are to observe and follow 
such orders and directions, from time to time as you shall receive 
from our Governor of our said territory for the time being, or 
any other your superior officers, according to the rules and discipline 
of war. 

Given at our Court of St James's, the twenty-fourth day of Octo- 
ber, 1786, in the twenty-sixth year of our reign. 

By his Majesty's command. 


The placing of the chaplain under the "Articles of War" looks 
at first sight rather startling, but the explanation must be 
that as the new convict colony was entirely a military set- 
tlement all its officers had in those early days to be brought 
under the ruling regime. Up to 1804 the chaplains re- 
mained subject to the military authorities. They were then 
placed under the sole direction of the Governor until 1810, 
when they were transferred to the control of "the prin- 
cipal chaplain," under whose authority they remained until 
the coming of the first archdeacon. But even after Aus- 
tralia received its bishop, the State often showed a dis- 
position to interfere in matters ecclesiastical, and this neces- 
sarily led to a good deal of friction, especially in Tasmania, 
when that island was 'constituted a separate colony and raised 
to an episcopal see. 

On 13 May 1787, within a fortnight of seven months 
from the date of Chaplain Johnson's official appointment, 
the memorable First Fleet set sail from Portsmouth with 
Captain Arthur Phillip, R.N., the first Governor of New 
South Wales, and his staff, about 200 marines, 750 con- 
victs, and some children. There were two warships, the 
Sirius and the Supply, six convict transports, and three 
supply-ships, and in one of these vessels carrying stores, 
the Golden Grove, the chaplain and his wife and the par- 


son's clerk were travellers, which suggests that those who 
organized the expedition evidently considered that the chap- 
lain might have been appropriately labelled "Not wanted 
on the voyage," as they separated him from both the official 
staff and the soldiers, and from the unhappy human freight 
in the transports. 

After a passage of a little over eight months the voyagers 
reached Botany Bay, the first of the vessels arriving on 18 
January 1788. On that day in that month, forty-eight years 
afterwards, the letters patent creating the bishopric of Aus- 
tralia were issued the year before Victoria came to the 
throne. An examination of Botany Bay satisfied Phillip 
that it would never be a satisfactory harbour, so 
he took to the boats and inspected the adjacent Port Jack- 
son, and thus the site of the first Australian city was fixed 
on the shores of what is admittedly one of the finest natural 
ports in the world. The fleet received orders to move into 
what Phillip named Sydney Cove, after the then Home 
Secretary in England. 

The official landing took place on Saturday, 26 January 
1788, but all the vessels from Botany Bay had not reached 
Port Jackson in time for the ceremony, and the ship with 
the chaplain on board was one of these, so he 'could not 
have taken part in the proceedings even if the Governor 
had so wished. It is said that the chaplain held a service 
on board the Golden Grove on Sunday, 27 January, the day 
after the proclamation of the colony. In a narrative by 
Captain Watkin Tench, of the Marines, in reference to the 
formal occupation of the new settlement, it is said: "On 
the Sunday after our landing service was performed under 
a great tree by the Rev. Mr Johnson, chaplain of the Settle- 
ment, in the presence of the troops and convicts, whose 
behaviour on the occasion was regular and attentive." This 
tree is said to have been in the lower George Street of to- 
day, near to the foot of Argyle Street. From an entry in the 
journal of Arthur Bowes, the surgeon on one of the trans- 


ports, the date is more particularly fixed by the entry: 
"Feby 3rd. On this day the Rev. Mr Johnson preached on 
shore for the first time." And the 'chaplain in his register 
of births and marriages and burials also records: "Feby 3, 
first divine service, and on this Sabbath the first baptism, 
a son of Samuel Thomas, a marine, was performed." The 
text of the first sermon preached in Australia was: "What 
shall I render unto the Lord for all his benefits toward me" 
(Ps. cxvi, 12). Besides the service on shore on the 
morning of Sunday, 3 February, the chaplain officiated 
in the afternoon on the Sirius, the Governor's flagship. The 
first celebration of Holy Communion was on Sunday morn- 
ing, 17 February, truly a dies memordbitis, of which the 
significance made its impression on at any rate one of the 
official establishment, a certain Lieutenant Clark, who in a 
Pepys-like diary, forwarded to his wife, wrote: "Major 
Ross sent to ask me if I would be so good as to let the Gov- 
ernor have our marquee to take Sacrament in, which I did 
not refuse, and I am happy that it is to be my marquee 
never did it receive so much honour. Oh, my God, my God, 
I wish I was fit to take the Lord's Supper. When it pleases 
Him that I return home, the first thing that I will do shall 
be to take it with you, my dear Betsy. I will keep this 
table, also, as long as I live, for it is the first table that ever 
the Lord's Supper was eaten from in this country." 

Even if some excuses may be found for the absence of 
an official act of thanksgiving on the Sunday immediately 
succeeding the proclamation, they are discounted in the 
light of the subsequent failure of the authorities to make 
any provision for public worship. Four years after the 
forming of the settlement, the chaplain was still holding the 
services under the gum-trees, and when Governor Phillip 
returned to England in 1792, the settlement was still with- 
out any church building. At length Johnson determined per- 
sonally to set about putting up, with the help of labourers 
whom he had to pay, the wattle-and-daub structure which 


must be ever memorable as the first building placed on Aus- 
tralian ground as a house of God. The chaplain, of course, 
did not know that at this very time the Archbishop of Can- 
terbury, to whom he had appealed in his distress, was writ- 
ing to the Under Secretary, Nepean: "I should be obliged 
to you for a hint of information whether any measure is 
taken in respect of a place or places of worship at Botany 
Bay, the want of which is so apparent from the letters which 
I communicated to you for Mr Dundas's [the Home Secre- 
tary] information." 

The site of the chaplain's temporary church is generally 
accepted to have been where Bligh and Hunter streets join 
in busy, modern Sydney, and upon it is placed the memorial 
cross to which a procession of clergy and laity go on the 
Sunday nearest to 3 February every year to offer public 
intercessions and thanksgivings on behalf of Australia. It 
consisted of a nave 73ft x i5ft, and transepts 40ft x I5ft, 
the materials being a framework of wood wattled, i.e. inter- 
woven with tea-tree and daubed with clay, the roof being of 
grass-rushes. Hence the old English verb, "to wattle," 
gave its popular name to the golden acacia bloom which has 
become the national flower of Australia, the wood and 
foliage of these trees having been worked into this primi- 
tive house of God. Its accommodation, according to the 
chaplain, was for 500 worshippers, and it had its holy 
table, font, prayer-desk, and pulpit. In the construction 
Johnson took a personal part, as well as being the architect, 
and the sketch of the building shows it was not without a 
simple, rough dignity. On Sunday, 25 August 1793, the 
first service in it took place, and it was also used for a 
school that the chaplain organized. The modest 'claim for the 
actual expenses in building the church was apparently 
pigeon-holed, and the account remained unpaid until Gover- 
nor Hunter called attention to it four years after it had 
been rendered. 


The new Governor, having a more seemly sense than his 
predecessors of the need for a due observance of religion, 
issued instructions that "the overseers of the different gangs 
do see their men mustered every Sunday morning, and that 
they do attend them to church." But this had an unexpected 
consequence, for on the night of i October 1798, about a 
couple of months after the order had been given, the church 
was burnt down, and there appears to be no doubt that it had 
been maliciously destroyed. The offer of a reward for the 
discovery of the perpetrators of the sacrilege proved fruit- 
less, but the Governor promptly had a large store tem- 
porarily fitted up for church services, so the incendiaries 
failed to achieve their purpose. Within a month Governor 
Hunter took steps to build a permanent church, but more 
than a decade passed before it was dedicated. At the same 
time the foundations were laid of a church for Parra- 
matta, and this was used long before the one in Sydney. 
A Government and General Order of 1802 declares that "His 
Excellency is pleased to direct that in all spiritual, judicial, 
and parochial proceedings" the district of Sydney and its en- 
virons "be comprised within a parish to be henceforth named 
'Saint Phillip' (sic) in honour of the first Governor of this 
territory, and that the districts of Parramatta, and its sur- 
roundings, be comprised within a parish to be henceforth 
named 'St John's,' in honour of the late Governor, Captain 
John Hunter, and the churches now building at Sydney and 
Parramatta to be respectively named Saint Phillip and Saint 
John." Thus were formed the two pioneer parishes of New 
South Wales. 

Richard Johnson, besides being the first Australian chap- 
lain, has the distinction of having published what must have 
been one of the first literary efforts (excepting, of course, 
the official correspondence with the Home authorities) that 
had birth in Australia. This was a pamphlet of seventy- 
four pages addressed by the chaplain as a pastoral appeal 


to his flock after four years' work among them. The title 
page runs: 

An Address to the Inhabitants of the Colonies 

established in New South Wales and Norfolk Island 

By the Rev. Richard Johnson A.B. 

Chaplain to the Colonies. 

Written in the year 1792. 

Printed for the Author 


To all the inhabitants, and especially to the unhappy prisoners 
and convicts, in the colonies established at Port Jackson and Norfolk 
Island, this affectionate address is dedicated and presented by their 
very sincere and sympathizing friend and faithful servant in the 
Gospel of Christ, 


The address is remarkable as an unconscious revealing 
of deep piety, leading to a genuine love for souls, and yet 
quite frank in its condemnation of sin. 

After twelve years of exile from England, Johnson re- 
turned to his native land together with Governor Hunter 
in 1800. Though only forty-seven years old, he had been 
a good deal broken down in health by the privations of his 
colonial life, and by want of support and sympathy in his 
work. He received scant recognition from the Mother 
Church when he asked for a post of duty, for all he got 
was an Essex curacy at West Thurcock on the Thames, 
and though he had made some money by his Australian 
farm and orchard, he certainly had not secured the fortune 
he is often said to have done. In 1810 he secured the living 
of St Antholin's, London, which was afterwards merged 
into St Mary Aldermary's, opposite the Mansion House 
Station in Cannon Street, and on the wall of this 
church there is this memorial : "To the memory of the Rev. 
Richard Johnson, B.A., who died March I3th, 1827, aged 
74 years. He was the first, and for many years the only, 
Chaplain appointed to the extensive colony of New South 
Wales, and afterwards 17 years Rector of these Parishes, 
where he faithfully preached Christ and Him crucified." 


Four years later a record was added of the death of his 
wife at the age of seventy-eight. In Sydney Cathedral a 
dignified tablet has also been erected to commemorate Aus- 
tralia's first chaplain. But surely the finest testimony to 
Johnson was that of some of the convicts who declared 
that "they did not believe that there was so good a man 
beside in the world." 

Six years before Johnson left New South Wales he had 
been joined, in 1794, by Samuel Marsden, as assistant- 
chaplain to the settlement. It is noteworthy that he, too, 
had been a pupil at the free grammar school of Kingston- 
upon-Hull (Joseph Milne, the ecclesiastical historian, being 
at the time head master) and, like Johnson, went as a sizar 
to Magdalene College, Cambridge. He had been a Methodist 
local preacher, and is said to have become interested in mis- 
sionary work by reading Cook's Voyages Round the World. 
Born at Horsforth, near Leeds, the son of a tradesman of 
the village, he seems to have developed more than the 
ordinary independence of the northern Englishman, for 
when he was suggested for work in New South Wales, 
some doubted his fitness on this ground. He had attracted 
the notice of the evangelical Elland Society, which devoted 
itself to assisting the education of candidates for Holy 
Orders, and through its influence Marsden received help 
towards his university course, which he felt disinclined to 
give up. Finally he decided to take the Australian chap- 
laincy, sacrificing his degree, and was ordained deacon and 
priest in 1793. After marriage, he sailed for Australia 
on i July of the year of his ordination. Just before the ship 
entered Sydney Harbour a daughter was born to Mrs Mars- 
den, and the child, upon reaching womanhood, became by 
her marriage closely identified with the church life of the 

Within a few years of beginning work in New South 
Wales there was directly brought under Marsden's attention 
the operations of the London Missionary Society in the 


South Seas. Under fear of an outbreak among the natives 
of Tahiti, a number of the married L.M.S. missionaries fled 
to Sydney, where they were kindly received by Marsden, and 
one of them, Rowland Hassall, he put in charge of his 
private farm. When Thomas, a young son of Rowland 
Hassall, grew up he worked as a merchant's clerk in Parra- 
matta, and helped the chaplain in his pastoral duties. He 
formed in his home the first Sunday-school set up in Aus- 
tralia, and Marsden, took it over as part of his parochial 
organization. The chaplain encouraged his young helper 
to offer himself as a candidate for ordination and go to 
England for training. Thomas Hassall accordingly did so, 
and Marsden commended him to William Wilberforce, who 
warmly welcomed and helped the young man, who thus 
became the first to go from Australia to prepare for Holy 
Orders. He entered at Lampeter College, and after four 
years as a student, was ordained deacon and priest in the 
same year (1821) by the Archbishop of Canterbury, and 
at once started for Australia for work as an assistant chap- 
lain under Marsden, whose daughter, born as the parents 
reached Sydney Heads, he married. In 1921 the Bishop 
of Goulburn (Dr Radford) in his diocesan magazine, re- 
ferred to that year as being the centenary of the ad- 
mission to Holy Orders of Thomas Hassall, who as chap- 
lain, faithfully ministered for forty years to a large area, 
which included what ultimately became the Diocese of Goul- 
burn. His son, who wrote In Old Australia, also took 
Orders, and in his book has much to say of his grandfather, 
Marsden, and of Bishop Broughton, who had visited him 
when he was working his chaplaincy and whom he held in 
high admiration and affection. 

It goes without saying that Richard Johnson gladly wel- 
comed the coming of a helper in his difficult and laborious 
ministerial duties. Marsden in many respects was a 'con- 
trast to the first chaplain, both in his physical vigour a!nd 
his readiness to contend strenuously for what he held to 


be right. He settled down to work at Parramatta, and on 
5 April 1797, the foundation-stone of the pioneer per- 
manent church building in Australia was laid and became 
the forerunner of the present handsome Norman church of 
St John, one of the most dignified in Sydney diocese to-day. 
When Johnson went back to England in 1800, Marsden 
became senior chaplain, and went Home seven years later 
to bring the needs of New South Wales under the notice 
of the authorities. He took with him some Australian- 
grown wool, and urged the suitability of the colony for pas- 
toral purposes, he having made successful experiments with 
sheep on his own farm at Parramatta. Thus through John- 
son's cultivation of the orange, and Marsden's wool-grow- 
ing, two most important Australian industries were con- 
siderably promoted by the earliest chaplains. While in 
England Marsden secured two clergymen, ordained specially 
for New South Wales, the Rev. William Cowper, who 
became the first Archdeacon of Sydney and the father of 
Sydney's first Dean, and the Rev. Robert Cartwright. In 
the ship in which he went back to the colony, at the end of 
1809, the chaplain had as a fellow passenger a Maori chief 
named Duaterra, 2 and became so deeply interested in what 
he heard of New Zealand, that he took the chief to Parra- 
matta as his guest for several months. As a consequence 
of this intercourse, Marsden decided upon a missionary 
journey to the islands, forming the present great Dominion, 
but which were not then under the English Crown. On 
15 December 1814, he reached the coast of the islands, 
and after a few days, on the festival of Christmas, con- 
ducted a service for which his friend Duaterra had made 
the arrangements, and at which he acted as interpreter of 
Marsden's sermon from the text so appropriate to the season 
and the circumstances: "Behold, I bring you good tidings 
of great joy" (St Luke, ii, 10). Ten Maori chiefs went 
with the chaplain upon his return to New South Wales, and 

2 S. M. Johnstone, Samuel MarsAen., p. 80f. (Sydney, 1932). 


subsequently he made six other trips to Maoriland, extend- 
ing up to 1837, and upon this last occasion the natives are 
reported to have said : "We wish to have a long and stead- 
fast look at our old friend, for we shall never see him 
again." Crowds of them went to his embarkation and wished 
him farewell with tears and prayers. He well deserves 
the distinction popularly given to him, "The Apostle of 
New Zealand." After forty-five years of laborious ser- 
vice, during which he had seen New South Wales advance 
first to an archdeaconry, under the Bishop of Calcutta and 
subsequently to an independent see, Marsden died on 12 
May 1838, when seventy-four years old, at the parsonage, 
Windsor, New South Wales, whither he had gone in feeble 
health for rest, and he lies buried in the graveyard of the 
parish of St John's, Parramatta, of which he was prac- 
tically the founder. Bishop Broughton, in a public reference 
to the veteran chaplain's death, spoke of him as his "aged 
and faithful companion, whose genuine piety and natural 
force of understanding I held in the highest esteem while 
he lived, and still retain them in sincerely affectionate re- 
membrance." A fine Celtic cross was placed in 1907 on the 
spot at Oiki on the Bay of Islands, New Zealand, where 
M'arsden held his historic service in 1814, an event com- 
memorated by the Church in the Dominion with much 
earnestness when its centenary occurred. Other memorials 
of him are in the parish church of Parramatta, and in the 
church of his native village in Yorkshire, and the Church 
of All Saints, North Parramatta, is especially associated 
with his memory. 

With the death of Marsden an altered and more eccle- 
siastical system of church administration was introduced 
into the colony. There are still many people who think of 
William Grant Broughton as the first Archdeacon of New 
South Wales, but this was not so. When the affairs of the 
colony had drifted into a parlous condition, mainly, it was 
said, through the high-handed autocracy of the naval and 


military administrators who reigned supreme until 1824, 
the Home Government sent out in 1819 J. T. Bigge, an 
Oxford graduate and an English barrister who had been 
Chief Justice in Trinidad, as a royal commissioner at a 
salary of 3000 a year to report upon "the state of the 
judicial, civil, and ecclesiastical establishments, revenue, 
trade, and resources" of the settlement. Lord Bathurst's 
orders to the Commissioner, inter alia, recited: "You are 
to turn your attention to the possibility of diffusing 
throughout the Colony adequate means of education and 
religious instruction, bearing always in mind in your 
suggestions that these two branches ought in all cases to 
be inseparably connected." It would have been indeed 
well for Australia if these sound views of the then Secre- 
tary for the Colonies had become an unaltering part of 
Australian policy. The Commissioner took with him as his 
secretary, receiving 500 per annum, Thomas Hobbes Scott, 
M.A. (Oxon.), a brother-in-law of the Earl of Oxford, 
through whose influence, probably, he had seen diplomatic 
service at one of the British consulates in the Mediterranean. 
Scott's father was curate in charge of Kelmscot, a chapelry 
in the parish of Broadwell in the Oxford diocese. The son 
did not enter at St Alban's Hall until he had reached his 
thirtieth year, in 1813. Bigge left England for New South 
Wales with his secretary in 1819, and his task occupied him 
for two years. He embodied its results in three separate 
reports (in the compilation of which it is known that Scott 
gave much assistance) and in, the one dealing with religion, 
the Commissioner said he "found clergymen in Sydney, Par- 
ramatta, Hobart Town, etc., acting without concert, subject 
to no ecclesiastical direction, and under no spiritual head 
but the Bishop of Calcutta in India, and His Grace the 
Archbishop of Canterbury in England." He therefore urged 
the, "nomination of an archdeacon in New Holland." The 
English Government adopted the suggestion, and Bigge's 
recommendation of his secretary, Scott, for the post also 


met with approval. The nominee, having returned to Eng- 
land and been duly admitted to Holy Orders, served the 
parish of Whitfield, Northumberland, for about a couple 
of years, and then on 5 April 1824, received his commis- 
sion as "Archdeacon of New South Wales." 

The saintly Reginald Heber was Bishop of Calcutta when 
the archdeaconry of New South Wales was founded, and on 
his voyage out to India, writing of the influence of the sea, 
adds : "on which so large a part of my future life must be 
passed, more particularly if I carry my Australasian visi- 
tation into effect." But Heber died at the end of April 
1826, and as Archdeacon Scott did not reach Australia till 
May of the previous year, there probably was little, if any, 
intercourse between them. When the tidings of Bishop 
Heber's death reached Sydney a memorial service took place 
in St James's Church, which the Governor officially attended. 

Archdeacon Scott voyaged to New South Wales in the 
convict transport Hercules which carried 133 prisoners and 
detachments of the 4ist and 46th Regiments. Upon his ar- 
rival on 7 May 1825, the Governor, Sir Thomas Brisbane, 
issued a commendatory proclamation. Letters patent had 
been duly issued, together with a consequent dispatch of 
Lord Bathurst to the Governor of New South Wales. 3 
These documents deserve attention because of some of their 
unique provisions as well as for their historic place in the 
development of the religious life of Australia. The Arch- 
deacon also became an ex officio member of the Governor's 
Executive Council, and of the nominee Legislative Council". 

A little more than a month after his landing the Arch- 
deacon, in St James's Church on 9 June 1825, held his 
primary visitation. Of the Archdeacon's charge the Sydney 
Gazette gives what it calls a "bare epitome" as follows : 

The interesting nature of the occasion the paramount importance 
of the duties devolving on the clergy: the peculiar excellence of 
the doctrine, the discipline, and the ritual of the hierachy. These 

3 See Appendixes 1 and 2. 




topics were discussed in an able manner and in a temperate spirit. 
The Ven. speaker evidenced an entire freedom from shackles of 
bigotry. He unreservedly conceded to others the rights which he 
claimed for himself and his colleagues the rights of conscience. 
He communicated the gracious intention of His Majesty to divide 
the Colony into compact parishes, and to prosecute the work of 
education on a more liberal and comprehensive system than that 
which had hitherto been pursued. 

The Archdeacon, as is evident from his reports and the 
records of his work, was clearly a man of considerable 
capabilities. His power of organization is shown in his 
first report to the Colonial Secretary, made soon after reach- 
ing Australia ; but within a year of entering upon his office, 
he wrote a mournful account of his surroundings to the 
Bishop of London, in which he says: "I will not hold out 
vain hopes which I am confident cannot be realized in our 
time, and the utmost I can expect is to lay the foundation. 
The mass of the population here is vicious to an extreme, 
and for some years past and even at this moment all society, 
with few exceptions, is too bad and too horrid to have any- 
thing to do with." Yet though the moral tone of the colony 
certainly seems from contemporary records to have been de- 
cidedly bad, the first archdeacon appears, mainly from his 
want of tact and his autocratic temperament, to have been 
ill-fitted widely to influence it. After only four years' tenure 
he resigned the archdeaconry in 1828, and returned to the 
incumbency of the Northumberland parish, where he began 
his clerical career, and which he had left in charge of a 
lo'cum tenens. He was dignified later on with an honorary 
canonry in Durham Cathedral, and lived till 1860. A window 
in Sydney Cathedral commemorates his association with 


first (and only) "Bishop of Australia," exercising 
jurisdiction over the whole of the island continent, together 
with Tasmania, and ultimately New Zealand also, came 
from that great English middle class which has supplied 
M much of power and leadership to all departments of our 
Imperial life. His father, Grant Broughton, who had asso- 
ciations with Hertfordshire, in which Hatfield, the ancestral 
home of the Cecils, is situated, had won the esteem of the 
Marquess of Salisbury. Of the future bishop's paternal 
uncles, one held office as Paymaster-General at Bombay, 
and another became an Admiral of the Fleet. His mother 
was the daughter of Mr John'Rumball of Barnet, Herts, 
and William Grant Broughton, her eldest son, was born in 
Bridge Street, Westminster, on 22 May 1788, the year in 
which the first white settlers landed on the Australian con- 
tinent, where the Bishop did his life's work. At his bap- 
tism in St Margaret's, Westminster, he had as sponsors 
his grandfathers and the Countess of Strathmore. When 
he was six years old his family removed to Barnet, his 
mother's birthplace, and the boy received his early training 
in the local grammar school, of which he spoke with affec- 
tion when he visited the country town forty years later. At 
nine years old Broughton went to the King's School, Canter- 
bury, boarding at the house of the second master, the Rev. 
John Francis, whose daughter he married in Canterbury 
Cathedral twenty years afterwards. He became a King's 
Scholar at the end of his first year in Canterbury, and stayed 


at the school for seven years, when he gained an exhibition 
at Cambridge and greatly desired to qualify for Holy Orders. 
But financial reasons made this then impracticable, as the 
death of his father had cast upon him some responsibility in 
connexion with the support of his mother. He therefore ac- 
cepted the offer, secured through his father's friend, Lord 
Salisbury, of a clerkship in the treasury department of the 
East India House. Writing to his aged mother from Sydney 
in June 1852, just prior to his final trip to England, Brough- 
ton revived his sense of obligation to the Marquess: "I am 
going to-day to have a guest at dinner, whose name will per- 
haps surprise you. It is Lord Robert Cecil, 1 second son of the 
present Marquess of Salisbury. ... I could not help think- 
ing how strange is the course of events which brings one 
of that family to my house: and I think that my having 
the honour of being able to receive and entertain him on 
terms of equality may lawfully gratify you, and make some 
little return for the exertions and sacrifices which you and 
my dear father made to give me education, and to prepare 
me for the situation in which I am." It is clear that Brough- 
ton, like so many other distinguished men, had the advan- 
tage of a good mother. In a speech at a S.P.G. meeting he 
referred to her as "her to whom I owe all things." More 
than ten years before he wrote to her the letter from which 
an extract has just been quoted, in speaking at a dinner 
to his friend, Judge Burton, on his return to Sydney from 
England, where the Judge had realized one of the long- 
ings of his life in once again seeing his mother, the Bishop 
said : "I too have left a mother whom I am most probably 
never again to see in this life. But I will add that I should 
behold the dawn of each returning day with less tran- 
quillity, I should enter upon the duties of it with less con- 
fidence of fulfilling them with success, if I did not know that 
three times in the course of every day the prayers of a 
venerable mother, wholly devoted to the offices of her re- 

1 Afterwards the great Prime Minister of England, 


ligion, were offered up for me and mine and for all the 
undertaking that I am engaged in." But the Bishop was 
granted the privilege which he did not dare to hope for upon 
his reaching England in 1853. 

After nearly ten years in the English Civil Service the 
way became clear, through the bequest of 1000 from a rela- 
tive, for the future bishop to follow the career he early 
desired, and he returned to Canterbury to read with his 
friend, the Rev. H. J. Hutchisson, a Fellow of Clare Hall, 
Cambridge. In 1814 he entered at Pembroke Hall, at the 
age of twenty-six, and came out sixth wrangler. Among his 
university friends was William Hutchins, who in Brough- 
ton's year graduated thirteenth wrangler, and when the latter 
became bishop eighteen years afterwards he made his fel- 
low undergraduate the first Archdeacon of Hobart. It was 
while at Pembroke that Broughton contracted the lameness 
that compelled him ever after to walk with a stick. An 
undergraduate (who afterwards achieved distinction) played 
some practical joke that caused Broughton to fall heavily 
down a staircase, and did the lifelong mischief. The author of 
the injury had to pay the penalty of rustication for eighteen 
months, as appears from an entry in the college orders book. 
Soon after he had graduated in January, 1818, Broughton, in 
his thirtieth year, was made deacon by the Bishop of Salis- 
bury upon letters dismissory from Bishop Tomline of Win- 
chester (who ordained him priest in the same year) upon, 
the title of the curacy of Hartley Wespall, Hants, and the 
notable head master of Eton, Dr Keate, came to the incum- 
bency of the living while the future bishop ministered there. 
In the year of his ordination Broughton married Miss Sarah 
Francis. They had three 'children, a son, who died in his 
babyhood, and two daughters who went out to Australia 
with their parents, and were the first two candidates the 
Bishop confirmed at his primary Confirmation. They both 
married in Australia. 

While at Hartley Wespall, Broughton did some scholarly 


literary work. Upon the appearance of the anonymous 
treatise Palaeoromaica, which advocated the hypothesis that 
the text of the Elzevir Greek Testament was a. translation 
from a lost Latin original, he published a reply covering 
more than 300 pp. oct. in support of the orthodox view 
that the "Textus Receptus" comes to us through the Greek. 
With much logical and close reasoning, bristling with quo- 
tations in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, and supported by 
manifold references to patristic and classical writers, he con- 
tends that the exploded conjecture of Hardouin that the 
Vulgate is the first record of the Apostolic writers and 
the Greek Text but a translation from it, is equalled in 
temerity and unwarranted assumption by the hypothesis of 
Palaeoromaica. Having finished his textual controversy, 
in the next year, 1826, Broughton entered the lists in a 
discussion then current as to the authorship of Ikon Basi- 
like, that marvellous monograph published in 1648, which 
went through fifty editions in its first year. The Hamp- 
shire curate championed the view that the Caroline bishop 
wrote the book, and so he joined issue against those who 
contended that Charles I had himself produced it as the 
result of his religious meditations while a prisoner in Caris- 
brooke Castle. 

Broughton's learned adventures in literary controversy 
attracted the attention of his Bishop, who secured for him a 
transfer from the curacy of Hartley Wespall, after eight 
years' service, to that of Farnham, in Surrey, in 1827, and 
is said to have designed him for further advancement. But 
while in Hampshire he had also come under the favourable 
notice of the Duke of Wellington (Strathfieldsaye being 
only a mile from Hartley Wespall) through the Duke's 
domestic chaplain, Mr Briscall, who formed a close friend- 
ship with the scholarly curate. The first important conse- 
quence of the friendship was the offer by the Duke of the 
chaplaincy of the Tower of London to Mr Broughton about 
a year after his removal to Farnham. Lord Phillimore in his 


Ecclesiastical Law, says: "The chaplain of the Tower of 
London performs the duties of a parochial minister to the 
garrison"; and he has a residence within the precincts, and 
is "under the orders of the Constable of the Tower through 
the resident Governor." Broughton's name appears in the 
muster roll of the Tower chaplains under the year 1828, but 
there is no further reference in the records to him. He .can 
only just have entered upon the office, for before the end of 
the year of his appointment, 1828, the Duke of Wellington 
submitted to him the proposal that he should succeed the first 
Archdeacon of New South Wales, Thomas Hobbes Scott. 
Immediately the new sphere was suggested to him, 
Broughton wrote the subjoined letter : 

Farnham, October 27, 1828 

Mr Briscall (domestic chaplain to the Duke of Wellington) 
came over this morning from Strathfieldsaye with a proposal to 
me from the Duke of Wellington which has occasioned us very 
great surprise, and conflict of feelings. The Archdeaconry of New 
South Wales is vacant, and the Duke wishes to confer it upon 
me as the person whom from his acquaintance with me he thinks 
most proper to fill it. The salary allowed by Government is 2000 
a year, besides other great local advantages. The period which I 
should be required to be absent from England would be five years 
after which, of course, a retiring pension would be allowed, or pre- 
ferment from Government given for my future support in this 
country. In point of pecuniary advantage it certainly is a most 
noble offer on the part of the Duke, and such as I could never 
have raised my thoughts to: and it would seem to be an opening 
made to a scene of usefulness in my profession where I might 
exert to the utmost such abilities as God has given me for His 
service. At the same time, to leave one's country and to go to 
such a distance from all that we honour and love, calls for a 
sacrifice which we can neither of us make without almost breaking 
our hearts. We wish very much for your advice and opinion. If 
you can borrow the 73rd number of the Quarterly Review published 
last January you will find in the first article a pretty full account 
of New South Wales and its inhabitants. I am not to make up 
my mind for a week, and earnestly desire before doing so to have 
your advice and to act with your approbation. Pray let me hear 
as soon as you have considered. It is a most important and serious 
undertaking either to accept or refuse, and. as yet I cannot tell 


which way my mind inclines. We are all quite well, and hope 
to hear as favourable an account of you. God bless you, my dear 

I am, 

Ever your very affectionate Son, 

Writing again to his mother on 2 November 1828, he 

After considering maturely the proposal of the Duke of Wellington 
I have this day come to a decision that I ought to accept it; that 
in point of duty I am bound to do so. In fact I find that if I 
were to decline it merely from regard to our own case, I should 
probably never be satisfied with myself again but I should always 
reproach myself with having shrunk from an office of so much 
importance as this is. To-morrow therefore I go to Strathfieldsaye 
to intimate to the Duke my acceptance of the archdeaconry, and 
to return him my thanks for the high honour he has done me. From 
the Bishop of Winchester I learn that the great distance of the 
Bishop of Calcutta, who is my only superior, will prevent his 
interfering or superintending : so that I must have the entire direction. 
In consequence of this, he says, I shall be obliged to return to 
England before the end of five years to communicate with the 
Government here, so that in reality our actual absence cannot be 
above three or four years at the utmost. There is nothing, my 
dear Mother, to prevent us hoping to meet at that time, under 
the blessing and protection of God in Whose service I am going, in 
health and happiness. In the meantime, my first call must be to 
provide for your comfort while we are away. 

Broughton, as the foregoing letter says, had consulted 
his Bishop as to whether he should accept the post offered 
him, and subsequently it was known that he made his final 
decision in the episcopal chapel at Winchester after re- 
ceiving the Holy Communion from the Bishop's hands. 
From a letter of two days' later date, it is evident that his 
mother concurred in his decision, for he writes to her : 

Your letter was very gratifying to me as it informed me of your 
approbation of my determination. I waited on the Duke at 
Strathfieldsaye yesterday to communicate what I had decided, and 
must say I was received by him in the kindest manner. He spoke 
highly of the appointment and of the country, and appeared pleased 
with my readiness to go. But he said that previously to determin- 
ing I ought to be aware of every circumstance, and that he had 
therefore written to ascertain what pension would be allowed me 


on retirement, or to my family in the event of my death, and he 
would not consider my acceptance final, he said, till these points 
were settled. Just now I have received a letter from him, which 
he sent over by a messenger, to say that he learns from the 
Secretary of State that there is no pension on retirement to be 
allowed to me, or to my family in case of my death. In reply I have 
told him that personally I should be as willing as ever to engage 
in the office, and -to leave my own claims on retirement to the 
consideration of Government but that having a wife and children 
who must share in the difficulties and dangers, I am bound to 
consider what their condition under the circumstances would be 
were I to die at such a distance from home. I, therefore, hoped that 
His Grace will pardon my asking for time to consider, and to 
advise with my friends. My intention is to think well upon the 
matter to-night, and to-morrow to wait upon the Duke again with 
my answer. My present impression is that unless some arrange- 
ments could be made on behalf of my family if I should die there, 
I should be acting unjustly towards them in going on so distant 
and perhaps dangerous expedition: and that I shall say to His 
Grace that under the circumstances '1 must prefer holding the 
chaplaincy to the Tower which he so obligingly conferred upon 
me. I am sorry to throw you again into suspense but you shall 
hear from me the very moment I can put an end to it. We ^ are 
all well but of course much agitated and perplexed by these vicissi- 

Ultimately, Broughton agreed to take the archdea'conry 
upon qualified terms laid down by the Government, but 
that he did so with much anxiety appears from a letter in 
reply to one from his friend, the Rev. H. H. Norris : 

You are quite right in saying that there is no ground for congratu- 
lation on my appointment. I see the whole extent of the prospect- 
before me, and shadows and darkness rest upon it; but after the 
fullest consideration I could give to the question, it did not appear 
to me that I could decline a post to which Providence seemed to 
have led me without subjecting myself to self reproach as backward 
and fearful in our Master's service. Whether I have chosen rightly, 
or have taken a step which prudence cannot justify, events may 
to some extent determine: but I have always the consolation of 
knowing that the final judgment to be passed upon it will be one 
in which, I humbly trust, success or failure will not so much be 
the points inquired into, as the motives by which I have been guided, 
and the fidelity with which I have sought to fulfil the duties I have 

You have taken what appears to me to be the truest view of 
the relation in which the maintenance of the Church of England 
stands to the present and future happiness of mankind: and it is 
truly in the hope of recommending such views that I am going 


to what I know and feel to be a banishment. On account of my 
dear children I should have been thankful to have been spared the 
necessity of removing to an untried country: but such being the 
appointment of God, I say unfeignedly 'May His Will be done. 

The Duchess of Wellington, in a cordial letter to the 
archdeacon-designate, wrote: "I will begin this letter as I 
conclude most of those which I write to my real friends 
God bless you. Whether at a distance from your country, 
or at home still and always God bless you." 

The decisive determination having thus been reached, 
there followed speedy preparations for the new life. 

Broughton had been preaching to his Farnham parish- 
ioners a series of sermons on the Apostles' Creed, and on 
Holy Innocents Day, 1828, he concluded the course, taking 
as his text I Cor. xv, 44, in a farewell address, in which 
he made reference to his approaching departure from Eng- 
land: "For myself," he said, "let me with truth of heart, 
assure those whom I here, for the last time, call my friends 
and brethren, that never shall I hear mention made of those 
among whom I have ministered, without having the recol- 
lection excited of many a cherished regard, and of a period 
through which we passed in much true Christian fellowship. 
Never will the name of this our dwelling place reach my 
ears without reminding me that my supplications to the 
Throne of Grace are due on behalf of all who continue 
to inhabit here." 

The Farnham people presented him with a piece of plate 
as a memento of his ministry among them, and in acknow- 
ledging the gift, to the chairman of the testimonial com- 
mittee, its recipient showed his strong affection for the flock 
he was leaving. "To the end of my life," he said, "I shall 
contemplate their gift with pleasure and pride." His 
diocesan, Bishop Richard Sumner, who had succeeded to 
the See of Winchester, presented Mr Broughton with a 
private set of silver altar vessels, which many years later 
he gave for use in the little church of St Mary's Albyn 


River, some 150 miles from Sydney, where a married daugh- 
ter, Mrs Boydell, had her home. It was from the Albyn 
River estate that one of Bishop Broughton's rochets, now 
in Sydney Cathedral, found its way to an official resting- 
place in the diocese. 

Broughton's work as a parochial clergyman having come 
to an end, his thoughts must have centred upon the then 
almost unknown land thousands of miles across the seas. It 
is not easy in the twentieth century with its fast . steamers 
that practically annihilate distance and thereby destroy much 
of the sense of separation and exile, to enter into the im- 
mense demand upon faith and courage made by the pros- 
pect of working under such conditions; but it was charac- 
teristic of the future bishop's Spartan-like devotion to his 
conception of duty that having decided to undertake the task 
he faced it with unflinching calmness. 

There is preserved in the Diocesan Registry at Sydney 
the original diary kept by Archdeacon Broughton from the 
time he sailed from England until he landed in New South 
Wales. Some extracts from this historic record will show 
how cheerless were the surroundings of the Archdeacon and 
his party as they journeyed to their new home. The diary 
begins : 

1829. On Tuesday May 26th I embarked from Sheerness on board 
the John transport, 440 tons with my wife, our two children, and' 
Samuel and Hannah Hatton, our servants. The ship was commanded 
by Mr Robert Norsworthy; and had on board 185 male convicts, 
besides a crew of 32 men and boys, and about 30 soldiers (detach- 
ments of various regiments) under the command of Lieut. Forbes, 
89th Regt. Mr Love, surgeon R.N., had the medical superintendence 
of the prisoners. Our embarkation was delayed several days by 
the prevalence of a very strong gale from the N.E. which had 
little abated when we left the shore. By the kindness of Vice- 
Admiral Sir Bryan Martin, Comptroller of the Navy, we were 
furnished with a large six-oared cutter belonging to the dock yard, 
which conveyed us safely to the vessel at the Little Nore though 
the swell of the sea rendered the operation somewhat formidable. 
Such indeed was the state of the weather that two steam packets, 
one bound to Margate and the other the King of the Netherlands 
to Ostend, finding it impracticable to proceed beyond the Nore, 
ran into Sheerness Harbour, where we left them. We had not 


been a quarter of an hour on board the John before we were all 
affected with sea-sickness; and we retired to our first night's repose 
dispirited and uncomfortable. 

May 27th. At high water this morning we weighed anchor and 
were under sail by about half past seven: The operations attendant 
on this manoeuvre would, I have no doubt, be interesting in a well- 
appointed ship, and with a crew of able seamen. But the crew 
of our vessel were apparently without experience or concert many 
of them ignorant even of the meaning of the orders that were issued 
while the crowded state of the decks, the sight of the prisoners 
in chains, and of the soldiers loitering about, neither able or willing 
to render assistance, rendered our departure a scene of tumult 
and confusion. Our pilot did not spare his reproaches, but he 
understood his trade, and expressed himself well satisfied with the 
performance of the ship itself. The wind was about E.N.E. and 
our progress consequently slow. We came to an anchor in the 
afternoon opposite a mark on the Essex coast, which the seamen 
called "Black Tail Beacon." In the night the wind blew with much 
fury, and the motion of the ship was very distressing. Our Captain 
during the day had been speaking of the danger of losing an anchor 
and cable and being obliged to put back, which I know had happened 
to several vessels the day before. There was, I believe, no real 
danger, but knowing that we were surrounded on all sides by sands 
and shallows, I could not help considering, as I lay awake, what 
I might expect my sentence to be if it should please Almighty God 
this very night to require my soul. My mind was tranquil; and I 
was in consequence somewhat dissatisfied with myself ; being dis- 
trustful whether it might not be the effect of insensibility rather 
than the fruit of a true faith and a well grounded hope. 

May 28th. At high water this morning we again weighed anchor. 
The wind still E.N.E and boisterous. It was nearly 2 o'clock before 
we passed the North Foreland. As we ran along the coast, I had 
distant views of Herne Bay, Reculver, Margate and Ramsgate, 
places with which I had been familiar since infancy. Indeed had 
the nature of the land allowed it, there was nothing in the actual 
distance to prevent our seeing the towers of Canterbury Cathedral, 
beneath the shade of which my early years were passed, and within 
whose venerable walls I was united to the dear and excellent wife 
who is my companion and comforter in this voyage. In the Downs 
our pilot left us ; and we proceeded rapidly before the breeze, which 
was now favourable. The view of Dover with its town castle, cliffs 
and shipping in the Roads, seen under a bright afternoon sun, was 
truly magnificent, more so, I believe, than anything I had ever seen. 
We soon came in sight of and as soon passed by Dungeness Light- 
house. It is either built of brick or is coloured red, which renders 
it a very conspicuous object in the setting sun. As long as it re- 
mained visible, I kept my eyes fixed upon it, and when it at last 
disappeared in the waves, felt very acutely the taking leave of a 
country in which I had both enjoyed and suffered very much; and in 
which we left many dear friends and connections. 


May 29th. We had a rapid run during the night, having passed 
by the coast of Hampshire, the birthplace of all my children, and 
where the remains of our beloved and ever regretted boy are buried 
at our sweet Hartley; where if it please God, and should be pos- 
sible, I would wish to rest by him. In the morning we were 
between St Aldate's Head and the Race of Portland, and we had 
hopes of speedily clearing the Channel. Here, however, the wind 
died away and our progress was at an end. The surface of the 
sea became smooth as glass. The steersman lashed the helm fast, 
leaving the ship to her own discretion. I cannot say to the mercy 
of the winds and waves; for there were neither. There was how- 
ever a continual bubbling swell from below, just sufficient to give 
the ship a see-saw motion which we felt to be most distressing. 

May 30th. The calm continued all night; and a very miserable 
night we passed. Independently of the motion of the ship, the 
noises which accompany this state of wearisome inaction are truly 
harrowing to the feelings, and destructive of repose. Through 
the live long night it appeared as if every particular board, spar 
and rope was endued with the faculty of creaking, cracking, croaking 
and groaning; and the complication of sounds produced, is indeed 
"the variety of wretchedness." This day John Hunt, one of the 
prisoners, having been found guilty of striking the officer of the 
watch was sentenced to be kept in handcuffs, and to receive three 
dozen lashes. I was happy in being able to intercede for the remis- 
sion of the latter portion of his punishment. He is, I fear, a con- 
firmed rogue as this, I am informed, is the second conviction he has 
suffered, and he is in consequence transported for life. However, 
my purpose was by this beginning to shew the prisoners I felt 
an interest for them, and thus to acquire an influence which may be 
turned to better purposes. 

Under date 12 June, while the John was in the grip of 
a dead calm, Broughton's entry is : 

I will take advantage of this interval to describe a convict ship. 
On each side of the poop, as well as in front of the binnacle, we have 
coops containing fowls, ducks, and guinea hens, and abaft the cuddy 
sky-light is a large pen filled with ducks and geese. The inter- 
mediate spaces are occupied by sailors refitting yards and sails, and 
in the front are four privates and a corporal on guard with their 
loaded muskets lying near. Below on the quarter deck, opposite to 
each other, are two unhappy wights, convicts afresh convicted of 
having towed their clothes alongside for the purpose of washing and 
suffered them to go adrift, which on the _ score of cleanliness, as 
they embarked with only two changes of linen each, is much to be 
lamented. For this offence they are set in handcuffs and fetters 
and condemned to twenty-four hours bread and water. About the 
deck lie the soldiers off guard, some asleep, others employed in 
various occupations. Two sentries with drawn bayonets parade the 
deck. From the barricade which goes athwart the ship just afore 


the mainmast to the forecastle, the prisoners are situated, some sit- 
ting idle on the spars and spare booms, others cooking, washing, 
walking or sleeping as inclination leads. They appear neither dis- 
contented, dejected, nor sullen, and are in general very far from 
noisy. In their behaviour I find them universally respectful, though 
their characters are in general very unfavourable, most of them hav- 
ing been more than once or even twice convicted and sentenced. Add 
to this four or five women belonging to the soldiers and intermingled 
with them, the crying of a child or two, the quacking of ducks, 
cackling of geese and fowls, and _ the harsh grating cry of the 
guinea hens and you will have a fairly complete picture of all that 
is to be seen and heard on board of a convict ship. 

The diary is much occupied by Broughton's criticisms 
of some of the books he had carried with him for his read- 
ing on the voyage, but there is no space for these interesting 
comments, The final entries, therefore, must suffice. 

Septr. 7-10. Fresh breezes, afterwards more moderate and cloudy 
with rain. No occurrence worthy of notice; but the expected ter- 
mination of our voyage occasions us some anxiety. But I know 
not how it is, separation from friends and country have so entirely 
exhausted our feelings that we have none left apparently to be ex- 
cited by whatever event. The prospect of being soon delivered from 
a state of irksome confinement occasions no sensation of joy: where 
we are going there are none of those whom we desire to see or 
whom we have been accustomed to love and value. In all this country 
there is but one person whom I have ever seen before, and that 
only once or twice as a new acquaintance within the last few 
months. Eheu: Deus a-dsit: Deus adjuvet. 

September 12. The land about Jeryis Bay was this day visible, W. 
about four leagues. Its appearance is inhospitable and the only en- 
livening appearance is that of numerous columns of smoke arising 
at intervals along the shore which seem to declare that we are 
approaching the habitations of men once again though perhaps they 
be not of civilised kind. At half past 8 this evening as we were 
drinking tea the chief officer came down to report the welcome news 
that we had made the .beacon light which is at the entrance of Port 
Jackson. I went upon deck in the hope of also seeing this gratify- 
ing sight but my eyes could not reach it though s^me more prac- 
tised in observation professed that they could see it appearing and 
disappearing at intervals. Not being able to sleep through the mul- 
titude of thoughts which crowded upon my mind I rose soon after 
midnight and looked towards the direction of the land. To my sur- 
prise we had neared it so much during the last few hours that I could 
accurately distinguish its long outline until it faded away in the dis- 
tant darkness. We were now nearly abreast the South Head on 
which the light-house stands. The light is revolving, exceedingly 
regular, bright and steady. I looked at it a long time with a mixed 


and kind of mysterious feeling of wonder and thankfulness. It 
seemed to be the first friend to welcome us to land and to assure 
us that the perils of our voyage are concluded. The situation is 
lofty and commanding and seems to imply that the people of the 
country to which this light is guiding us are capable of making 
great attempts and of succeeding in them. What an advance is this 
upon the conception and performances of the savage who not more 
than forty years ago perchance had his resting place upon that very 

September 13th. This morning we were at the entrance of the 
Heads but the wind first blew directly out of the harbour's mouth, 
and then fell to a dead calm. We see a small boat now and then 
passing to and fro within the port, but they pay no attention to 
us, and the pilot has not come off, though his station is immediately 
opposite to where we are lying. We have full leisure therefore 
to examine the frontiers of our appointed land of sojourn, dis- 
turbed only by the apprehension that as there is not a breath of wind 
and a strong swell sets upon the shore we may have some diffi- 
culty in keeping the ship off the rocks if the calm continues, the 
water being so deep as to render it almost impossible to anchor. 
The cliffs are lofty, composed of a yellow sandstone, with very 
deep weather stains, and the foliage and herbage which grow upon 
them appear stunted in growth and gloomy in colour. But for the 
light-house tower, which is of stone, arid some adjacent white build- 
ings scattered up and down the rock, the appearance of the whole 
would be dreary and cheerless. A little before eleven the pilot came 
on board, and took charge of the ship, with which however he can 
as yet do nothing. Apprehending that in the event of a breeze 
springing up there would be great interruption to the service on 
deck through the working of the ship, I assembled my congrega- 
tion below for the first time during the voyage and preached 
from St Matthew vii, 13, endeavouring to make my sermon impres- 
sive to them, as being the last I should deliver, and our arrival 
and approaching separation effectual to awaken serious thoughts. 
God grant my purpose may in some degree at least be answered. 
As the service proceeded I perceived that the ship was making 
way through the water and the bustle heard from time to time on 
deck proved that the pilot was exercising his skill to bring us into 
port. On returning to the deck I was nevertheless surprised at 
the rapid progress we had made. A favourable breeze sprang up, I 
was told, shortly before noon, when we entered the Heads. We had 
now the town of Sydney directly before us, towards which we 
continued to steer, and at half past i cast anchor in Port Jackson 
opposite to Sydney Cove 108 days after our departure from Sheer- 


So forty years after the founding of the colony its second 
archdeacon, in his forty-first year, arrived to superintend 
the Church's work. It may well be imagined that as they 
sailed up the beautiful harbour of Sydney his heart, and his 
brave wife's, must have been wellnigh overcome by the 
strangeness of their new environment. They had left pleasant 
surroundings and many relations and friends in the Home- 
land, and Broughton seemed to have laid the foundation of 
what promised to be a prominent career. Now they had 
come to a country still in its infancy, without many of the 
comforts of civilization and, worse than all, with by far 
the largest part of its population made up of outlaws from 
civilized soil. Fortunately for themselves, and especially so 
in regard to the task to which he had given himself, the 
new archdeacon and his wife were not of those who look 
back, though the Archdeacon could not forbear from confid- 
ing to the concluding entries in his diary an expression of 
an intense sense of loneliness and anxiety as the ship 
approached Sydney. But no trace of depression was allowed 
to creep into the letter in which he, only a few days after 
landing, reported to his mother some of the earliest incidents 
of their Australian life. He writes : 

You will be happy to hear of our having arrived through God's 
good providence in perfect health and safety at this our destina- 
tion. We left Sheerness, as you are aware, on the 27th of May, 
and we arrived off the "Heads," Port Jackson, early on Sunday, 
September I3th, 1829. We had therefore been at sea 108 days, 
and after leaving the Lizard we saw no more land during that 



whole interval excepting what was said to be the island of Palma , 

at 30 miles distant (which I should have taken for a cloud) and 
a distant view for a few hours of the coast of Van Diemen's Land 
the Sunday before our arrival here. 

I had written a long account of our voyage, meaning to forward 
it by any ship we might fall in with bound to Europe. But 
strange to say we never had an opportunity, not having seen 
more than three vessels, within any moderate distance during all 
the passage, and those all outward bound. 

I write by the present opportunity which is the first that has i 

offered, although the ship is going a circuitous course and not 
direct to England, since there is a possible chance of you getting 
this letter sooner than you would do if I waited for another ship 
going direct to England. In the meantime I will only say that our 
voyage was neither much better nor much worse than voyages in 
general go. We had fine weather for nine weeks and a most 
prosperous passage to the Cape of Good Hope, but during the 
whole of the subsequent time I was very unwell and uncomfort- J 

able, after that the weather broke up and continued to be tempestuous J 

all the rest of the way. We had a good captain, a very steady 1 

respectable surgeon, and a gentlemanly officer of the guard, and J 

they were all of them particularly kind to the children. The con- 1 

victs in general behaved well and gave very little trouble, but I t 

think soldiers very much in the way on board ship, and our crew 
was a very bad one. Sally and the children bore the voyage better 
than I did, though all were occasionally sea-sick. i 

We found every one prepared to receive us with the greatest 
possible attention, and we had not been an hour at anchor before > 

Colonel Dumaresq, the Governor's aide-de-camp and brother-in , 
law, came to congratulate us and brought a present of fruit, 
vegetables, eggs, new bread, and fresh butter none of which we * < 

had tasted for six weeks before. We found also an invitation from I 

the Archdeacon to come to his house, and on the following day ] 

(Monday) we came here where we now are, and have been enter- 
tained by him in a most friendly and gratifying manner. I have f 
engaged a house for a year only. We do not much like it, 'but * 
there is no other to be had. The house is large and roomy enough 
though badly arranged, but the approach to it is rather difficult } 
and there is no garden but a little miserable enclosure that is more j 
like a sand pit. However we had no choice, and it was necessary i 
we should have a place for our furniture, which we found all safely i 
arrived and apparently not at all damaged, and we hope to take \ 
possession by the end of this week. In the course of a year we - 
may meet with something we like better. The house has one recom- ] 
mendation, that of commanding the finest possible view of the I 
grand sheet of water which you saw in the panorama, and indeed ! 
from a much more favourable point than was shown in that picture. f 

On the Wednesday after we came on shore I went, by myself, | 

on board again in order to make my public landing. I had the J 

Governor's barge, and the instant I set foot on shore there was 
a discharge of cannon from the forts (which for my own part 



I would much rather have dispensed with) and I was received by 
the colonels of the regiments and their staffs, the Judges, Law 
officers, members of the councils, and all the first people of the 
colony. We went in procession to Government House where after 
my patent had been read, I was sworn into office by the Governor. 
On the Friday _ following the official installation, His Excellency 
invited the principal State officers and others to meet me at dinner. 
In short the attentions paid to us by every body are quite over- 
whelming. I have also taken my seat as a member of the Legislative 
Council, which is in fact the parliament of the country, and in the 
Executive Council, which is the Governor's privy council. I found 
them just entering^ upon a question which excites the greatest 
interest here, that is whether persons who have been transported 
to this country shall on the expiration of their sentences be capable 
of sitting on juries. . . . Archdeacon Scott will go home in the 
Success frigate, which is now gone to New Zealand but is expected 

Archdeacon Broughton's letters patent only covered about 
a page and a half of parchment, as they principally con- 
sisted of references to the letters granted to his predecessor 
when the archdeaconry was founded in 1825. It has been 
said of these and other official documents associated with 
the founding of the Australian Church that they entirely 
ignore church authority. This is not altogether so. Arch- 
deacon Scott's letters patent declare, inter alia, "And we do 
hereby signify to Our Right Trusty and well beloved The 
Right Reverend Father in God the Lord Bishop of Calcutta 
that We have nominated the said Thos. Hobbes Scott to be 
Archdeacon of New South Wales and to be subject and 
subordinate during our pleasure to him and his successors." 
The dispatch of the Secretary of State for the Colonies, 
Earl Bathurst, to Governor Sir Thomas Brisbane, dated 
21 December 1824, more strongly suggests that it might 
with greater propriety have been issued by the Archdeacon's 
spiritual superior, the Bishop of Calcutta, yet even this dis- 
patch recites that where the letters patent of the Arch- 
deacon are silent "the Canons and Ecclesiastical Law of the 
Church of England will furnish the rules by which his con- 
duct will be guided." 

The new archdeacon did not take part in the services on 



the Sunday following his arrival, which were probably 
associated with the departure of his predecessor. It was on 
Sunday, 27 September 1829, that Broughton preached his 
first Australian sermon, in St Philip's Church, from St 
John xv, 1-2, his predecessor saying the prayers. The 
Governor and a large body of military and civil officers, to- 
gether with a full congregation of citizens were present. On 
Sunday, 4 October, the Archdeacon preached in St James's, 
and so on these successive Sundays he connected himself 
with the only two churches then built in Sydney. He then 
entered upon an inspection of the schools and other public 
institutions, including those at Parramatta, and afterwards 
went on a tour of some of the country centres, dedicating 
church buildings, consecrating cemeteries, and preaching ser- 
mons, including the assize sermon at Windsor. 

The population of New South Wales was estimated at 
this time at 36,500 odd, of whom more than 17,000 were 
convicts. There was also a convict settlement with 200 
prisoners and a military and civil staff at Norfolk Island, 
for whom no chaplain had been for many years appointed, 
though it had been for long a penal station, and Chaplain 
Johnson had visited it. One of the last acts of Archdeacon 
Scott had been to address a letter to the Home Government 
emphasizing the spiritual destitution prevailing throughout 
the archdeaconry. 

Broughton's account of his earliest colonial days was 
given in an address at an S.P.G. meeting, after his final 
return to England, in which he said: 

When I first reached that shore, forty-two years, after the forma- 
tion of the colony, there were eight churches and twelve clergy- 
men in New South Wales. Melbourne was uninhabited, and South 
Australia in a similar state. In Van Diemen's Land there were 
four churches and six clergymen. The Rev. Samuel Marsden, at 
the risk of his life, and counting all things but loss for Christ's 
sake, had plunged into the darkness of New Zealand; and all that 
has extended, and all that now extends, there of knowledge of god- 
liness, yea, and all that ever shall extend so long as time is, owes 
its beginning to his devotion. 


In a few years, the wants and necessities of this rising world 
became truly fearful, yet nothing was done in England to add to 
the small number of officiating ministers, and the solitary superin- 
tendent of Australia and all the surrounding islands was an arch- 
deacon nominally subject to the Bishop ^of Calcutta. I cannot 
give you a better idea of the size of this archdeaconry than by 
asking you to think of an archdeaconry having one church at St 
Alban's, another in Denmark, another at Constantinople with the 
Bishop at Calcutta, hardly more distant from England than from 
many parts of the archdeaconry of Australia, for indeed the case 
is in many ways similar. In point of fact, no human strength 
could bear the toil. 

The Archdeacon held his primary visitation in St James's 
on Thursday, 3 December 1829, when there were present, 
in addition to the clergy, the Governor and a large con- 
gregation. The Rev. R. Hill, incumbent of the parish, said 
the prayers, and the sermon was preached by the Rev. Joseph 
Docker, junior chaplain, from I Timothy iv, 6. The clergy 
then ranged themselves round the circular rails which sur- 
rounded the altar, at which the Archdeacon was seated dur- 
ing the delivering of his charge. Those who have only 
known St James's, Sydney, since it was transformed into 
the beautiful church it is to-day by the late Canon Carr 
Smith (afterwards of Grantham, Lincolnshire) during his 
notable Australian incumbency, can hardly realize its 
original Georgian dreariness. But the imagination of its 
reforming rector happily suggested to him to preserve the 
floor of the amazingly high pulpit, which was the church's 
most striking feature, and place it in its smaller but more 
artistic successor. And so preachers of later generations 
in St James's stand on the same boards from which 
Broughton and many others of the leaders of the early 
Australian Church prophesied. 

The Archdeacon's introduction to his primary charge de- 
serves to be quoted as revealing the spirit that ever domin- 
ated his life and work an awful apprehension of the re- 
sponsibilities of the sacred ministry, and a keen sense of 
the imperious claims of duty. He said: 


The ministers of Christ and stewards of the mysteries of God are 
pledged by engagements so awful, that every one of us by whom 
they are regarded with becoming seriousness must tremble, in 
his attempts to fulfil them, under a sense of his own insufficiency. 
Were we charged with only a personal responsibility, such a dread 
of falling short of the glory of God must be the natural conse- 
quence of due reflection on the disproportion subsisting between our 
feeble powers and the duty of a Christian teacher. No elaborate 
argument is _needed to demonstrate with how much greater force 
this observation applies to the occupier of a station which imposes 
on him, in addition to his own proper ministerial charge, the 
superintendence of others in the fulfilment of their sacred duties. 
I speak not, believe me, my brethren, the language of insincerity 
or affectation in affirming that my own mind is even painfully 
sensible of the weight of this twofold obligation; and that two 
considerations alone enable one with any degree of confidence to 
undertake the duties with which I am here entrusted. The con- 
sciousness, I mean, of not haying myself desired or sought the 
arduous post which has been assigned to me; and my assured belief 
that God, whose providence has conducted my steps, will give 
me grace and power, as I must earnestly and humbly beseech him 
he will, faithfully to take the oversight of his Church and rightly 
to divide the word of Truth unto all followers of Christ Jesus our 

The Archdeacon proceeded from his devotional exordium 
to an insistence upon the cardinal necessity for religious 
instruction to be based upon a definite doctrinal basis. "It is 
in vain to expect men to make much advance in practical 
Christianity unless they have a distinct comprehension of 
the relation in which they stand to God in Christ ... a 
relation to be so incorporated into all our teaching that the 
savour of the doctrine may be discernible even when it 
is not avowedly or specifically insisted upon." 

Next followed admonitions to the clergy in reference to 
the discharge of their pastoral functions, both public and 
private, the practical suggestion being made that people 
resident in the outlying districts should be assisted in the 
observance of their religious duties by the circulation among 
them of literature such as that provided by the Society for 
the Promotion of Christian Knowledge. 1 Much emphasis 

1 The local Government education policy was to introduce the Irish 
non-sectarian system, with Bible reading without note or comment. 


was laid by the Archdeacon upon the vital necessity for the 
Church discharging her responsibility to the young by sup- 
porting general education founded on the basis of revealed 
religion. "Upon any other system," he said, "the popula- 
tion of a country may acquire knowledge but not wisdom. 
The only reasonable hope which we can entertain of diffus- 
ing religious impressions and virtuous habits rests on the 
continuance of those parochial schools wherein, while the 
elements of instruction are liberally afforded, the youthful 
mind is trained 'in the nurture and admonition of the 
Lord'." In further commenting upon the education question, 
the Archdeacon paid a warm tribute to his predecessor, 
Archdeacon Scott: 

From an extensive acquaintance with what he designed and what 
he effected, I do not hesitate to express my persuasion that ajnan 
of purer intention, stricter principle, and less under the bias of 
self interest never trod these shores. I would wish, however, princi- 
pally to connect his name with the praise of having designed, and 
through many difficulties brought near to perfection, that system 
of religious instruction in which I am persuaded the best hopes of 
this colony repose. Let not those who are enjoying the benefits 
of his labours grudge him a distinction which he has fairly and 
thoroughly earned. You, my reverend brethren, will not, I am 
certain, refuse to unite in this feeble but well deserved testimony, 
and in the expression of a wish that the virtual founder of our 
existing establishments for public education may to the end of his 
life enjoy the gratification of knowing that his exertions are duly 
appreciated, and that the monuments of his zeal in the service 
of God and man are extended and perpetuated by ours. 

The two closing topics discussed in the primary charge 
were the possibilities for spiritual ministrations to the con- 
victs, and to the aboriginal natives. As to the first, the 
clergy were reminded that, 

all day must your hands be stretched forth to a disobedient and 
gainsaying people, under a conviction that as any human being is 
more involved in the snares of vice, the more earnest and un- 
remitting must be our endeavour to make him sensible of his slavery, 
and to point out to him that only path by which he may return 
into the glorious liberty of the sons of God. We must seek them 
out, for they will hardly make the first advance, and endeavour to 
convince them that we take an interest in their restoration to 


honesty and happiness; that we are solicitous for their eternal 
preservation; that far from entertaining towards them any senti- 
ment of neglect or contempt, we are disposed for their sakes to 
labour if, peradventure through our teachings, God shall give them 
a knowledge of the Truth. 

Many of those unhappy persons have erred less through settled 
malignity than pure ignorance or momentary weakness; many in 
deep repentance have been made sensible of their criminality and 
are ready upon the slightest encouragement to obey the call to 
return into "the way of life." Blessed is that man to be accounted 
the effect of whose labours as a minister of Christ is to give occasion 
for the joy which is in heaven over one sinner that repenteth. 

In dealing with the Church's relation to the aborigines the 
Archdeacon threw out a vigorous challenge : 

Shall we look on and see them perish without so much as an effort 
for their preservation? Natural, and much more Christian, equity 
points out that as in the occupation of their soil we are partakers 
of their "worldly things," so in justice should they be of our 
"spiritual things." 

I am aware of attempts having been undertaken with this view; 
and their abandonment from a sense of existing difficulties, and 
despair of final success. But from the very nature of the under- 
taking obstacles were to be anticipated. Every advancement of the 
Christian religion, from its first origin to the present day, has been 
effected in opposition to difficulties which, in a natural sense, might 
be termed insuperable. Its excellency and its derivation from a 
heavenly source, have been best demonstrated by surmounting such 
opposition. It may be considered, after all, a very doubtful question 
whether the erratic habits and inconsiderate disposition of the native 
tribes are in reality more adverse to the reception of Christianity 
than those propensities which its earliest preachers had to encounter 
in the natives they addressed; the obstinate superstition of the Jew, 
and the philosophic arrogance of the Gentile. But suppose them 
to be so, what shall we say? Shall we therefore desist? Un- 
hesitatingly I answer, No. Persevere as you regard the honour of 
God, and as you value the souls of these your helpless and unhappy 
fellow creatures. The very ground which we tread upon teaches 
us this lesson. What does it exhibit but the sublime spectacle of 
the triumph of civilized man over the ruggedness of the physical 
world? And shall the Christian philanthropist despair of having, 
in God's good time, an equal right to rejoice in the success of his 
exertions to produce a moral reform, and by spiritual civilization 
to reclaim this human wilderness which extends on every side 
of us? The feeling which I derive from difficulties in such a case 
and would communicate to those around me is animation and not 


The Archdeacon certainly maintained this attitude towards 
the problem of the Church and the aborigines throughout 
his Australian career. 

In forwarding a copy of the Archdeacon's charge to the 
Colonial Secretary the Governor, Sir Ralph Darling, wrote: 
". . . . It will be satisfactory to you to receive this earnest 
assurance of the zeal with which he has commenced, and 
with which his character affords the best assurance he will 
continue, to discharge the duties of his sacred office. It 
may not be altogether irrelevant to add, and it is due to Mr 
Broughton that I should acquaint you, that he affords me 
on all occasions in his several situations as member of the 
Executive Council and of the Legislative Council the most 
cordial assistance and co-operation in conducting the business 
of the Government." 

The official entrance upon his work having been com- 
pleted by his primary charge to the clergy, the Archdeacon, 
with characteristic energy, entered upon a programme of 
pastoral visits in Sydney and its surroundings, and then 
farther afield, of which he gives details in a letter to his 

We are all, many thanks to the Author of all mercies, perfectly 
well. The summer has upon the whole been very favourable, and 
certainly not hotter than many I have felt in England, excepting 
for an occasional day or two, and especially last Friday and the 
four following days. We had what is called "a hot wind" from 
the N. West, and certainly were nearly broiled. At the same time 
I do not find that it actually disagrees with us, except ttiakjng 
the children look very pale, but for my own part my appetite., and 
general feeling of comfort are quite as great at such times as at 
others provided I am allowed to sit still. We have had a very 
plentiful supply of fruit of every kind and upon the whole I must 
say better ripened and flavoured than in England. . . . Soon after 
our last letters, by the VibiMa, were dispatched, I set out on my 
visitation, and went first to Parramatta, fifteen miles from here, 
where I was accommodated at a most clean and comfortable Inn. 
. . . From this place I went daily to visit the male and female 
orphan schools, to superintend the examination of the boys and 
girls preparatory to the distribution of rewards and prizes which 
takes place yearly in the church at Parramatta. After this I went 
across the country as far as the River Nepean, and after that to 


the southward in the counties of Camden and Argyle. I was out 
ten days and travelled more than 300 miles. The roads are for the 
most part as good as those in England. Even those through "the 
Bush" as it is called (that is where the native timber trees have 
not been cleared away), are exceedingly good, and generally fit for 
a four-wheeled carriage to travel on. The great defect of the 
country is a sameness and tameness in its appearance, and a want 
of water. The latter is really quite distressing. . . . Nevertheless 
I was much pleased with what I saw, and can have no reason 
to doubt that this will be some day or other a rich flourishing 
and powerful country, that is if the people can ever be rendered 
honest and respectable. I had heard much of snakes and bush- 
rangers, but in all this distance I saw not one of the former, and 
only heard of the latter. 

In February 1830, the Archdeacon voyaged in H.M.S. 
Crocodile to Van Diemen's Land for his first visitation of 
the island. He delivered a charge to the small body of chap- 
lains, and also went through the parishes or districts, with 
St David's, Hobart Town, as his centre in the south, and 
St John's, Launceston, in the north, preaching in St David's 
on 28 February from the text St James i,' 12. He made a 
second visitation three years later and on this occasion com- 
municated, from Hobart Town, with the Rev. R. R. Davies 
of Longford, in the north of the island, and subsequently 
Archdeacon of Hobart for over a quarter of a century, that 
upon his approaching northern tour he would be prepared 
to admit to Holy Communion any who were "desirous" to 
be confirmed. The Archdeacon wrote: 

If there be any young persons, not under fourteen years of age, 
willing to take upon them the "vows and promises made for them 
in Baptism," and whom upon examination you shall deem properly 
qualified, I shall be desirous, as I have before stated, of admitting 
them publicly to that engagement. Immediately after the Nicene 
Creed I should feel satisfaction in delivering an address to them, 
and in receiving their promises according to the form directed by 
the "Order of Confirmation" omitting only the imposition of hands 
and the collect having reference to it. After this I should propose 
to administer the Holy Communion to such of these young persons 
as may have beforehand declared to you their disposition to become 
partakers, and of whose fitness you may be satisfied. At the 
same time, of course I am desirous that any others of the con- 
gregation who are willing should also communicate. My address 
to the young people, though not delivered from the pulpit, will be 
in lieu of a sermon, as I conceive the service will be long enough. 


This was in pursuance of an authority granted to the 
Archdea'con by Bishop Daniel Wilson, of Calcutta, as fol- 

The permission for the young to approach the Lord's Table when 
"desirous" of Confirmation is allowed by the rubric. The examina- 
tion of them privately and the decision upon their qualifications all 
fall within the office and duty of a presbyter. Of course you would 
not read the Confirmation service, nor proceed to imposition of 
hands, nor pronounce the Apostolic Benediction which has ever 
been accounted (with ordination, jurisdiction, correction of doctrine 
and discipline, and superintendence) the peculiar spiritual province 
vested in the office termed "Episcopal." Any solemnity which can 
be given to your examination and admission to the Holy Com- 
munion (short of these specified things) would of course be most 
desirable at your distance from your diocesan. 

It is of interest to note that Cardinal Moran in his 
History of the Catholic Church { m Australasia, 2 when re- 
ferring to Father Flynn, who ministered for a short time 
to the Roman Catholics in the early days of the settlement, 
says that an aged resident of Sydney had pointed out to 
him "the place in George Street where Father Flynn ad- 
ministered the Sacrament of Confirmation." The Cardinal 
explains that the Propaganda of Rome had in 1818 appointed 
Father Flynn "Prefect-Apostolic of New Holland, with 
faculty to administer the Sacrament of Confirmation." 
Probably the Roman priest used chrism as do the clergy 
of the Eastern Church. 

Archdeacon Broughton's letter of authority above quoted 
is also noteworthy as showing that the relations between the 
Bishop of Calcutta and his Australian archdeacon were not 
altogether formal, as is sometimes said. And an earlier 
communication in March 1833 had been received by 
Broughton from Bishop Wilson encouraging the idea of 
making their official relationship as practical as possible. 

The Bishop writes: 

I have long been intending to open a correspondence with you, 
well knowing the impossibility of your hearing soon of my arrival, 

s p. 64. 


and anxious to do the only part of my sacred office which it is 
in my power to execute the part of friendly advice and consola- 
tion. I am the rather inclined to write at this time because I have 
some copies of a sermon which I have just published, which I would 
beg you to accept for yourself, and send with my best compli- 
ments to the clergy and persons of authority in your archdeaconry. 
I need not state to you, Dear Sir, who are so well versed in all 
matters of divine knowledge, that the charge and episcopal care 
imposed upon me exceeds all human power to sustain. A visit 
to New South Wales or Van Diemen's Land may indeed arise as 
a refuge prescribed to infirmity or sickness, but can scarcely be 
contemplated if health be continued. But I can wish you "good 
speed in the name of the Lord." I can daily pray for you and 
the clergy and flocks committed to your care. I can write occasion- 
ally, as I now do, to exhort and to admonish and animate you 
to make full proof of your ministry. 

The Archdeacon in commenting upon the sermon for- 
warded by his diocesan said he read it, instead of preaching 
himself, in St James's, Sydney (the pro-cathedral) and 
instructed the clergy to do the same in their parishes. It 
comprised a summary of the chief doctrines of the Church 
and a "comprehensive statement of the argument on behalf 
of the episcopal form of government, in support of a national 
established religion." 3 

In his charge to the clergy in Tasmania the Archdeacon 
urged, as he had done in Sydney, that one of his strongest 
religious convictions was the imperative necessity for all 
true education being built upon a spiritual foundation. It 
must, therefore, have been a staggering blow when he found, 
on reaching Australia, that he had been allowed to begin 
his work as archdeacon without any notification that a re- 
versal of the ecclesiastical and educational policy of the 
Home Government as to New South Wales had been decided 
upon. And the dispatch notifying this to the Governor was, 
strangely enough, dated the day before Broughton sailed 
from England. 

It may be conceded that the reservation by the royal 
charter of George IV of one-seventh of the lands of New 

a Rev. Josiah Bateman, Life of Bishop Daniel Wilson, vol. i, p. 
318 (London, 1860). 


South Wales for the support of religion and education under 
the direction of the representatives of the established Church 
of England could not be expected to continue after the 
population of the colony grew, and consequently differing 
religious denominations formed part of it and had their place 
in the working of the system of local responsible govern- 
ment which ultimately was developed. But the decision of 
the Home authorities in 1829 to revoke the charter, and 
leave the Church dependent upon the revenue of the colony, 
may well have caused the Archdeacon and his clergy much 
anxiety. A notable dispatch, in 1833, from the then Governor 
of New South Wales, Sir Richard Bourke, to the Secretary 
of State for the Colonies further urged that the time had 
arrived for official recognition to be given to Roman Catho- 
lics and Presbyterians as well as to the Church of England 
in the help afforded to church organization and public educa- 
tion. 4 The subject having been ventilated in the Press was 
widely discussed, and it will have been seen that in his 
primary charge, a few months after his landing in Australia, 
Archdeacon Broughton had declared his policy to be the 
maintenance of the plan inaugurated by his predecessor, 
Archdeacon Scott, of a combined system of definite religious 
teaching with the secular training in the parochial schools, 
under financial support from the Government. 

Sir Richard Bourke's dispatch remained unanswered for 
two years, but in 1835 Lord Glenelg, who had become 
Colonial Secretary, replied to Governor Bourke approving 
the proposals of the dispatch: 

Attached as I am in common with other members of the Govern- 
ment to the Church of England, and believing it, when duly adminis- 
tered, to be a powerful instrument in the diffusion of sound religious 
instruction, I am desirous that every encouragement should be given 
to its extension in New South Wales, consistently with the just 
claims of that large part of the community which is composed of 
Christians of other denominations. . . . The plan which you have 
suggested appears to me to be fully in accord with this view in 

4 W. W. Burton, State of Religion and Education in New South 
Wales, pp. 42f. (London, 1840). 


both its branches in that which relates to the places and ministers 
of worship, or, as may be more briefly described, to public re- 
ligion, and in that which concerns public education. 

The Church and School Corporation Charter was accord- 
ingly revoked, but the controversy continued, especially on 
its educational side, and ultimately a local ordinance of New 
South Wales was passed with the intention of removing the 
educational control from the Church of England, and the 
lands reserved to her in this connexion were to be resumed 
by the Colonial Government under the direction of the 
Imperial authorities. But the actual resumption was not at 
once proceeded with, so Broughton and his co-trustees of 
the Corporation continued to administer its affairs, though 
they refrained from undertaking any new developments in 
connexion with the property. 

During the five years of the currency of his post as 
archdeacon, Broughton visited all the more settled districts 
of New South Wales and also covered many a hundred 
miles of travelling through bush country in getting from 
place to place. Writing an amusing account of one of these 
tours he gives his early impressions of the Australian 
aborigines : 

I _have been a short voyage to Port Stephens, _ about a hundred 
miles to the northward, where the Australian Agricultural Company 
Establishment is, under the superintendence of Sir Edward Parry. 
. . . The view of the Port from Sir Edward Parry's house, or 
rather cottage, is very striking. I might even say magnificent, 
and from Sir Edward and Lady Parry I received great civility and 
kindness. I preached on the two Sundays that I was there at 
the Company's two establishments, Carrington and Sitroud, and 
christened or received into the congregation more than thirty children. 
We had beautiful weather uninterruptedly during our stay, as 
you may judge when I tell you that on the 21 st of June, our 
shortest day and the depth of winter, we all lay down on the grass 
in the open air to eat our luncheon, without any fear whatever of 
damp or cold. It was on the banks of the river, a very pretty 
sylvan scene, the greater number of the party had been hunting 
and shooting, and the dogs and horses scattered about among the 
trees made the scene very lively. To add to it, the natives who 
accompanied us everywhere, being passionately fond of hunting 
and very expert at it, had made their fire some thirty or forty 



From the original in tlie possession o/ Mr William Dixson. 

X ' -' ' ", 

' u- .-** . r. 



yards from us and were broiling their opossums, bandicoots and 
other vermin which they principally live upon. Some of them quite 
naked, others in a variety of clothes of all sorts and shapes and 
sizes which they had contrived to beg or borrow from their 
European friends, always lively, good humoured and obliging, but 
very lazy, not willing to work after our manner; but when they 
want meat, climbing in a most expert manner up one tree after 
another in search of it, by cutting notches one above the other 
just large enough to fix one of their toes in. 

They lived constantly about the houses at Stroud, indeed while 
there we spent almost as savage a kind of life as theirs. Three of 
them used to sit round the fire on the ground eating their meals while 
we had ours. On Sunday morning just before church I happened to 
be alone with "Willim," a constable and therefore dressed in an 
old regimental coat and carrying a staff inscribed "W.R.," quite a 
very fine young man, and "Jacky," a boy, both unclad. I took out 
my bands and put them on, a sight which they of course had never 
seen before, indeed there had never previously been a clergyman 
there. It was quite ludicrous to see their surprise. They stopped 
short in the midst of eating, all of them having their mouths full at 
the moment, and looked for some minutes with most earnest attention 
as if they expected something very wonderful was to happen. When 
they had a little recovered from their surprise they said something 
to one another in their own language and broke out into such im- 
moderate laughter, continued for such a length of time, that it was 
quite impossible to do otherwise than join them. I thought it was 
rather a strange thing for me to be sitting in that way in the midst 
of three savages. Such things do not often happen to archdeacons, I 
suppose. I gave a shilling to one of them, named "Micky," who upon 
that shook hands with me .many times, and said I was a very good 
fellow, and next morning sent me a present of a boomerang, a weapon 
of wood in the shape of the blade of a scimitar which they hurl with 
great force and very correct aim. We saw an old man named 
"Billie," who standing as a looker ori at a great fight which took 
place a few days before we came, had the top joint of his thumb cut 
off by a blow of one of these weapons as cleanly as by a sword or a 
knife. After my present to "Micky," however, I never saw him. 
He would not come near me, I believe, fearing that I might perhaps 
take the shilling away from him again. In their language "corbon" 
means ^ "great," and at Bathurst they called me the "corbon parson," 
but this I concluded some of the white people had taught them. I 
hope in the course of the present year to make an attempt at least 
to instruct and civilise them, but to decide even how to begin it will 
require infinite deliberation, and it is evidently only the hand of God 
which can make the attempt successful. . . . 


THE two matters which the Archdeacon declared had been 
forced upon his attention by his first tours through the 
settled districts of New South Wales and Van Diemen's 
Land were (i), the necessity for increasing his clerical 
staff so as to minister to the population as it spread out 
far beyond the centres of Sydney and Hobart Town; and 
(ii), the need for a vigorous diocesan education policy, in 
consequence of Governor Bourke's successful appeal to the 
Home Government to disband the Church and School Cor- 
poration, which had given certain educational advantages to 
the Church of England, but did not attempt to coerce trie 
scholars not of her fold, and to substitute an undenomina- 
tional system of public education after the Irish pattern. 
Ultimately the Archdeacon decided that the situation was 
so grave that he must go to England and in person urge 
immediate action upon the Home authorities, but before 
leaving Sydney he held his second visitation on 13 February 
1834 in St James's, Sydney. 

In its introduction he referred to the death of Dr James, 
the Bishop of Calcutta when Broughton succeeded to the 
archdeaconry, and took occasion to express his own rigorous 
view of the organization of the ministry of the Church in 
apostolic times. He said: 

'! /-'< 

When we separated upon the termination of my last address to you 
here, I did not anticipate that so long an interval would elapse before 
I should have the satisfaction of meeting you collectively again. But 
the great Disposer of events was pleased in His unsearchable wisdom, 


to remove prematurely from his presidency over us the prelate under 
whose jurisdiction you were on that occasion summoned to appear 
before me. During the vacancy of the episcopal office, I hesitated 
to assume or exercise a power which, agreeably to my views of the 
constitution and polity of our Church, can devolve upon me only as 
the representative among you of one who has been invested with the 
highest of the ministerial orders. Let not this, I would entreat you, 
be regarded as a scrupulous adherence to matter of form alone. My 
own examination of the Word of God, and reflection upon it aided by 
the study of Christian antiquity, have satisfied me that the subordi- 
nation of various offices in the Church has not been appointed with- 
out the wisest design ; and that in the propagation and final extension 
of the Gospel throughout the World, the maintenance of that subordi- 
nation will be found of more immediate and vital importance than is 
now generally supposed. I deemed it becoming and advantageous in 
the circumstances under which we were placed, to submit to a tem- 
porary suspension of my visitorial powers, rather than to incur the 
hazard of assuming a function incompatible with regularity of dis- 
cipline. Such might have been the case if those powers had been 
exercised during the vacancy of the episcopal seat upon which my 
commission makes me dependent. Few duties, I would observe, are 
more distinctly marked in Scripture than that of regulating all things 
pertaining to God's service and to the exercise of our ministry with 
"decency and order"; and therefore, for the promotion of that end 
we must "obey them that have the rule" over us and "submit" our- 
selves. A regulated connection and dependence among the several 
members is a distinguished property of that constitution which the 
New Testament exhibits as established in the Church of the Apostles, 
which from them has providentially descended to us, and I have 
deemed it proper to offer this explanation of my reasons for omitting 
to hold a visitation at the regular period last occurring. 

In the changes which are contemplated, and indeed are now being 
carried into effect, with relation to the Indian churches, I trust that 
it will be found practicable to bring these colonies (New South Wales 
and Van Diemen's Land) into a closer connection with their proper 
ecclesiastical superior, upon whomsoever that charge may devolve, or 
wheresoever his seat may be fixed : and to confer upon them effectu- 
ally what they have hitherto enjoyed but nominally the advantage of 
episcopal superintendence, which is the crown of the whole system. 
In the meantime I have derived much comfort from intercourse with 
a diocesan, 1 who so far as the distance and difficulty of communica- 
tion would admit, has afforded me upon every reference which I have 
made to him the most prompt attention; who has entered into what- 
ever concerns the spiritual welfare of this portion of his extended 
diocese with an earnestness and anxiety truly paternal; proving him, 
however widely separated, to be united with us by the closest of all 
sympathies that which originates in unity of faith and fellowship 
in the Gospel. 

1 Bishop Daniel Wilson. 


In reviewing the low moral condition of New South Wales, 
the Archdeacon drew attention to the astounding quantity 
of alcoholic liquor consumed in the colony: 

Public attention cannot be too often directed to the fact that the 
same official records which return a population of 60,000 souls within 
the colony, prove also the importation and consumption of more than 
275,000 gallons of ardent spirits within the year just concluded. Cal- 
culating the numbers under the sentence of the law who are 'debarred 
the use of spirits, those again who from inclination or principle totally 
abstain or consume but an inconsiderable quantity, and also subtract- 
ing the number of children included in the. population returns, we 
have a proportion exceeding all credibility remaining to be consumed 
by_ that part of the population which is addicted to the use of ardent 
spirits. ... 

Our chief dependence, however, for accomplishing that moral and 
religious reformation, which is the object of desire among all good 
men, must rest upon the effect to be produced, through the blessing 
of God, by the general establishment of schools, in which 'the children 
may be habituated from an early age to a decent regularity of con- 
duct and, together with a summary of the leading doctrines and duties 
of Christianity, may acquire the rudiments at least of the most use- 
ful kinds of knowledge. It has been my endeavour, so far as the 
means at my disposal enabled me, to increase the number of such 
schools, and to place them under the superintendence of competent 
and respectable instructors. In both these objects I have to some ex- 
tent succeeded, but I ought to mention that, nevertheless, within the 
last few years the total numbers receiving instruction in the schools 
connected with the Established Church have not increased as they 
had previously done. . . . 

Under every kind of difficulty and discouragement, by a steady 
devotion of their time, for which on behalf of "myself and of the 
clergy generally I venture to offer them thanks, the trustees suc- 
ceeded in carrying into effect, to a considerable extent, a plan of 
education to which it is principally owing that the now rising geriera- 
tion has not grown 1 up in ignorance and barbarism; 'and which, if 
encouraged and extended upon the same correct principles, will yet 
prove the source of inestimable advantages to this community. 
t It would be unjust, moreover, if we were to confine our observa- 
tion to those parochial schools which are devoted to the humbler 
branches of instruction ; and were not to notice the establishment of 
a school of a higher class for affording the benefit of a good classical, 
scientific, and religious education to the sons of parents in the middle 
and higher ranks of life. It was time that such an establishment 
should be set on foot. The success which has attended the experi- 
ment proves the correctness of the principles upon which it was 
undertaken; and for this also the colony is indebted to the Church 
and School Corporation. But for the unexpected delay which has oc- 
curred in providing the requisite buildings, I do not hesitate to say 


that the colony would ere now have enjoyed the advantage of a place 
of education than which, in proportion to the number of its scholars, 
none of a more promising character or more satisfactorily regulated 
could be met with even in the United Kingdom. If the apprehension 
of expense alone retards the completion of the plan, the colonists 
must perceive, I think, that it would be for them a very injurious 
economy if this consideration were allowed to prevail over others 
which far more closely affect their interests. The education received 
in The King's School, Parramatta, is not for the exclusive benefit of 
those upon whom it is primarily bestowed, but for that of the entire 
community. It concerns all ranks that they who are to be the chief 
inheritors of property, from among whom in all probability the future 
legislators, magistrates, and other public functionaries will be taken, 
should enjoy those advantages of liberal education which alone can 
expand and invigorate their understandings in the degree which their 
rank and employment will call for, and give them those enlarged 
liberal views of morals and the science of government, those senti- 
ments of independence, and that fixed impression in favour of re- 
vealed religion, which afford to any country the surest guarantee that 
its affairs will be well and honestly administered. It must be borne 
in mind that this school was projected only as the prelude to a col- 
lege; and of this also, if such be the will of God, I should rejoice 
to live to witness the completion. One benefit which I regard as 
among the chief of those to be conferred by such an institution 
would be the opening afforded by it for the introduction of the 
natives of the colony itself into the sacred Ministry. Years must 
necessarily pass before such an expectation can be- realised, but it 
is one of which I should never lose sight, and which will not be lost 
sight of, I trust, by those who have families rising around them, 
born upon the soil which they have chosen as the abode of themselves 
and of their descendants. I am persuaded that the Church will never 
be so effectually served, nor so firmly engage the affections of the 
people as when a succession of well educated zealous and faithful 
ministers of the Gospel shall have arisen in the country itself to fill 
its several offices. But to accomplish this most desired object, the 
opportunities of acquiring a suitable education within the colony must 
continue to be increased proportionately with its advancing wealth 
and importance. ... . ' 

Preparing as I am, my brethren, in the work of the ministry, to 
embark within a very short interval upon a voyage of no common 
extent, t I cannot conclude this address to you without emotions of a 
very different description from those which would prevail upon ordi- 
nary occasions. The uncertainties attended upon life, precarious as it 
is at the best, must of course be multiplied by such an undertaking; 
and while I rejoice to have met you here assembled, I have done so 
under a consciousness how very possible it is that it may have been 
for_the last time. I go with that support which always accompanies 
uprightness of purpose, and under an entire conviction that over those 
who trust in Him the providence of God is everywhere. Respecting 
the purpose of my approaching return to England, I deem it unneces- 


sary to say more than that having attentively examined and consid- 
sidered all circumstances connected with the advancement of religion 
throughout the colony, I am satisfied that we are attempting to pro- 
vide for its general extension and establishment with utterly inade- 
quate means. I cannot look on with tranquillity while I see such ex- 
tended and populous districts devoid of churches, devoid of clergy- 
men, devoid of schools ; the flock of Christ scattered without a shep- 
herd; destitute, in a word, of all the means of Christian instruction 
and devotion; and I should be ashamed of my own activity _ in the ser- 
vice of a Master Who has done such great things for me, if believing 
the possibility that my interposition in making known these wants 
might lead to their removal, I could hesitate at any personal exertion, 
or shrink from any personal hazard which must be incurred in carry- 
ing that purpose into effect. I request most earnestly the benefit 
of your prayers, and of the prayers of all who desire that the Gospel 
should exert a wider and more uninterrupted influence among the 
inhabitants of this country. Whether it be the purpose of God who 
ruleth over all, that I should come again to preside over you here, or 
that the possession of this seat should devolve upon another abler, 
but not more anxious to fulfil the duties which are annexed to it, my 
fervent supplication to God is, that He will support and bless the 
Church which He has planted here_; that He will also bless you 
in your ministry; and make you the instruments of turning many to 
righteousness; to the eternal glory of His great name, through 
Jesus Christ our Lord. 

It was arranged that Samuel Marsden, who had acted 
as senior chaplain of the colony after chaplain Johnson's 
return to England until Archdeacon Scott's appointment, 
should again assume charge of the Church's work while 
Archdeacon Broughton visited England, and he wrote to 
the Church Missionary So'ciety in London recommending 
the Archdeacon's mission to the favourable consideration of 
the Society: 

As' Archdeacon Broughton is returning to England for a short period 
I embrace the opportunity to write to you. One of his objects in 
going Home at this time is to^ obtain a number of clergymen for these 
settlements, which are perishing for lack of knowledge. There is a 
large penal settlement upon Norfolk Island and no clergyman has 
been there for the last twenty seven years. There the convicts, sent 
out to that Island from England and from New South Wales under 
sentence for life, are left to live and die without any religious instruc- 
tion. This is a disgrace to the British nation as a Christian people, 
and I earnestly pray that this evil may be remedied. I told the Arch- 
deacon that I would write to your Society to see if you could afford 
some relief. 
Our Archdeacon is a very high churchman, but not inimical to 


the Gospel. He will not countenance the smallest deviation from 
the rules of the Established Church. I have thought it proper to 
mention this. I am obliged to him for his attentions to me ; he has not 
interfered with me in any way. He is a man who acts with great 
propriety in all his conduct, and studies to promote the interests of 
religion very much. 

Upon his arrival in England the Archdeacon promptly 
got into touch with those whom he knew were interested 
in his archdeaconry, and with other representative church- 
men, before whom he put the circumstances and necessities 
of his work. Then he proceeded to make official repre- 
sentations to the great church societies, and through them 
he approached the Home Government. 

In his appeal to the S.P.G. soon after his reaching 
England, Broughton wrote to the secretary, the Rev. A. M. 
Campbell : 

The colony of N.S.W. is now in the forty seventh year of its exis- 
tence, and since its establishment (in 1788) more than 100,000 con- 
victs have been transported, of whom it is estimated, with probability, 
one fourth part or (25,000) is now surviving and resident in the 
colony. The number transported during the last three years has been 
upon an average annually to N.S.W. 2500, and to Van Diemen's Land 
2100 in the three years 13,700 in all. During the earlier stages of 
the colonies, or until within about eight years from the present time, 
considerable expense was incurred by the British Government in pro- 
viding the means of religious worship and instruction for these ban- 
ished offenders. But since the middle of 1826 the entire charge of 
such provision has been thrown upon the colonists, and none what- 
ever has been made at the cost of this country [England] since that 
date for the maintenance of clergy, the erection of churches, or the 
support of schools in Van Diemen's Land or N.S.W. 

Confining my observations to the latter colony, I beg to state that 
at the conclusion of the administration of General Macquarie in 1821, 
there were in use for the celebration of public worship six substantial 
churches at Sydney two, St Philip's, and St James's, at Parramatta 
one, St John's, and parish churches at Liverpool, Campbell Town, 
and Windsor, chiefly the result of the energy of the Governor. Sub- 
sequently two other churches have been erected by the labour of the 
convicts at Newcastle and at Port Macquarie, while those stations 
were occupied as penal settlements. But with these exceptions, not- 
withstanding the very great number of convicts transported in the 
interval, no addition worthy of notice has been made to the number 
of places of worship belonging to the Established Church since the 
conclusion of Governor Macquarie's administration. The foundation 
stone of a large church (on the site of the future cathedral) laid by 


him in the town of Sydney remains as it was left at his departure, 
although the inhabitants have increased to 16,232 of whom 12,079 
are Protestants and at least 2000 of the latter prisoners of the Crown. 
... In the interior, containing by the census of 1832 upwards of 
30,000 Protestants, there have been provided at the expense of the 
colony alone, a few buildings in which divine service is performed. 
These are mostly of a temporary description, generally used as 
schoolrooms during the week, and some of them as police offices, 
military barracks, or even as places of confinement for criminals. I 
refer to places employed for the celebration of divine worship in 
which I have myself officiated. 

With respect to schools, I beg to annex statement of 20 stations 
at which they are altogether wanting, or else education is carried on 
in hired and most incommodious buildings, rendering utterly hopeless 
the expectation of engaging instructors of decent character and habits 
of life, and of course in the same proportion detrimental to the im- 
provement of the children in knowledge, morals, or good order. . . . 

So far as the inhabitants of this country are concerned, the thou- 
sands of convicts who are annually transported are cast forth upon 
the shores of these colonies without any precaution being taken or 
effort made to prevent their instantly becoming pagans or heathens. 
Such, in reality, without some immediate interposition to establish a 
better system, the greater number of them will and must become, and 
the deadly infection will be propagated even to their remotest descen- 
dants. The question, in truth, which the people of this nation will 
have to consider is whether they are prepared to lay the foundation 
of a vast community of infidels, and whether collectively or individu- 
ally they can answer to Almighty God for conniving at such an execu- 
tion of the transportation laws as will infallibly lead on to this 
result. . . . 

Both the S.P.G. and the S.P.C.K. societies were enlisted 
for official action in pressing upon the Government the 
urgency for immediate attention to the moral and spiritual 
needs of the Australian settlements. The S.P.C.K. in a 
direct memorial addressed to the Government emphasized 
the inequitable financial position in relation to ministrations 
to the convicts, as revealed by Archdeacon Broughton's re- 
ports. But the memorial insisted beyond all else upon the 
degradation of colonists and convicts alike which must 
follow if their highest interests continued to be neglected. 
It affirms: 

In many parts of the colony the spiritual destitution of the settlers is 
equally great. Through many extensive districts, they are unable to 
procure the rite of religion. The sacraments are not administered ex- 


cept at long intervals; marriage cannot be solemnised without so 
much difficulty that, notwithstanding every relaxation in point of 
form, parties are often unable to obtain it, and are living together 
without its celebration. Many children die unbaptised; and the ap- 
prehension of being deprived of Christian burial is found to prevail 
to a painful extent among the colonists, who are at a distance from 
the stations. But the worst effect arising from this state of things is 
the visible decline of religious principle, and the progress of vice and 
irreligion in the colony at large. 

The Society, willing to do everything in its power to alleviate these 
evils, has recently placed a considerable sum at the disposal of the 
Archdeacon ; but it is evident that this sum will do very little towards 
providing for the exigencies _pf the settlers ; and it is felt that, in 
this colony especially where there are so many prisoners of the Crown 
who have been banished from their country for the public advantage, 
the religious instruction of the people ought not to be left to the 
bounty of religious societies or of private individuals. The Society, 
therefore, most earnestly implores His Majesty's Government to take 
the spiritual condition of the colony of New South Wales into serious 
consideration, and by the erection of churches with schools attached 
to them, and the appointment of additional chaplains to place within 
reach, both of the colonists and the convicts, the blessings of a Chris- 
tian education and the comforts and the consolations of religion. 

The Under Secretary of State for the Colonies (Sir 
George Grey) in acknowledging the S.P.C.K. memorial, 
wrote : 

Lord Glenelg is deeply sensible of the importance of the subject to 
which the memorial relates, and entirely participates in the feelings 
of the Society in regard to the inadequacy of the means of religious 
instruction, to the wants of the colonists in the Australian settlements. 
The subject has engaged much of Lord Glenelg' s attention, and has 
formed the topic of various communications between H.M. Govern- 
ment and the Governor of New South Wales. There can be no doubt 
of the necessity of immediate efforts to remedy this evil, and H.M. 
Government are prepared to act under a sense of that necessity. Lord 
Glenelg _ is, however, of opinion that the actual measures which may 
be requisite to meet the exigency, can be efficiently or usefully ar- 
ranged only by the Governor and Legislative Council of the colony, 
as the body to whom matters oj internal legislation have been in the 
first instance confided. Lord Glenelg has therefore transmitted to 
Sir R. Bourke a copy of the memorial, and feels assured that it will 
receive from the local Government that attention and consideration 
to which it is so justly entitled on account, as well of the importance 
of the subject to which it relates, as of the character of the Society 
from which it proceeds. 

Despite this courteous official reception by the Home 


Government of the appeals made to it, no definite promise 
of help from the Imperial revenue was given. But the 
S.P.C.K. undertook to contribute 3000 from its own re- 
sources and the S.P.G. iiooo, which, together with sub- 
stantial subscriptions raised under the spirited leadership of 
Edward Coleridge, by his personal friends and other earnest 
church people, greatly encouraged the Archdeacon, and 
sharply contrasted with the somewhat frigid attitude adopted 
by the Home authorities in their personal intercourse with 

It must have been a pleasant experience for the pupil of 
long ago to be invited to preach the anniversary sermon in 
Canterbury Cathedral in the September of 1835 before "The 
King's School Feast Society," and Broughton took advan- 
tage of the opportunity to deliver a vigorous, scholarly 
discourse upon his cherished conviction of the necessity for 
a definite religious basis for education as the most effective 
antidote to the further development of the latitudinarianism 
which he believed was undermining the national character. 

Another incident of his sojourn in England that must have 
gratified him was the assent of King William IV to the 
suggestion which Broughton had asked the Bishop of London 
to place before His Majesty for a royal' donation of two 
sets of Communion plate for the Sydney churches. In 
notifying the King's gift, Bishop Blomfield wrote that the 
King's Treasurer had been instructed to supply for each set 
iioo, "or more if that sum should not be sufficient" for the 

One of these sets went to St Philip's, Sydney, the other 
to St James's, and they are both in continual use. 


THAT the Archdeacon felt real disappointment at the want 
of practical sympathy shown by Lord 'Melbourne's Govern- 
ment with his endeavour to put the administration of the 
religious and educational machinery of the two Australian 
colonies upon a more adequate foundation is made plain in 
a letter to his friend the Rev. H. H. Norris, 1 while still 
in England in July 1835, which even suggests that he doubted 
whether the Home authorities wanted him to return to 
New South Wales. "If they would indeed set me free from 
the responsibility," he writes, "I might be under a weighty 
obligation to them: but I hope my resolution is taken not 
to abandon the post of duty by a voluntary act as long as 
there remains the most distant prospect of doing good, or 
even the obligation upon me to maintain it." 

There can be little doubt that the attitude of the Govern- 
ment to the Archdeacon personally was influenced by the 
fact, that comes out clearly in the confidential official dis- 
patches between New South Wales and London, of the 
want of compatibility to say the least of it between 
Governor Sir Richard Bourke and the Archdeacon as the 
head of the religious and educational department of the local 
Government. The Governor was a whole-hearted believer 
in the policy of headquarters at London which regarded the 
Church as a department of colonial administration; and 
from this standpoint Sir Richard Bourke must be accepted 

1 Edward Churton, Memoir of Joshua "Watson, vol. ii, p. 125 (London 


as a, from the political point of view, successful representa- 
tive of those to whom he owed official obedience. 

To Broughton, with his scholarly knowledge of Christian 
history, such a conception of the relations between Church 
and State was under no circumstances to be conceded ; though 
it may be confessed that if a more conciliatory attitude had 
been even occasionally shown by him, at any rate 
judging the facts nearly a century afterwards, that mutual 
advantage might have resulted. Yet it must not be over- 
looked that excepting for the support of his loyal church- 
folk, the Archdeacon stood almost alone in his insistent 
demand for the recognition of the traditional rights of the 

But the enthusiasm, ability, and zeal which he displayed 
in his campaign in England on behalf of the needs of the 
people committed to his spiritual oversight, led to conse- 
quences far exceeding in importance any matter of immedi- 
ate administration. There had developed in England and 
New South Wales a body of opinion in ecclesiastical circles 
that the Church could never fulfil her responsibilities 
efficiently until her organization had been completed by 
establishing a bishopric. The question had also been before 
the Home Government for some time and Sir Richard 
Bourke had supported the proposal, and at first agreed in 
the suitability of the Archdeacon for promotion to the 
episcopal office. But the policy of English politicians that 
had feared to encourage the consecration of bishops for the 
American colonists, more than a century earlier, lest the 
increase of the spiritual independence of the Church should 
foster the same spirit in the domain of civil government, 
still had its supporters in prominent men like Lord 
Melbourne, and hindered definite action in connexion with 
New South Wales. But towards the end of 1835 while 
Archdeacon Broughton's presence and continued efforts in 
England were still accentuating the impossibility of the 
Church fulfilling her functions until her organization had 


been completed by the appointment of a bishop, Lord Glenelg 
forwarded a dispatch to Governor Bourke notifying that 
the Government had finally decided, with the sanction of 
the Archbishop of Canterbury, to carry proposals which 
had been made into effect. But the Archdeacon was not 
prepared at once unconditionally to accept the bishopric, 
mainly because he knew that both in England and New 
South Wales the authorities were in favour of an educa- 
tional policy of which he had frequently expressed his dis- 
approval. Writing to Mrs Broughton at this time of two 
interviews with the Colonial Secretary, Lord Glenelg, he 

We differ much upon some points upon which I do not intend to give 
way : as indeed if I were to do so I should be only going back to be 
engaged in constant disputes with the Governor, and do no good. I 
therefore hope that he will in some degree give way to my views 
about the schools. ... I am, greatly effected by what you say about 
our future lot in life, and your readiness to share mine whatever it 
may be. ... On our own account, therefore, I shall make no hesita- 
tion as to going: but there are certain arrangements I think ought 
to be made to enable me to do any good worth speaking of, and if 
they are to be objected to it will be a matter of very anxious con- 
sideration with me what course I ought to adopt. 

In a later letter from London to his wife, who was staying 
in Canterbury, he writes: 

I should have written to you yesterday but was obliged to go to Ad- 
dington to see the Archbishop, and did not return in time for the post. 
In truth I had an important reason for wishing to write you as the 
letter^ which I received the morning I left you appears to decide the 
question of our going back to Sydney. I could not find it in my heart 
to say so to you then, but you have a right to know it as soon as I 
myself have any certainty. Up to that moment I had perhaps in- 
dulged more than I ought, an expectation, even a hope, that our return 
might be prevented by circumstances not of my own seeking, which 
would have enabled me with a clear conscience to relinquish the ap- 
pointment. But as Ministers have now decided on their own course, 
but_have agreed not to require me to concur or co-operate with them 
in it I have, of course, no further objection to offer, but must take 
upon myself as a solemn duty imposed upon me by God's providence 
the charge of doing my best under very unpromising circumstances, 
for the Church which is committed to. my direction. I had a long and 
serious conversation with the Archbishop, who fully approves of, and 
confirms, the views under which I have been led to make this decision. 


The official correspondence which resulted from the in- 
terviews between the Colonial Secretary and the Archdea- 
con is of such importance, and of such historic interest 
in the story of the Australian Church, that part of it, at 
least, deserves wide publicity. First in order of time 
conies a dispatch on 30 November 1835 from the Colonial 
Secretary to the Governor of New South Wales, in which 
Lord Glenelg anticipated Broughton's acceptance of the see : 

The reasons which you have alleged in favor of the erection of the 
archdeaconry of New South Wales into a bishopric seem to me con- 
clusive. My predecessor had determined to carry this proposal into 
effect; and His Majesty's present Government have decided, with the 
sanction of the Archbishop of Canterbury, to adhere to that deter- 
mination. The zeal and energy, with which Mr Broughton has dis- 
charged the duties of archdeacon of New South Wales, and the 
strong interest which he takes in the spiritual welfare of the colony, 
pointed him out as the fittest person to be invested with the episcopal 
office; and I have much pleasure in informing you that His Majesty 
has been graciously pleased to nominate him to the new See. He will 
receive the same salary, 3 which he has hitherto received as arch- 
deacon ; and any reduction, which the Governor and Council may 
deem practicable and expedient, will, of course, take effect only on 
the appointment of a successor. 

On the following day Lord Glenelg wrote to Archdeacon 
Broughton : 

It is the anxious wish of His Majesty's Government to proceed with- 
out further delay to the final settlement of the ecclesiastical and 
scholastic arrangements of the Australian colonies, which have been, 
for some time, under their consideration. 

On receiving the seals of this Department, I found that upon the 
general question of the future provisions for religious instruction and 
education in New South Wales, which had been brought under the 
notice of my predecessor by Sir Richard Bourke and by yourself, no 
decision had been adopted. On one point, however, connected with 
the general subject, the case was different. Sir R. Bourke had strongly 
recommended, with a view to the interests and discipline of the 
Church of England in the Australian colonies, that New South Wales 
and its dependencies should be erected into an episcopal see, and that 
the archdeaconry should be merged into this new and higher institu- 
tion. I found that my predecessor, Lord Aberdeen, with the concur- 
rence of the Archbishop of Canterbury, had assented to the recom- 
mendation and had decided on submitting your name to the King for 

8 2000 a year and incidental expenses. 


appointment to the new see. His Majesty's present Government at 
once admitted the expediency of the intended change, and were pre- 
pared without delay to carry it into effect. I regret that _ difficulties 
occurred to you which have hitherto induced you to hesitate as to 
your acceptance of the office. This has been the sole cause of my 
deferring the adoption of the legal measures necessary to the comple- 
tion of this arrangement. I am aware that this hesitation on your 
part proceeded from an anxiety to be informed of the intentions of 
His Majesty's Government, with reference to the general subject of 
education; but I feel it right to state to you that the determination 
of the Government with respect to the bishopric has never been con- 
sidered by them as in any degree contingent on the other question, 
and that, irrespective of their decision as to the latter, they are con- 
vinced that it is necessary that no further delay should take place 
in acting upon the decision long since adopted as to the former. 

I therefore earnestly trust that you will permit me to submit your 
name to the King as the first bishop of New South Wales ; and I have 
to request that you will favour me with the earliest possible intimation 
of your decision as to the proposal which I have the honour to convey 
to you. 

I am at the same time anxious to communicate to you full informa- 
tion of the course which, after mature consideration His Majesty's 
Government have determined to adopt on the general question; and, 
in order to obviate any possible misconception, I enclose for your 
perusal copies of a despatch from Sir Richard Bourke upon this sub- 
ject to my predecessor Lord Stanley, and of the answer which I have 
addressed to Sir Richard Bourke. I am fully sensible of the deep 
interest which you feel in the spiritual welfare of the Australian 
colonies, and I place a high value on the experience which you have 
acquired during your past residence in New South Wales, and on the 
proofs which you have given of your enlightened zeal in the further- 
ance of the best interests of the colonists. 

It will therefore afford me high gratification to know that His 
Majesty's _ Government may depend upon your concurrence and co- 
operation in the views which they entertain upon this important sub- 
ject,^ but, deeply as I should regret the loss of such cooperation, I 
fee^ it my duty to state without reserve that the course taken by His 
Majesty's Government has been adopted under a full sense of their 
responsibility and on the deliberate conviction that it is recommended 
by principles the best calculated to advance those interests which, in 
common with yourself, they are most anxious by all due moans to 
foster and promote. 

Two days later the Archdeacon replied: 

,, Canterbury, 3rd December 1835. 


I had this morning the honour of receiving your lordship's letter 
dated the ist inst, expressing the anxious desire of His Majesty's 
Government to proceed without further delay to the final settlement 


of the ecclesiastical and scholastic arrangements of the Australian 

In extenuation of any share of that delay which may have been 
occasioned by my hesitation to accept the high and sacred office which 
was proposed to me by the Earl of Aberdeen, and the offer of which 
is now repeated by your lordship, I would with much submission 
observe that the question was of far more difficult decision than if it 
had now been proposed to me to visit those colonies for the first 
time. I had been already known there in the twofold capacity of the 
head of the Church and visitor of the public schools. Religion and 
education had been placed under my charge in the closest association ; 
and I therefore felt a natural unwillingness to contract new engage- 
ments without knowing whether my former relation to the Govern- 
ment was to continue, or whether, by breaking off my connexion with 
the schools it was materially to change its character. 

I am, therefore, most deeply indebted to your lordship's condescen- 
sion m having afforded me the opportunity of perusing the despatch 
of Sir Richard Bourke, and of the proposed reply from your lordship 
to His Excellency, whereby I am enabled to take a deliberate view 
of my' situation before I devote myself to it beyond the power of 

Your lordship having been pleased to apprize me that the deter- 
mination of the Government with respect to the bishopric has never 
been considered by them as in any degree contingent on the general 
question, I should have felt myself debarred from expressing more 
than my simple acceptance of the distinguished office proposed to me, 
with an assurance of my gratitude to your lordship for having been 
pleased to confirm me in that appointment, and for the flattering 
terms in which such promotion is conveyed. 

But, as your lordship has testified a hope that the Government may 
depend upon my concurrence and co-operation in the views which they 
entertain upon the important subject referred to in the proceeding 
part of your lordship's letter, I apprehend that my passing over this 
without some explanatory remarks might be construed as pledging me 
to the extent of that expectation. The despatch of General Bourke 
has however laid open to me some points in which I cannot concur; 
and I therefore request your lordship's permission to state briefly, 
with respect to these, the grounds of my inability to promise the 
required co-operation. 

I should be unable to make any engagement which would imply my 
acting in concert with Sir Richard Bourke in carrying into effect the 
proposed system of giving public support to three separate forms of 
religion, and possibly also to every congregation of dissenters and of 
Jews upon the same principle ; because' my opinion of the tendency of 
this system is precisely in accordance with the expectation of His 
Excellency that, under it, "the people will become more attached to 
their respective churches, and be more willing to listen to, and obey 
their several pastors." I could" not engage to concur in a system 
which, instead of enlightening the minds of men and disposing them 
to adopt the truth, will attach them more to the errors of their 


church, and check the progress of the Reformation since I must, as 
a Protestant bishop, contract obligations which will bind me to em- 
ploy all diligence and exertion to counteract such a purpose. 

With respect to the new system of education, it is necessary that 
I should again troublejour lordship with a statement of the reasons, 
which lead me to decline connecting myself with it, and which would 
induce me to counsel all Protestants to pursue the same course. I 
should most gratefully avail myself of the opening afforded by your 
lordship's proposal to afford assistance to persons, and classes of per- 
sons who may entertain objections to the general plan ; and I should 
hope to prevail with the Legislative Council to render such assis- 
tance to an extent which may enable me to retain the furniture and 
buildings of the existing primary schools, and to carry them on upon 
the present system. 

I am, therefore, but too apprehensive that, without extended indul- 
gence for cases in which I might consider myself bound by principle 
to withhold my support from the measures of the Government, I 
should not subscribe to your lordship's words according to the plain 
and obvious meaning in which they must be understood by an honest 
mind. I venture to express not only my readiness but my anxiety, 
I may in a justifiable sense say my ambition, to enter upon the epis- 
copal office in New South Wales ; my connexion with the country, my 
regard for many of the inhabitants, and my anxiety to promote the 
welfare of the Christian Church, all conspiring to fix my determina- 
tion; and I cannot contemplate but with extreme pain any circum- 
stances which may interfere with my attainment of that distinction. 
Nevertheless I cannot be blind to the inconvenience which may arise 
from the want of a better accordance between the Governor of the 
colony and myself ; above all things I would wish to avoid misleading 
the Government as to the principles which I entertain, and so raising 
expectations of concurrence and co-operation which my subsequent 
proceedings might not satisfy. I have no resource, therefore, but to 
throw myself upon your lordship's favourable consideration, and to 
request that the expression which raises this difficulty may be so in- 
terpreted as to leave me no more discretion than its literal sense 
appears to imply. 

I have &c. 

The Archdeacon received the following reply from the 
Colonial Secretary: 

Downing Street, ;th December 1835. 

I have received your letter of the 3rd instant, and I trust that I may 
infer from it that you are willing to accept the proposed appointment 
of Bishop of New South Wales and its dependencies. His Majesty's 
Government have never hesitated as to the selection of the individual 
to fill this high and important office ; and I have frequently expressed 


to you my earnest desire that you might signify to me your accep- 
tance of it, irrespective of the course which the Government should 
ultimately determine to adopt with respect to religious Instruction and 
education in the colony. In intimating to you my hope that His 
Majesty's Government might receive your concurrence and coopera- 
tion in the plan coeducation recommended by "Sir Richard Bourke, it 
was not my intention to impose any condition upon your acceptance 
of the bishopric, or to fetter the free exercise of your judgment in 
the course which you may feel it incumbent upon you to pursue, either 
in your episcopal or legislative capacity. I am persuaded that, in the 
discharge of the duties attached to your sacred office you will be actu- 
ated by motives of the highest nature and by a single desire to pro- 
mote the best interests of the colony. 

It appears to me that, as the limits of the bishopric will be more 
extensive than_ New South Wales, "Australia" will be a more 
appropriate designation of the proposed see. Although the question 
is one of little importance, I shall be happy to receive any suggestion 
from you upon this point, before I give directions for the preparation 
of the necessary Patent. 

A concordat had been thus reached. 

The Archdeacon took an early opportunity of reporting 
to the Duke of Wellington, who had eight years before 
nominated him to the Australian archdeaconry, that he was 
about to be advanced to the episcopate, and in a cordial 
letter the Duke replied: "I sincerely rejoice that you have 
been appointed the Bishop of .Australia, and wish you 
success in the performance of your interesting and important 

The lengthy letters patent of the "Bishop of Australia," 
dated 18 January 1836, have been published in two books 3 
dealing with the history of the Church in Australia, so do 
not claim space for further reproduction. Upon a first 
reading they certainly convey an impression of undiluted 
Erastianism, but it may be taken as a fact that the English 
lawyers and politicians who were responsible for them had 
no other conception of the Church. Broughton is believed 
to have been disturbed by some of the language employed 
though, later on, he 'contended when Roman controver- 
sialists offered cynical criticism, that if the ecclesiastical 

3 Archbishop H. Lowther Clarke, Constitutional Church Government 
in the Dominions, p. 33 (London, 1924). R. A. Giles, The Constitu- 
tional History of the Australian Church, p. 219 (London, 1928)* 


distinction between mission and jurisdiction were kept in 
mind the letters were capable of an orthodox interpreta- 
tion. But it will be remembered that Selwyn, when he 
found that his letters were to be modelled on those of 
Bishop Broughton, protested against part of them and suc- 
ceeded in getting some important alterations made. 4 

The section of the Bishop of Australia's letters patent 
that, prima facie, most justified this action reads as follows : 

We [i.e. the King] do hereby signify to the Most Rev. Father in God 
William, Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, Primate of all England 
and Metropolitan, that we have erected and founded the aforesaid 
episcopal see of Australia, and have named and preferred the afore- 
said William Grant Broughton, heretofore Archdeacon of New South 
Wales, to the said bishopric, and have appointed him the Bishop and 
ordinary pastor thereof, requiring and, by the faith and love whereby 
he is bound to us commanding, the said William, Archbishop of 
Canterbury forthwith to consecrate the aforesaid William Grant 
Broughton Bishop of Australia in manner accustomed, and dili- 
gently to do and perform all other things appertaining to his office 
in this behalf with effect. And we do by these presents give and 
grant to the said William Grant Broughton and his successors, 
bishops of Australia, full power and authority to admit into the 
holy orders of deacon and priest respectively, any person whom he 
shall upon examination deem duly qualified especially for the cure 
of souls or officiating in any spiritual capacity within the limits of 
the said Diocese of Australia and residing therein . . . and that in 
every such case it shall be distinctly stated in the letters of Ordi- 
nation that he has been ordained for the cure of souls within the 
limits of the said diocese of Australia only. . . . 

Within a month of the completion of the legal formali- 
ties the Bishop of Australia was consecrated on 14 February 
1836 in Lambeth Palace Chapel by the Archbishop of Can- 
terbury (Howley), Assisted by the Bishops of London 
(Blomfield), Winchester (Sumner), and Gloucester 
(Monk). When Broughton was curate at Hartley Wespall, 
Bishop Sumner was his dio'cesan. At the same time the 
first Bishop of Montreal (Canada), the Rev. J. G. Moun- 
tain, received consecration. The preacher was Broughton's 

*Rev. H. W. Tucker, Memoir of the Life and Episcopate of George 
Augustus Selwyn, D.D., vol. i, p. 71. 


friend, Dr J. E. N. Molesworth, rector of St Martin's, 
Canterbury, the text being II Tim. iv, 1-2 : "I charge thee in 
the sight of God, and of Christ Jesus, who shall judge 
the quick and the dead, and by his appearing and his king- 
dom; preach the word; be instant in season, out of season; 
reprove, rebuke, exhort, with all longsuffering and teach- 
ing." The sermon was a learned disquisition on "The Foun- 
dations of Episcopacy," and in his personal references Dr 
Molesworth said of Broughton: "I know him, I hope he 
permits me to say, as a friend, I know him by the respect 
paid to genuine piety, solid learning, discreet zeal, firm in- 
tegrity, combined with unaffected meekness and Christian 
gentleness. I know him by the affection and veneration of 
those who from his youth up have proved his heart and 
his understanding. And as far as I dare pronounce such a 
judgment upon human character, I cannot entertain a doubt 
but that with a sound knowledge of his subject, he has well 
considered the nature of his charge and is by God's grace 
well qualified to undertake it." In the congregation 
was Edward Coleridge, nomen clarissimum, the Eton master 
and valued friend both of. Broughton and Selwyn, whose 
enthusiasm and unwearied work for the Church in the col- 
onies, particularly in Australia and New Zealand, produced 
most important results. Broughton had been anxious that 
his consecration should be in either St Paul's or Westminster 
Abbey, but he failed to have his wish. Coleridge was also 
present when Selwyn was made Bishop of New Zealand in 
the chapel of Lambeth Palace, and he wrote an earnest pro- 
test against semi-private consecrations : 

I could not help feeling that we ought to have been thousands rather 
than tens, gathered together as with one consent in St Paul's or 
Westminster Abbey to witness the sending out by the Church of the 
first bishop of her own appointment, and not, as we were, a few per- 
sons in an upper chamber as if we were afraid or ashamed of 
that great deed which we came to sanction by our presence and our 
prayers. To such an extent has this system of private consecrations 
been carried that it is an actual fact that my own cousin, the 
present bishop of Barbadoes (Bishop Coleridge), was admitted to 


that sacred office, (of which he has since, under God, proved worthy), 
in the presence of only two persons Judges Coleridge and Patte- 
son besides the necessary attendants. I feel that such cannot last 
much longer. The feeling of the Church will become so strong and 
her cry of indignation so loud that it will pierce even the walls 
of Addington, and so rouse the Archbishop from his slumbers that 
His Grace will not, I trust and hope, go on paying fines to be 
allowed to violate the law and do in Lambeth Palace what he ought 
to do in Canterbury Cathedral. 

Earlier, a still more amazing instance of what Coleridge 
so keenly deplores is found in the case of the first Bishop 
of Calcutta, Dr Middleton, of whom it is recorded 5 that "He 
was consecrated in private, as though the episcopate was a 
feeble concession made to the foolish but troublesome im- 
portunity of a few fanatics. His consecration sermon was 
suppressed, and he was sent out to India, as something con- 
traband, to find twenty English regiments without a single 
chaplain to minister to them." 

But more deplorable than all these facts, is it that the 
Bishop of Australia was allowed to go and take oversight 
of his diocese without a single addition to the staff of less 
than twenty clergy which he left there when he made the 
visit to England that ended in his advancement to the episco- 
pate. In 1833 a grant of 150 had been made for the 
passage and outfit of a chaplain going out to Sydney, but 
no further allowances were given by the Home Govern- 
ment for the Church of England clergy for four years. 6 
This is the more remarkable because two years later 1000 
was supplied for Dr Folding the Roman Catholic Vicar 
Apostolic, four priests, and four catechists. The explana- 
tion supplied in the first annual report ef the Australian 
diocesan committee of the S.P.G. and S.P.C.K. in 1838 is 
that the refusal by the Home authorities to grant further 
supplies to the Church of England "arose from an impres- 
sion prevailing (whence originating it is useless to con- 
jecture), that the inhabitants of the colony were opposed, 

5 Rev. H. W. Tucker, Under His Banner, p. 14 (10th edition). 
"W. W. Burtojn, State of Religion and Education in New SoutK 
Wales, p. 66. 



or at least indifferent to, an extension of the ordinances of 
the Church." The Bishop reached Sydney on 2 June 1836 
after an unusually quick passage in the barque Camden, and 
on the following Sunday, three days later, was enthroned 
in St James's Church. The Sydney Gazette reports : 

A very large and highly respectable congregation assembled, amongst 
whom we noticed the Hon. the Col. Secretary, their Honors the 
Judges of the Supreme Court, the Hon. the Colonial Treasurer, 
nearly all the members of the Legislative Council, and the _Sheriff 
and other civil functionaries of rank, by whom his lordship was 
received, a few minutes before n o'clock at, the north door of the 
Church. On the arrival of the Bishop the procession, headed by the 
senior chaplain, Rev. S. Marsden, and the assistant senior chaplain, 
Rev. W. Cowper, moved up the aisle, conducting his lordship to the 
vestry room where the mandate of His Excellency the Governor t f or 
installing the Bishop was produced. The congregation then retired 
to their pews leaving the Bishop in the vestry, and divine service pro- 
ceeded as usual until the second lesson had been read, when his lord- 
ship was again conducted into the church by the officiating clergy- 
men, accompanied as before by a part of the congregation. When 
the Bishop reached his stall the senior chaplain read the act of con- 
secration, at the conclusion of which the chaplain addressed the 
Bishop as follows "My Lord Bishop of Australia In obedience to 
the mandate of His Excellency the Governor, I the Rev. Samuel 
Marsden do in the 'presence of the persons assembled install your 
Lordship into the true and full possession of the episcopal see of 
Australia." The Bishop then took his seat in the church and the 
organ continued playing while the clergy resumed their stations, 
after which the officiating clergyman, the Rev. W. Cowper, com- 
pleted the_ prayers. The sermon was preached by the Bishop who 
took as his text Rom. v, 16. As we anticipate that the sermon will 
be printed by request of the congregation, we shall only briefly 
state that his lordship dwelt at considerable length upon the leading 
doctrines of the Church of England as expressed in her liturgy and 
articles, showing not only their reasonableness but also their accord- 
ance with the inspired Word of God. His luminous and admirable 
discourse (which was heard with the greatest attention throughout), 
concluded by an appropriate tribute of respect to the late Rev. R. 
Hill, late rector of St James's whose lamented death had occurred 
within the vestry of the church only five days previously. 

The main topic dealt with in the sermon was the doctrine 
of justification, and the only personal reference made by 
the Bishop was: "Assuming as I do this day that station 
at the helm of the barque of Christ to which the providence 
of God has called me, though unworthy, perhaps even sin- 


fully reluctant, it is not to be wondered at that I should 
lay more than ordinary stress upon that doctrine whereupon 
the Church, the pillar and ground of Truth, is itself sup- 

Within a week of his landing the Bishop writes to his 
mother : 

You will rejoice to hear of our safe arrival at our destination and 
in a much shorter period of time than we could have ventured 
to expect. We came to an anchor here on the 2nd of this month, 
having been exactly 100 days and a few hours at sea. 

This will not be, I hope, the first news you have heard of us, 
as on the 27th of March we fell in with the ship Duke of Buccleugh, 
about 37 miles on this side of the Line, and had an opportunity of 
forwarding letters by that conveyance. You received, I hope, the 
one which I wrote to you, which would inform you of our safety 
so far. As to our voyage it was much like voyages in general, only 
I may say we were more than generally fortunate both as to the 
speed with which we made the voyage, and our comparative exemp- 
tion from bad weather. We had none very serious after that which 
occurred soon after our first sailing, and of which I sent you an 
account. . . . 


IT is a common experience after reading a notable book 
and then seeing even a photograph of its author, to get a 
much clearer understanding of the personality of the writer. 
In connexion with a biography, still more helpful is it to be 
able also to get pen pictures and reminis'cences of actual 
conversations from those closely associated with its subject. 
Fortunately, it is possible to do both these things, in the 
case of the Bishop of Australia. And such contributions 
have an enhanced interest when they come from men who 
themselves were recognized as having made their mark in 
the world of their day. It seems well, therefore, at this 
stage in Broughton's history, just as he was entering upon 
his achievements as a bishop, to attempt to convey, as 
vividly as may be after the lapse of a century, an idea 
of the impress he made upon some of the friends who 
were in intimate contact with him. A real value may result 
from doing this, for it may help in reaching a right judg- 
ment upon the motives which influenced him in his inevit- 
ably many-sided life. But it may at once be said that he was 
naturally of such a reserved temperament, and seems so 
to have supplemented it by a studied reticence which ap- 
parently he thought his office demanded, that he admitted 
but few even of those for whom he had a high regard 
into confidential relationships with him. This suggests to 
our modern days of unrestrained freedom in the exchange 
of opinions, and in the making, and breaking, of friendships 


in all departments of life, that Bishop Broughton's work 
probably suffered through both his natural and official re- 
serve, and it must be confessed that the criticism would not 
be without some justification. 

A prominent Australian daily paper in discussing recently 
the continuous demand for biographical literature, emphas- 
ized that the general weakness of biographers was that they 
aimed at presenting their subjects in an uncritically favour- 
able atmosphere, and hence the best index of character, the 
writer urged, is found in biographies in the personal letters 
they contain. This desideratum can be provided adequately 
in a record of Broughton's life. He was most careful about 
his correspondence, and wrote, in quite a beautiful Italian 
hand that ought to bring blushes of self-conviction to the 
cheeks of the bishops and clergy of to-day, letters, frequently 
of amazing length, in which, if the vulgarism be permissible, 
he often "let himself go" both in righteous wrath and 
lighter vein, though humour was not a strong point with 
him, albeit he could make, and enjoy, a joke. 

And, now, what like of man was he in bodily presence? 
A contemporary London church monthly 1 in a lengthy re- 
view of the Bishop's career quotes an anonymous letter from 
an Australian correspondent, dated in the early years of 
Broughton's epis'copate, in which the writer says: 

I will paint the bishop's portrait. A man of short stature, a broad 
expansive forehead, the black hair silvered, a clear expressive blue 
eye and well-turned nose, a firm expressive mouth and handsome 
chin; a voice most tuneful in debate or conversation, but restrained 
in reading or preaching, in which he is not so successful as in 
extempore addresses, wherein his ready fluency, and graceful facility, 
and extraordinary fecundity, are quite bewitching. . . . 

The first Bishop of Australia is without exception the fittest pos- 
sible man to lay the foundations of the Church of Christ in this 
colony; and I am convinced that all who succeed him (and may 
the line be long, and glorious, and blessed!) will still come after 
and behind him in every respect. To deep learning, extensive know- 
ledge both of books and men, a courteous address, a winning man- 
ner, a readiness and aptitude and comprehension which amaze you, 

1 The Churchman's Magazine, April 1853, pp. 242-3. 


he adds the highest degree of tact and political management (I 
speak in a good sense only) you can conceive; and has the art to 
conceal his art, except from those in habitual communication with 
him, to whom it necessarily discloses itself. Our clergy sometimes 
complain of his coldness and reserve. Of those I know nothing, but 
I can safely add that he is the very last man in the world I should 
venture to take liberties with. His schoolfellow, Sir G. Gipps (Gov- 
ernor of New South Wales), and others, declare that he is the pro- 
foundest statesman in the colony, and understands every branch 
of business better than anybody else. His memory is perfect. 

Turning to the Bishop's intercourse with some of those 
English friends who helped him most in providing his 
diocese with men and money, and also by their continuous 
approval of his work and the encouragement he needed, 
pride of place must be given to the Rev. Edward Coleridge, 
the Eton master already mentioned as present at Brough- 
ton's consecration. When George Selwyn, after graduating 
at Oxford, became a private tutor at Eton, where he had 
been a pupil, and an assistant curate at Windsor, he formed 
a strong friendship with Coleridge, their mutual enthusiasm 
for the Church being a powerful factor 1 in it. Judge Pat- 
teson, father of the first Bishop of 'Melanesia, had married 
Coleridge's sister, and his brother, Justice Coleridge, was 
a close friend of John Keble, of whom he wrote the memoir 
that is still highly valued. And Bishop Coleridge of Bar- 
badoes (who afterwards became the first Warden of St 
Augustine's College, Canterbury), was Edward Coleridge's 
cousin. Su'ch family connexions can scarcely have failed 
to stimulate further Coleridge's devotion to the Church. 
Of George Selwyn he often spoke as "my most dear of all 
dear friends." He and all his circle were sympathetic with 
the Oxford Movement, which was growing into power when 
Selwyn and Coleridge were teaching at Eton. Hence they 
had learned to value the Catholic aspect of the Eng- 
lish Church which led to her quickened and revived sense 
of responsibility in respect to the crowded populations of 
the big industrial centres of England, to her following her 
emigrant people as they went abroad to the overseas British 


dominions, and, more slowly, a consciousness of the spiritual 
claims of the heathen peoples with whom the emigrant came 
into contact. When Broughton, as archdeacon, spent more 
than a year in England in 1834-5, on the vigorous campaign 
designed to awaken the Home Government and the Church 
to the .serious neglect of the religious needs of both the 
free and the convict inhabitants of New South Wales, the 
Archdeacon would almost certainly have come into touch 
with many of the English folk who were identified 
more or less with Tractarianism. Indeed, several of those 
who responded to the appeal he made on behalf of Australia 
were of the Catholic school of theology. Coleridge was one 
of these, and he probably was brought into definite relation- 
ship with Broughton by Joshua Watson, the treasurer of 
the S.P.C.K., which was, together with the S.P.G., actively 
supporting the Archdeacon's effort in England. That some 
such common a'ction had been established is manifest from 
Coleridge's having been present at Broughton's consecra- 
tion, and from the Eton master's having been one of the 
first with whom he opened a correspondence when he arrived 
back in Sydney. The first of these letters, written shortly 
after the Bishop's arrival, has already been inserted in de- 
tailing some of his earliest episcopal work, and many of 
Coleridge's answers to Broughton's communications were 
duly preserved by Dr Bailey, the second warden of St 
Augustine's College, Canterbury. The late Bishop Mont- 
gomery most kindly made an epitome of those which he 
saw would be of interest in Broughton's biography, and 
references will be made to them in the chapters dealing with 
the various subjects of the letters. But a few sentences 
may be quoted from one letter to show Coleridge's radiant 
faith and his use of it in controlling the Bishop's tendency 
to despondency. The Eton master had been sending further 
subscriptions he had gathered in England, and Broughton 
had warmly acknowledged them. Coleridge, in reply, wrote : 
"Do not think it necessary to thank me, for I have more 


return for my labour than I desire in the happiness which 
I am sure you will feel. . . . Your names are 'Great in Israel' 
pre-eminently so, and there are hundreds and thousands 
of thoughtful Churchmen who are expecting a reflux of new 
life to the Mother Church from Australia, New Zealand, 
and Tasmania. So be brave and hopeful." As a school- 
master Coleridge was said to have been warm-hearted, affec- 
tionate, and sympathetic. It is remarkable that the life of 
such a zealous churchman has not been written, particularly 
when it is remembered that there passed through his hands 
as master of the lower school at Eton, Bishop Patteson, 
Goldwin Smith, Sir Stafford Northcote (afterwards Lord 
Iddesleigh), Lord Justice Cotton, Dean Goulbourn, and 
Bishop John Selwyn, who was his latest pupil. Upon his 
retirement from Eton, the College nominated him to the 
parish of Mapledurham, Reading, where he ended his earthly 
life at the age of eighty-three. Bishop Montgomery's tribute 
to Edward Coleridge was : "It is impossible to estimate the 
aid a man like Coleridge has been to the Church in Aus- 

Scarcely, if at all, less influential upon Broughton's career 
than Edward Coleridge was that eminent layman Joshua 
Watson, for nearly twenty years honorary treasurer of the 
S.P.C.K. from 1814 to 1833 and foremost among the 
churchmen of his time for his generous support of all the 
leading activities of the Church, as well as for his unstinted 
personal labours for many good causes. All his family were 
of the historic High Church type, and his father had strongly 
desired to take Holy Orders; but this was discouraged by 
his business relatives who looked to him, as the elder son, to 
carry on the successful wine merchant house that had been 
established on Tower Hill, London. But the wine merchant 
lived to see one of his sons an honoured priest, and the 
other, Joshua, who helped his father in the London busi- 
ness, a recognized leader among the English laity. In the 
course of years, Joshua's health showed signs of weaken- 


ing, and he withdrew as far as possible from his mercantile 
pursuits, and so set himself more free for work for the 
Church, to which he had always been closely drawn, especially 
the extension of the Church of England into the overseas 
colonies. He was first attracted by the spiritual needs of 
India and became an enthusiastic supporter of the pioneer 
Bishop Middleton. Then he turned his attention to Nova 
Scotia, and afterwards to Australia. But his first promin- 
ent post in the Church was as one of the founders of the 
National Society for the education of the poorer classes in 
England. When the treasurership of the S.P.C.K. was 
pressed upon him, he, with characteristic modesty, declared 
that he did not consider himself qualified for the post, but 
he was assured by a prominent cleric that the offer of it 
was made at the unanimous request of "archbishops and 
bishops" and many of the clergy. Mr Watson set to work 
to galvanize the semi-official S.P.G. and bring it into definite 
relation with the S.P.C.K., thereby becoming a valuable 
link between the two societies. It was at his suggestion that 
the S.P.G. was enabled to begin its wonderfully fruitful 
practice of block grants to the missionary bishops to be used 
according to their discretion. 

It was probably Archdeacon Broughton's visit to England 
in 1834 that led to Watson's developing a keen interest in 
the Australian Church and forming a strong friendship for 
its ecclesiastical leader, with results that can scarcely be 
over-estimated, though his name is practically unknown in 
quarters in Australia where it might be looked for to receive 
honoured remembrance. Happily this great churchman's 
career is excellently recorded in Archdeacon Churton's 
memoir. He was not only a munificent benefactor, but a 
quite judicially minded adviser, and long letters from him, 
preserved among Broughton's papers, testify to the defer- 
ence which evidently the able Bishop paid to the counsel of 
his layman friend. Mr Watson left a good part of his 
extensive theological library to Sydney diocese. 


The value of such a counsellor 2 can be judged by a few 
sentences from the speech of the Archbishop of Canterbury 
(Howley), as president of the S.P.C.K., when Joshua 
Watson, on account of ill health, resigned from the honorary 
treasurership of the Society. "There never had been an 
occasion," said the Archbishop, "on which the best interests 
of Church and State could be advanced or secured when 
Mr Watson had not been among the foremost, both with 
his means and with his counsel, to aid the cause. . . . For 
himself he could say that from no man had he received such 
ready and judicious counsel, or such friendly assistance 
free from the smallest taint of selfishness, and guided by the 
most unaffected and retiring humility." 

It is delightful when recalling the notable men in 
England who helped Broughton in the days of his early 
struggles both as archdeacon and bishop to see how their 
fellowship in promoting the building up of the Church in 
Australia (and elsewhere), seemed to deepen their affection- 
ate friendship for one another. And this gave distinctly 
additional strength to the common cause for which they 
worked, because it suggested and forwarded unity of effort. 
It also fostered filial regard between the mother Church of 
England and her daughters across the seas. Bishop Mont- 
gomery when in Tasmania often said that it was of great 
value to a colonial bishop to have some influential friends 
at the Church's headquarters. From Broughton's days on- 
ward this has been shown to be true, and possibly there is 
a tendency to forget it in the popular advocacy, in these later 
days, of indigenous prelates. That this may result in real 
loss is more than suggested in the history of some of the 
colonial dioceses. 

Letters from Broughton when he first received the offer 
of the archdeaconry, and again when the subject of the 
bishopric was being discussed during his visit to England in 
1834, to the Rev. H. H. Norris are so intimate in tone as 

"Edward Churton, Memoir of Joshua Watson, vol. ii, p. 22. 


to disclose that this devoted man must also have been one 
of Broughton's closest friends. 

Henry Handley Norris was the son of a wealthy London 
merchant, and being an only son he inherited in due course 
a substantial fortune from his father. After attending a 
private school near his home, he read with a tutor and then 
went up to Cambridge, where he graduated in 1793 from 
Peterhouse in Arts. A strong desire to take Holy Orders 
had come ,to him quite early in life but was resolutely 
discouraged by his father. About two years after leaving 
Cambridge the son was able to gratify his long desire. 
Meanwhile, he had met Joshua Watson and this resulted 
in a friendship that extended over sixty years, and in joint 
work for the Church and many social and charitable enter- 
prises. Probably at Watson's suggestion, Henry Norris 
became a foundation member of the National Society and 
one of the executive committee of both the S.P.C.K. and 
the S.P.G. He gave largely of his means as well as of 
his time and abilities to the Church. Such notable service 
naturally led to preferments being offered him, but his 
humbleness of mind impelled him to shrink from them, 
though the urgency of his fellow workers and his friends 
succeeded in securing his acceptance of a prebendal stall at 
St Paul's, and later one at Llandaff, on the ground that 
these official honours would give him a more dignified posi- 
tion in his work for the many Church activities with which 
he was associated. After his death reference was made by 
a dignitary of the Church to "the influence which he nobly 
won for himself by his untiring public labours, sustained 
as those labours were to the latest period of his good old 

Bishop Broughton's opinion of Norris is expressed in 
reply to a letter in 1841, notifying that his friend's health 
was giving cause for anxiety : "There is no man living whom 
I hold in higher estimation. And there is the less reason 


for my hesitating to say so because there is no probability 
that we shall in this life meet again." 

In Australia the circle of the intimate friends of the 
Bishop, both clerical and lay, was small, due to some extent, 
it may be conjectured, to the very conservative conception 
he obviously held of his office. He brought with him from 
England the prevailing monarchical tradition of the episco- 
pate, and, of course, the development of lay co-operation 
in diocesan government had only reached the stage of dis- 
cussion in his day. A well-informed layman writing from 
Sydney in the early days of the Bishop's administration 
said: "Our Church here is without dignitaries. The 
Bishop and his presbyters are all no dean, no archdeacon 
as if such officers were an abatement of the Bishop's auth- 
ority. . . . Hence the Bishop fails to hear many things, and 
many things he hears obscurely or incorrectly." 

But among his clergy Broughton soon discovered a scholar 
and sound churchman in the Rev. R. Allwood, B.A., subse- 
quently a canon and for many years the honoured incum- 
bent of St James's, Sydney. The calibre of this good man 
is shown by his being suggested as the first Bishop of 
Newcastle, but he pleaded uncertain health as a sufficient 
reason for declining promotion to the episcopate, though it 
was also known that his great humility made him shrink 
from the inevitable responsibility. But his Bishop, recog- 
nizing his high attainments and devoted character, utilized 
him in helping to set on foot a college at Sydney, of which 
he became the first principal, for the training of men for 
Holy Orders, and also gave him a considerable share in the 
tuition, in which the Bishop, too, took an active part. 
Broughton wrote of him as "a quite invaluable man." 

One of the clergy who secured the marked confidence of 
his diocesan was the Rev. W. H. Walsh, M.A., who organ- 
ized the parish of Christ Church, Sydney, and built the 
church, which was the first consecrated by Broughton. The 
Bishop described him as "not to be surpassed, I am con- 


fident, in any good and effective quality, so far as his 
strength, which he taxes to the utmost, will carry him, and 
the more valued by me because the last legacy, I may say, 
of the good Archdeacon of St Alban's." 

But while the Bishop does not seem to have taken his 
clergy as a body into counsel about the administration of the 
diocese, he had a keen appreciation of their fidelity to their 
work and loyalty to himself. To this he refers in one of 
his reports of them to the S.P.G. "Of all my consolations, 
the principal is my having among my 'clergy so many of 
right views ; earnest thinking, conformable and devoted men. 
We all work together with so much harmony that the 
impression is quite cheering, and the effect most exemplary." 

Of the laity, one to whom the Bishop openly professed 
warm friendship was Mr Justice Burton, of the New South 
Wales Bench, and the author of the valuable book, The 
State of Religion and Education in New South Wales, pub- 
lished in 1840 after the issue of the report of a select com- 
mittee of the House of Commons that had been appointed 
to consider the cause of the at least partial failure of the 
Australian colony, chiefly due, in the opinion of the com- 
mittee, to "deficiency of religious instruction." Judge Burton 
was a distinctly definite churchman, and he strongly sup- 
ported by information collected from official sources the 
view taken by the House of Commons report. In Bishop 
Broughton's plans for making the Church the instrument 
for improving the spiritual and intellectual condition of the 
people he earnestly concurred, and as these were by no 
means in agreement with the policy of the colonial govern- 
ment, possibly this had something to do with Mr Justice 
Burton's being overlooked when the Chief Justiceship of 
New South Wales became vacant. In any case this hap- 
pened, and it led to the Australian judge obtaining a trans- 
fer to the Madras Bench and a Knighthood. Writing of 
his impending loss to Mr Watson, Broughton says: "I 
am about to lose, I fear, the most able, upright, and certain 


supporter that I have, in the person of Judge Burton. . . . 
There is none to take his place; none on whom I 
can equally rely. And you may well suppose that 
to lose an ally of so much value, while the number and 
strength of adversaries are increasing every day does 
affect me very painfully." Upon the occasion of a visit 
by Judge Burton to England he carried with him a cordial 
introduction from the Bishop of his "valued friend" to 
Joshua Watson, and the mutual affection for the Australian 
bishop moved the two good laymen to devise a scheme for 
providing him with an episcopal residence (he was renting 
a house in Sydney at ^300 a year), and also a quasi-domestic 
chaplain to relieve part of the strain of diocesan duty. But 
when Mr Watson submitted the plan to the Bishop it met 
with no encouragement. "Tell me, my dear friend," he 
wrote, "what could be done? Here were, and are, two places 
full. of ungodliness for which no clergyman can be provided. 
I could not endure to witness the continuance of such a 
state of evil in order that my personal conditions should be 
served." And so there was neither a Bishopscourt nor a 
bishop's chaplain during Broughton's episcopate. And when 
he made his serious sacrifice of income to assist in the en- 
dowment of new sees in Australia, he put down his phaeton. 
Chief Justice Sir Alfred Stephen, an earnest and loyal 
churchman, was another Australian friend and ad- 
mirer of the Bishop. In an interview he kindly granted, 
when in his ninetieth year and long after his retirement, he 
talked with quiet enthusiasm of the first Australian, prelate. 
"I remember the Bishop very well," said Sir Alfred, "for 
he was much in our house. Rather under medium height, 
sparely built, but with a fine face. He was a little lame, and 
I well remember the emphatic thump of his lame foot as he 
mounted the stairs in the St James's old pulpit." "And what 
kind of preacher was he?" "More solid than popular. His 
sentences were put together with almost judicial exactness, 


so severely logical were they. And he was very thorough in 
the treatment of his subject." 

After discussing some leading incidents and occasions of 
the Bishop's career his old friend sat musing for a while, 
and then he said in a meditative voice: "I think I loved 
Bishop Broughton better than any man I have ever known." 
Then after another pause he added: "But then there was 
Bishop Patteson. But Broughton was a very lov- 
able man." Sir Alfred had a number of the Bishop's 
speeches, addresses, and sermons that had been printed, and 
many of these he lent to the interviewer. 


IF Broughton had been depressed by the reception he met 
with from the Home authorities when he visited England 
in 1834 to bring before them the inadequate provision made 
for the moral and spiritual needs of New South Wales, it 
is gratifying to record that the welcome he received in all 
parts of the colony upon his return as Bishop of Australia, 
in June 1836, largely 'compensated for his disappointment in 
England. This is evident from the cheerful tone of his 
first letter to his mother after his enthronement at Sydney, 
and from the number of cordial addresses presented to him 
as he made his first tours among the people as their Bishop. 
The one from the principal residents at Sydney, including 
the Chief Justice and the heads of all the government de- 
partments, civil and military, drew from its recipient an elo- 
quent reply in which he foreshadowed the responsibilities 
of a bishop to the whole population of his see. 

But probably the most historically interesting address was 
that from the Methodists, both from its own contents and 
the cordial rejoinder it called forth: 

We the ministers and members of the societies and congregations 
in New South Wales of "the people called Methodists," late in con- 
nection with the Rev. John Wesley, A.M., sometime fellow of Lin- 
coln College, Oxford, deceased, beg to present to your lordship our 
respectful congratulations on your lordship's safe return to the shores 
of Australia and especially to express our grateful appreciation of 
the counsels of His Majesty's Government in having erected these 
important colonies into a separate diocese, and in having placed at 
its head a clergyman so intimately acquainted with the character 


and circumstances of the people, and so zealously concerned for 
their spiritual welfare as the experience of several years has proved 
your lordship to be. Firmly and conscientiously attached as a body 
to the United Church of England and Ireland as by law established 
we cannot but rejoice in every measure which promises to extend 
the usefulness and to increase the prosperity of that venerable 
hierarchy. Taught by the example of our reverend founder, and 
by the oft repeated declaration of our parent connection in annual 
conference assembled, not less than by our own honest conviction, 
that that Church has been the instrument, in the hands of Divine 
Providence, of preserving to the British realm the blessings of Pro- 
testant Christianity and of spreading far and wide the pure doctrines 
of our most holy Faith, we feel bound to tender to your lordship in 
these critical times the assurance that we shall ever pray that your 
lordship may be enabled so to discharge the duties of your sacred and 
most responsible office that your already extensive and rapidly ex- 
tending see may become distinguished for the purity and undefiled- 
ness of its religjon, for the firmness of its loyalty to our Most 
Gracious Sovereign, and for all the virtues and happiness of a 
divinely favoured and highly prosperous British colony. 

To this the Bishop replied : 

My Christian Brethren. j As in entering upon the pastoral charge 
of this extensive diocese my earnest prayer has been that in the 
discharge of duties so arduous God would vouchsafe to afford me 
such support as it is known to Him my weakness and inability re- 
quired, so have i I found an answer to that request in the cordial and 
affectionate spirit manifested towards me by so many of the inhabi- 
tants of New South Wales. Among the numerous testimonies which 
have been conveyed to me expressive of the satisfaction which is 
felt at the assumption by the Church in this colony of the Aposto- 
lical form and government, there is none from which I have derived 
more sincere gratification than from that which you have now 
presented on behalf "of the societies and congregations in connec- 
tion with the Rev. John Wesley." All the associations connected 
with his name and memory are interwoven with the religion of the 
Church of England in whose bosom he was born, into which he 
was received in Baptism, in whose communion he lived and died, and 
whose solemn offices accompanied him to the tomb. It is, there- 
fore, most natural that you should retain and inculcate a veneration 
for the same hallowed institutions, and I rejoice that there is so 
wide an extent of common ground upon which we can meet in 
harmony. My former acquaintance with this colony, to which yojj 
refer, has afforded me at least this advantage, which I gladly em- 
brace, that it enables me to bear testimony to the truly Christian 
deportment by which your ministrations here have been distinguished. 
I desire to meet your address in the same spirit in which it is con- 
ceived, and in a persuasion that the sentiments which it conveys 
will be exemplified in all your proceedings. I pledge myself to you 



that nothing shall be omitted on my part which can tend to promote 
the good understanding and brotherly feeling which the present 
circumstances have afforded us an occasion mutually to evince. 

But while the spirit of the public welcomes tendered to the 
Bishop were quite encouraging, the lack of any provision 
even of a temporary home for himself and his family must 
have been a somewhat disconcerting surprise. In a later 
letter to his mother he says : 

You know pretty accurately I believe what has occurred since we 
have been here how we could not meet with a house, and were 
obliged to abide nearly three months at the "Pulteney Hotel," at 
much inconvenience and expense, and how we at last found our way 
into the house wherein we now are which is in a very unfinished 
state, as well as badly planned, and the ground about it, (ten acres), 
was worse than in a state of nature, as all the trees which might 
have been disposed into some thing sightly, were cleared away and 
nothing left but scrubby bushes, with mounds of mortar and loads 
of litter all around no garden, no gates, no anything that there ought 
to be, no store-room, pantry or closet in the house, and the kit- 
chen chimney sending out smoke enough not only to fill the kitchen 
itself but all the other parts of the dwelling, so that no crevice 
could escape. We immediately began a reformation or revolution 
indoors and out, cured the smoking chimney, levelled the loads 
of rubbish, carried away the litter, made flower borders, walks and 
drives, put up gates and erected a pump and yet it is a bleak, bar- 
barous place, and if all the money in the world were spent upon it 
would never be any better than a cockney's suburban villa, without 
any of its neatness or comfort; in fact it has the appearance of 
a huge stone work-house. I ought, however, to except the sea view 
which is very magnificent, and the air is pure and healthy, of which 
we have a satisfactory proof in the good health we all enjoy. While 
the whole town, and even our neighbours, have been suffering 
severely from a strange kind of influenza, which has effected some 
lightly, some seriously, but almost all in some way or other, we 
have continued quite free from it, and I hope shall now escape it 
altogether. Since my arrival I have not been without sufficient 
occupation. My first Confirmation was at Parramatta church, and 
my own two dear children were the first on whom I laid hands, 
earnestly praying God to grant them every blessing temporal and 
spiritual. Since that I have held other Confirmations. 

A day or two after his enthronement the Bishop sum- 
moned a meeting in the vestry of St James's to appoint a 
diocesan committee of the S.P.G. and S.P.C.K. societies, 
and a good gathering of influential men gladly adopted the 
proposal and also sent a grateful acknowledgment to the two 


Societies of their generosity, and a subscription list was 
opened to supplement their grants. The Bishop announced 
that besides the two contributions of 3000 from the S.P.G. 
and 1000 from the S.P.C.K., reported by him as the results 
of his appeal in England before his consecration, those 
Societies had since ea'ch promised a further grant of 2000. 
This news of additional substantial support from the Home- 
land appears to have at once stimulated the enthusiasm of 
the meeting, for from those present more than 800 a year 
annually was promised, and nearly 200 given in imme- 
diate donations, and an organization was set up for can- 
vassing throughout the diocese. By the time of the first 
annual meeting of the diocesan committee of the S.P.G. 
and S.P.C.K. the subscriptions promised, and largely paid, 
totalled more than 13,000 apart from all English contri- 
butions and many gifts of land. Thirty-two churches had 
been planned, some being in course of building, together, 
in many instances, with parsonages and schools. Well 
might the committee's annual report refer to this remark- 
able development as calling for "devout thankfulness not 
unmingled with astonishment." And the local contributions 
were supplemented, chiefly through the energetic canvass 
of the Rev. E. Coleridge, by individual subscriptions 
amounting to 3000 received from England, their Majesties 
the King and Queen heading the list, which included bishops, 
judges, and other leaders in public life. Broughton's im- 
passioned personal appeal to the Mother Country, in 1834 
and the following year, to do something at once to atone 
for its neglect of the thousands of convicts, and the rapidly 
growing population of free settlers in New South Wales 
and Van Diemen's Land, obviously had deeply stirred the 
Church in England. 

Assistance to spiritual work amongst the people of the 
colony was also given by a local ordinance in July 1836, 
generally known as Bourke's Church Act, 1 which provided 

1 James Mac Arthur, New South Wales, p. 246 (London, 1837). 


for the support of Church of England, Roman Catholic, 
Presbyterians, and Methodists by government grants to sup- 
plement local funds. Bishop Broughton in his rigid ad- 
herence to the principle of a State Church could not approve 
of this act, but he thought it right to take advantage of its 
provisions. This led to further liberality by the S.P.G. 
The Home Government having agreed to pay the outfit, 
passage, and a portion of the stipend of chaplains going 
to the colonies, the Society guaranteed to add, in cases of 
chaplains and 'candidates for ordination approved by the 
Bishop of London, 50 a year for stipend and 150 as a 
gratuity towards cost of settlement for fifteen such clergy 
and candidates for New South Wales and five for Van Die- 
men's Land. 

But the Bishop had at once to face opposition as well 
as to be cheered by support. On the day of his arrival 
in Sydney Harbour on 2 June 1836, the local Legislative 
Council was opened by the Governor, Sir Richard Bourke, 
in a speech which strongly urged the introduction of the 
Irish undenominational system of state education. The ques- 
tion had been under public discussion for some time before 
the Council met, and Marsden, the senior chaplain, boarded 
the Bishop's vessel as soon as it cast anchor, to report to 
him the position of affairs. Together with the majority of 
church people who shared Broughton's views when the 
matter was first mooted a few years earlier, there was a 
large body of Methodists, Presbyterians, and other Noncon- 
formists, whose main reason for opposing the scheme seems 
to have been a fear of the increased influence it would give 
the Roman Catholics if the dominance in the administra- 
tion of education was taken from the Church of England. .In 
three weeks from the Bishop's arrival a large public meet- 
ing, on 29 June, over which the Bishop presided, unanim- 
ously adopted a petition in opposition to the bill suggested by 
the Governor. In associating himself with this meeting, the 
Bishop made it plain that he concurred in the Noncon- 


formist position that only portions of the Bible selected 
by the Education Commissioners should be read in the 
schools^ but he dissented from their agreement that such 
reading should be "without note or comment." 

Together with his letters patent as archdeacon, Brough- 
ton was given by royal warrant a seat in the Council, but 
through the carelessness of the officials of the Home Gov- 
ernment in not forwarding a similar warrant with the patent 
of the Bishop of Australia, Sir Richard Bourke, supported 
by the New South Wales judges, decided that the Bishop 
did not automatically become a member. The Bishop ac- 
cordingly, besides joining with the Nonconformists in the 
general petition, presented a separate one in his own name. 

It was not until more than a year after his arrival that 
the legal technicalities were adjusted and the Bishop took 
his seat in the Council. The petitions were merely "re- 
ceived" by the Council, which at once pro'ceeded to authorize, 
by eight votes against four, 3000 being allocated to the pro- 
posed system, and the amount was passed in the Appro- 
priation Bill a few days afterwards. 2 But no further steps 
were taken by the Council; and in 1838 other educational 
proposals were submitted. These are considered in a later 
chapter. 3 

Records in the Diocesan Registry at Sydney supply de- 
tails of some of Broughton's early activities as bishop. At 
his first Confirmation, at Parramatta, on 23 August 1836, 
there were 116 confirmees, this large number probably being 
accounted for by many of the candidates coming from The 
King's School. Two days later forty-seven were confirmed 
in St Philip's, and on 30 August there were 141 confirmees 
in St James's, Sydney. The first ordination was on Sunday, 
17 December, in St James's, when the Rev. Thomas Sharpe 
was advanced to the priesthood. He was appointed chaplain 

a W. W. Burton, Btat& of Religion and Education in New South 
Wales, p. 100. 
8 See Chapter IX. 


on Norfolk Island, and so supplied a vacancy of many years 
in ministering to the convicts and the small body of soldiers 
and other free inhabitants. Soon after taking charge of the 
diocese the Bishop appointed the Rev. Wm Hutchins, 
a fellow undergraduate with him at Pembroke College, Cam- 
bridge, and like himself, a highly plated wrangler, to be 
Archdeacon of Van Diemen's Land. But Archdeacon Hut- 
chins lived only until 1841, and on his decease, the appoint- 
ment of a bishop for the island was considered. The sug- 
gestion, by Bishop Broughton, of a bishopric was at once 
received with sympathy, and within a year Francis Russell 
Nixon was consecrated Bishop of Tasmania on St Bartholo- 
mew's Day, 1842. 

The letters patent of the Bishop of Australia not only in- 
vested him, and his successors, with the legal powers as to 
property of "a corporate sole," but also authorized the con- 
stitution of a consistorial court, on the basis of the English 
precedent. So on 2 November 1836 Broughton formally 
opened the court in a learned and lengthy address, in which 
he reviewed the origin of such tribunals as mainly designed 
for the maintenance of discipline over the clergy, and ap- 
pointed the Revs S. Marsden, William Cowper, and Robert 
Cartwright as "Commissioners" to preside therein on his be- 
half, as Mr Jas. Norton, solicitor, the registrar of the 
diocese, to be its registrar. In the course of his address the 
Bishop said: 

The present being the first example which has occurred in this 
colony of a proceeding such as this which we are now engaged in, I 
deem it both useful and respectful to offer some observations from 
which the nature and tendency of this procedure may be collected 
with greater certainty than might be possible from merely hearing 
read the letters patent which authorize and require the constitution 
of any ecclesiastical court. Stripped of its technical phraseology, 
the appointment amounts to this that the Bishop of Australia and 
his successors receive from His Majesty full power and authority 
to exercise jurisdiction, spiritual and ecclesiastical, in and through- 
out his appointed see and diocese, according to the ecclesiastical 
laws of England, in the several matters and causes specified in the 
letters patent. 


The Bishop in another part of his address expressed doubt 
as to whether the proper judicial machinery existed in the 
colony for constituting the court a properly organized legal 
tribunal. But he twice put it in action. When two of his 
clergy, seceded to the Roman Church, the Bishop solemnly 
degraded them from exercising Holy Orders in the Church 
of England. He prepared an elaborate set of rules to guide 
the commissioners of his Consistorial Court in 'carrying the 
sentence into operation. And, in the second instance, he re- 
lied upon his letters patent in reference to the Court, as 
evidence of his disciplinary authority, 4 when Sir John Frank- 
lin, Lieutenant-Governor of Van Diemen's Land, assumed 
the right to institute, through the local executive body, a 
charge against two chaplains, without any reference to the 
Bishop. Apparently the Bishop's spiritual claim was recog- 
nized, as the 'charges do not appear to have been proceeded 
with by the civil authorities. 

Additional details of Broughton's early work as a bishop 
are given in a letter to Mr Joshua Watson, treasurer of the 
S.P.C.K., who shared with Edward Coleridge the Bishop's 
warm friendship, and the distinction of being in the van of 
those churchmen in England who were enthusiastic in for- 
warding the growth of the Church in Australia." The 
Bishop wrote: 

You will expect some account of the state in which I found affairs 
on my arrival: but the constant state of engagement in which I 
have been ever since we left the ship will forbid my giving you 
more than a very brief one. You will be gratified to learn that a 
marked and general improvement has taken place in the tone and 
feeling of the people towards the Church of England. Indeed I do 
hope with prudent management to lay a foundation very effectively 
for its general establishment throughout the colony: and though our 
Governor has taken pains to impress the Secretary of State with 
a notion that the people here partake so much of the spirit of the 
age as to abhor the idea of a dominant Church, I hope by God's 
help that ours may be dominant in the truest and best sense of 
the word: that is by the consent and approval of the country. 

* Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction (Australian Colonies) Correspondence 
laid before the House of Commons on motion of Mr Gladstone, 
1850, pt ii, p. 7. 


The causes of this happy change are various : but two I will name. 
The first is the reaction of Protestant feeling which has occurred 
in consequence of the Governor driving on so urgently, and without 
disguise, his plans for strengthening the Romish Church and de- 
pressing ours: the second is the aid afforded by the societies (S.P.G. 
and S.P.C.K.) towards the religious improvement of the country, 
which the people value not so much on account of the money as from 
the evidence which such an act affords them of the regard which 
is entertained for them by their fellow churchmen in England. They 
are proud of this, and have come forward I am quite certain to the 
full extent of their means, to match your liberality. I feel that 
in having such a spirit to direct, and so to apply it as to insure 
the greatest possible share of benefit to the present and future 
generations, I have a weight of responsibility resting upon me enough 
to make me tremble. See what this country has arisen to in less 
than 50 years, and then calculate what it will arrive at in one or 
two centuries. You will I am certain feel for me, placed here as 
it were single-handed to work this mighty engine. May God give 
me His Grace to devote myself to the work; neither with foolish 
self-confidence nor with nerveless timidity. Many of those who 
are now ranging themselves on my side are influenced I greatly 
suspect by political, personal, or other secondary motives: but I 
recollect a hint I once heard from you that it is pur wisdom to avail 
ourselves of assistance so proffered, without too minutely scrutiniz- 
ing motives. And this I see is true; and lawful if effected without 
dissimulation or compromise of our own principles, because it makes 
even bad men minister to' the general good of society and may 
probably conduce even to their own benefit directly or indirectly. 

I must, however, have assistants or the work will be beyond not only 
my power but beyond the power of any human being, assisted by 
such a portion of grace from Above as we can rationally expect 
or hope for. If we would act in God's strength we must resort 
to those means of strength by which God has appointed us to work ; 
and among these I am sure one of the first, if not the very first, 
in importance is an effective ministry. The people are crying out 
on all sides for clergymen; and the Government have agreed to 
appoint them, though upon miserably insufficient stipends. In my 
letter to the S.P.G. I have explained the sentiments which I have 
adopted with regard to the most certain and advantageous mode of 
supplying ourselves with suitable labourers. Pray have the goodness, 
for the sake of the holy cause which depends upon it, to take my 
proposal into consideration; and if your judgment can view it as 
holding forth a favourable promise will you by means of your friends 
at Cambridge and Oxford make known, as extensively as may be, 
the opening which is afforded here. There would be I have no doubt 
many who would be disposed to strike into this path. Some degree 
of enthusiasm must probably enter into a man's composition to induce 
him to brave such an apparent risk, but never mind. If the enthu- 
siasm be no more than an ardent zeal to promote the glory of God 
and the good of His Church and people, conformably with those 


laws under which God has been pleased to appoint that our ministry 
shall be exercised, so much the better that it exists. A cold, fas- 
tidious, unaccommodating man will do no good here; but a generous 
devoted spirit united with competent learning, and chastened by good 
common sense will not fail to make his way. 

About a month after his letter ,to Mr Watson, the Bishop 
wrote at great length to Edward Coleridge, and the letter 
deserves placing on record as the foundation of a life- 
long friendship that deepened as the years went by into a 
strong affection. The more practical parts of it only can be 
given, but one of its fruits was that the Eton master be- 
came the English commissary of the first Australian bishop. 

Sydney, New South Wales, 

26th July 1836. 

In testimony of my having neither undervalued nor forgotten the 
truly Christian interest which at the time of our separation you 
expressed in the welfare of our religious establishments in this 
country, I avail myself of the earliest opportunity to commence a 
correspondence with you upon the subject. You will, I am certain, 
readily understand that nothing could have prevailed on me to resume 
my station here but the conviction of there being a great duty im- 
posed upon me to discharge, from which I could not shrink with- 
out proving myself treacherous and unworthy. It is even sothat 
I find all my anticipations for the extent of the dangers which I 
should have to encounter more than realized ; while I am at the same 
time confirmed in the soundness of the view which I took as to the 
duty of undertaking this office by the unanimity of the reception 
which was attended me from all Protestants, and their general 
persuasion that a stranger to the colony arriving in the same 
capacity with myself must have been incapable of acting so early 
and so effectively as to meet the present emergency. I mean be- 
cause a stranger could not at once have known the people; and the 
people could not at once have put confidence in a stranger. 

Here therefore I am; set in the front of the battle against the 
force of the Roman Catholics ; and having almost singly to sustain 
against them the cause of the Church of England. The Protestant- 
ism of the place is deeply tinged with sectarianism or indifference; 
and by far too many of those professedly within our own pale are 
deplorably ignorant of the grounds upon which their Church is 
founded. I do, therefore, consider that in looking for support in 
this severe difficulty to my far distant brethren at Home, I am not 
asking for what is unreasonable in itself; or likely to prove, if 
granted, unserviceable to that cause which they must wish to see 
flourish all over the world, and I consider the anxiety which you 


expressed upon the subject not only as a gratifying proof of your 
confidence in myself but as affording even a providential opening 
for our obtaining much assistance which at this crisis would be all 

My anxious desire, then, a desire which I assure you occupies 
my days and nights in thinking how it may best be accomplished, 
is to obtain assistance in prosecuting three specific purposes, I may 
say four, as that relating to schools may be divided into two. The 
first of these is the erection of two additional churches in the town 
of Sydney for the parishes of St Andrew and St Lawrence; which 
though containing about 7000 Protestants have no place of worship 
whatever connected with our Church. We shall be able among 
ourselves to raise an important sum, but not sufficient to do all 
that is desirable, since these churches ought to have some such 
degree of architectural pretension as may make them capable, in some 
sort, of bearing a comparison with the structure which the Roman 
Catholics are now completing. 6 They ought, also, to be large for 
a better reason than this in order that we may be able to offer 
the greater number of free sittings. 

Secondly, I am desirous of obtaining from the Home Government, 
an order to secure us in possession of the King's School at Parra- 
matta, which was built under an order from Earl Ripon (then 
Viscount Goderich), expressly as an adjunct of the Church of Eng- 
land^ but which _ our present Governor is anxiously bent upon de- 
taching and handing over to I cannot tell whom. My wish, therefore, 
would be to have such an. effort made, on the part of any persons 
of influence who may wish us well, as may obtain the positive 
settlement of the land and buildings upon perpetual trustees for the 
purposes of its original appropriation. The Government will give 
no further positive aid towards the establishment. Well: I say, be 
it so: but do not let them withdraw what they have given. Only 
let us be permitted henceforth to take upon ourselves the burden of 
maintaining or increasing it. The School now contains above 100 
boys, of the best families in the country, and you will therefore at 
once perceive what a serious blow it must give to the principles of 
the Church of England if they should be withdrawn from her 
training. (To afford them due accommodation the buildings require 
enlarging and improving, at an expense of from 800 to 1000; and 
in order to impress upon the entire establishment a religious charac- 
ter, and to attach it more closely to the Church, I should be very 
desirous if I had the funds, of annexing to it a small chapel which 
would cost some hundreds of pounds more. 

In the third place, I am under the necessity of straining every nerve 
for the maintenance of our parochial schools upon the English 
national system. They have existed under the superintendence of 
the clergy from the very foundation of the colony; but more exten- 
sively since 1824; and, under the pressure of every kind of difficulty 

"This has developed into St Mary's Cathedral, an imposing edifice 
which, with its Chapter House and other buildings, is now the finest 
religious structure in Sydney, and occupies one of its noblest sites. 


in obtaining and keeping effective masters and mistresses, have been 
the instruments of effecting very extensive good. As an example 
I will mention that from one master I have a list of the names 
of 120 of his scholars who are now settled in respectable stations 
in life, and have most of them families growing up in habits of 
piety and good order: and so, proportionately, in many other in- 
stances. You may judge of what importance these things are in 
a country like this. . . . My fourth and last object is to obtain 
the services of more clergymen. The urgency of this measure will 
appear to you when I state that in this town of Sydney with at 
least 14,000 Protestants, I have but one clergyman on our own 
establishment: pro tern one of the missionaries from New Zealand. 
Against such a pressure of duty it is impossible for us, few and 
feeble as we are, to contend with effect, and our cause must accord- 
ingly decline, if not perish, unless we can be reinforced. Do you 
know, or can you find, any men of good education, good sense, and 
orthodox sentiments, with zeal of mind and strength of body to go 
through a good deal of duty, who would come out to us? 


IN his early programme of work the Bishop planned to 
visit first the parent 'colony of New South Wales and after- 
wards to launch out on voyages to the settlement at Port 
Phillip, the colony of Van Diemen's Land, and Norfolk 
Island. And to these was added New Zealand, though that 
colony had not yet been declared a British possession, and 
so technically was not part of his diocese. 

Within two years of his return from England as a bishop 
he was able to start on his visitation of Port Phillip and 
Van Diemen's Land, first spending a few months, after 
touring New South Wales, at headquarters in dealing with 
some questions of general policy. Prominent amongst these 
was his political relationship to the local Government. As 
the Governor and the judges of New South Wales had 
decided as mentioned in the preceding chapter that a new 
royal warrant would be necessary to entitle Broughton to 
continue this membership he held, under the warrant granted 
him as archdeacon, in the Legislative Council of the colony, 
he did not take his seat in that body after he became Bishop 
until the new warrant reached Australia, but on 4 July 1837 
he was duly sworn in. Before leaving England after his 
consecration the Bishop had, in a letter dealing with several 
matters, suggested to the Secretary of State whether, in view 
of a proposed amendment to the constitution of New South 
Wales, introducing the popular elective element for some 
members of the new Legislative Council, it would not be 


wise for him to retire from his membership as a nominee 
member, but he added: "The expiration of the Act under 
which the present constitution was framed is so near at 
hand that it appears scarcely necessary to propose any altera- 
tion while it continues to subsist." Lord Glenelg concurred 
in this suggestion, expressing himself to the Bishop' as 
"strongly of opinion that the influence attached to your 
station and character in the colony will be more beneficially 
exerted for the prosecution of the great object which you 
have in view by your not being a party to the deliberations 
and discussions on matters of general policy which must 
occupy the attention of the local legislature." Upon hearing 
of this concordat, Sir Richard Bourke wrote to the Colonial 
Secretary, under date n June 1836: 

It is probable that before your lordship can receive this communica- 
tion the arrangements for the formation of a new legislative body 
will have been completed. Should not this be the case, I would 
respectfully submit for consideration how very trifling will be the 
advantage gained by placing a dignitary of the Church of England 
in the Council as compared with the ill feeling which is created by 
the omission of the clergy of all other forms of Christian worship. 
Amongst this people of mixed creeds the vesting a minister of one 
only with any power in the State has of late years been regarded 
with great jealousy by all the rest, and as there is very little to 
be gained by it I should think the present a most favourable con- 
junction for getting rid of the cause of strong and increasing com- 

But there was delay in framing the amended constitution 
for the_colony, so the Bishop continued to sit in the Legis- 
lative Council until he decided to resign, and upon his ulti- 
mate retirement from that body and from the Executive 
Council also, received very complimentary messages from 
the Colonial Secretary of State and from his fellow mem- 
bers, a'cknowledging his great services in assisting to carry 
on the government of the colony. 

It was in the early part of April 1838 that the Bishop left 
Sydney in H.M.S. Conway for his first visit to the Port 
Phillip settlement. In his report to the S.P.G. he says: 


I arrived in Melbourne in time to officiate on Easter Sunday (April 
15) and was gratified to find the good feeling of the inhabitants 
had induced them to provide a small wooden building, which, how- 
ever humble in character, served the purpose of a place of assembly 
for public worship. My satisfaction was still further increased by 
learning that the service of the Church of England was celebrated 
twice every Sunday; the prayers of the Liturgy and a sermon 
being read by Mr James Smith, 1 a most respectable settler there, 
whose name I have sincere pleasure in recording with all the honour 
which my testimony can carry with it, in connection with this 
example of zeal, piety, and faithfulness, displayed in the service of 
God and His Church. The inhabitants have given further proof 
of their goodwill by instituting a district committee of the central 
committee of the diocese, the president being Captain Lonsdale, 
police magistrate, whose example and encouragement are cheerfully 
afforded in the promotion of all religious and useful undertakings. 
On Easter Sunday I officiated in the small wooden church, the con- 
gregation being numerous and attentive, and at the ministration of 
the Holy Sacrament the communicants partook of the sacred ele- 
ments for the first time in that remote region. A meeting was 
held and means devised for erecting a larger and more substantial 
church, as well as a clergyman's residence. A school is maintained 
here, chiefly at the expense of the diocesan committee. The number 
of scholars is not considerable, but limited though the school be 
it is valuable as a* commencement. 

During the week the Bishop consecrated the Church of 
England portion of the Melbourne cemetery, and also visited 
the aboriginal mission station conducted by Mr Langhorne, 
of which the Bishop reported that "the natives, chiefly young 
people, appeared to have made some progress in reading, 
and understood something of the elements of religion. With 
the grown-ups little seemed to have been done, and they ap- 
parently hung about the mission for the food they could get 
there. Nor did they show any disposition to give up any 
of their aboriginal habits." 

At a second visitation of Victoria in 1843 the Bishop first 
went to Geelong, landing there on 26 September. He re- 
ported to church people that he 'could not supply them with 
a resident minister because of "the utter state of destitu- 
tion" in which he was placed as to his further supply of 
clergymen. He at once began conducting the daily services 

1 More than once one of the early mayors of Melbourne. 


of the Church in the court-house, holding meetings, and col- 
lecting information for his future guidance. 2 Two years 
later, when the population of Geelong was only 450, a move- 
ment was started for building a church upon a site given 
by the Government, and when the Bishop made his second 
visit to the town he, being an excellent amateur architect, 
drew a sketch plan for a church 1 next to the brick school- 
house which had already been erected. Without waiting 
for the detailed plans from Mr Bla'cket, a Sydney architect, 
the Bishop laid a foundation-stone. The same afternoon he 
confirmed sixteen candidates, and consecrated a burial 
ground. His own report of this visit to Geelong records: 

From the 27th of September (the day after landing) until my depar- 
ture from Geelong, I continued to have daily prayers every morn- 
ing, and the prayers with a sermon every evening. The attendance 
was very good, far beyond my expectations ; and it was continued 
throughout by the parishioners with unabated seriousness and regu- 
larity. At the same time I made arrangements for the young and 
others who had not been confirmed to attend me every day for the 
purpose of examination, and thus engaged, I passed a fortnight 
quietly and happily in the oversight of the flock of God committed 
to my charge. On Saturday 7th October, I held the Confirmation 
of sixteen candidates in the new school-house. 

At the following Sunday morning service he admitted the 
confirmees to Holy Communion. 

Proceeding by steamer to Melbourne on the Monday he 
was received by the incumbent of St James's parish, the 
Rev. A. C. Thompson, a retired Indian chaplain, and some 
representative laymen. The erection of St James's Church 
had advanced sufficiently to enable services to be held in it, 
and the Bishop administered Confirmation to eighty can- 
didates. A meeting took place to further the liquidation 
of the church-building debt, Mr Latrobe, superintendent of 
the Port Phillip settlement, Judge Jeffcott, and other pro- 
minent residents taking part in it. Another large gathering 
was held to promote the building of a church on Eastern 

"Rev. George Goodman, The Church in Victoria, p. 26 (Melbourne, 


Hill, Melbourne, when the Bishop presided, from which 
has developed the prominent church and parish of St Peter's, 
though no further steps were taken for two years. Mr 
Latrobe then laid the foundation-stone, and thereafter the 
movement was energetically supported. The Bishop was 
impressed by the rapid development of Melbourne between 
1838, the time of his first visitation, and what he found five 
years later. "Melbourne then contained," he writes in his 
report, "but three houses deserving the name, and its popu- 
lation consisted of a few hundred souls. It is now a large 
metropolis with suburbs 'covering a large extent of ground, 
and with a population approaching to 8000." He adds that 
on the day following this second arrival in Melbourne he 
"made arrangements with Mr Thompson (the chaplain), 
for prayers in St James's Church every Wednesday and 
Friday morning, and for prayers and a sermon on the evening 
of the same days in every week during my stay." After 
about a fortnight, in which he took part in the final pre- 
paration of the candidates, eighty-seven were confirmed. 
During the two months of the Bishop's stay in Melbourne 
he made himself acquainted not only with the pressing 
spiritual necessities of the city, but also with the outlying 
districts. The thought of leaving Geelong and Gippsland 
(which formed part of a tour through the western areas) 
as he expressed it, "destitute of all ministerial aid, and con- 
solation for the sick and dying, all superintendence of the 
schools, and still more of every lawful means of partaking 
of the holy sacraments made a profound impression upon 


At the close of the Bishop's first visit to the Port Phillip 
settlement he went, towards the end of April 1838, across 
to Van Diemen's Land, where he had twice been while an 
archdeacon, and spent about a month in the island. In a 
letter to his wife from Hobart Town, he wrote: 

I must not omit to let you know what I am doing and have to 
do here, and you will find that I am not spending my time in 


idleness. Today at n I am to attend the examination of the Hut- 
chins Grammar School, after that a meeting to establish a com- 
mittee of the S.P.G. and S.P.C.K. societies. Tomorrow being the 
Queen's birthday I attend the Governor's levee at 2, but not the 
ball and evening festivities. Friday is a day of rest. Saturday I 
am to consecrate a new church lately built here called St George's. 
Sunday I have an ordination 3 at St David's, Monday a confirma- 
tion there. Tuesday consecrate the church at New Town and con' 
firm there, and on Thursday attend the public examination of the 
orphan school which appears to conclude my public duties. On my 
late tour I left this place early in the month and went to New 
Norfolk where I had a confirmation of nearly sixty candidates. I 
went twelve miles further on to sleep, and on the following days 
to Hamilton, Bothwell, Campbell Town, and Launceston, by nearly 
the same road that we went when we were here in 1833. We heard 
everywhere much about bushrangers but did not fall in with them, 
though they must have been often very near us. They were cap- 
tured while we were at Richmond, and are now in prison here. 

The Bishop got back to Sydney in June and remained 
there until December, when he went, in H.M.S. Peloru-s, to 
New Zealand to visit the Church Missionary Society's mis- 
sions there. The question was raised as to whether he should 
have taken this trip, as the islands had not then been taken 
over by the British Crown, and the C.M.S. authorities 
at first did not seem to have encouraged him to do so. Two 
years later the Bishop discussed the subje'ct in a letter to his 
firm friend and helper, Mr Joshua Watson, honorary treas- 
urer of the S!P.C.K.: 

You ask me why I visited New Zealand, not being within my dio- 
cese? The ostensible reason was that Sir R. Inglis on behalf of 
the C.M.S. asked me to do so. But the reason of my complying 
with the request lay deeper. I was determined to prove to the 
Romanists by practical evidence that they are guilty of injustice 
in affirming as they constantly do, and draw no small advantage 
from the assertion, that we neither have, nor can exercise any epis- 
copal powers except such as are derived from our letters patent 
under the Great .Seal. I grant that I would never, within the 
Queen's Dominions, exercise episcopal functions except within those 
limits which the Queen appoints, for this, I contend, is the object 
and effect of letters patent not to confer spiritual powers but to 
define the range within which each prelate shall exercise them. 
Beyond the limits of the British sovereignty I contend that every 
bishop has an inherent right, in virtue of the powers conferred on 

'Mr T. J. Ewing made a deacon the first ordained in Tasmania. 


him at his consecration, to officiate episcopally, wherever the good 
of the Church may be promoted by his doing so, and there has been 
no episcopate previously established upon which he would be an 
intruder. 'Here, then, was a case in point. In New Zealand was a 
branch of the Church of Christ, not within the British Dominions, 
not within the bounds of any other episcopate, the members of which 
needed and invoked my offices. In doing so, I thought I removed 
(and so I know the Romanists consider that I did) all plea of 
their saying that I possessed no powers except under the authority 
of a temporal patent. I am for ever henceforth in a situation to 
give a contradiction to this false pretention; because I have exer- 
cised all the powers of a bishop ordaining, confirming, consecrating, 
and issuing marriage licences in a country to which my letters 
patent neither extended nor pretended to extend. Now, indeed, 
New Zealand forms a portion of the British Empire, and therefore, 
as I have reported to the Archbishop, a portion also of my diocese 
and of His Grace's province. But then it did not, and I assume 
to have done all that I did do virtute officii alone, in and by that 
spiritual right which I derived from those three bishops who by 
the laying on of hands admitted me to their own order/ 

On Christmas Day 1838, the Bishop preached, and remind- 
ed his hearers of the scene on the beach at Rangihona, when 
the first sermon in New Zealand had been delivered twenty- 
four years before by "his venerable friend," Samuel Mars- 
den. He also administered Confirmation to about twenty 
children of the missionaries, and nearly double that number 
of Maoris. A memorable event on Epiphany Day 1839 was 
the ordination to the priesthood of the Rev. Octavius Had- 
field, who had been admitted by the Bishop to the diaconate 
at Sydney and had accompanied him to New Zealand. Mr 
Hadfield had been an undergraduate at Oxford, but on 
medical advice, sought a warmer climate before he had taken 
his degree. He became a devoted missionary in New Zea- 
land, and ultimately the first Bishop of Wellington, and an 
honoured friend of Bishop G. A. Selwyn. His influence 
with the Maoris in the early days of his ministry is said 
to have been remarkable. In his report to the C.M.S. 
authorities in London of his work in New Zealand, Bishop 
Broughton says : "At every station I visited the Maori ton- 
verts were numerous, but the missionaries refer to instances 

'Dean Jacobs, Dioceses of New Zealand^ p. 70 (London, 1889). 


throughout the country where the number of natives is less 
by one third, or even one half, than they were on the first 
establishment of Europeans being formed." He got the 
Pelorus to leave, at his cost, medicine and food that could 
be spared from the ship, and on his return to Sydney, 
preached about New Zealand in St James's Church, and re- 
ceived a collection which recouped his outlay and enabled 
him to send further medicines and comforts. He pleaded 
for more 'clergy, who "should be subject to regular ecclesias- 
tical authority," for the country. The C.M.S. missionaries 
presented an address to the Bishop, to which he made a 
cordial reply. He also urged upon the church authorities in 
England that a bishopric should be founded without delay. 
From New Zealand the Bishop voyaged in January 1839 
to Norfolk Island in H.M.S. Pelorus, and upon his return 
to Sydney, in his annual report to the diocesan branch of 
the S.P.G. and S.P.C.K., he detailed his impressions of the 
visit as follows : 

Since the establishment of the diocesan commitee it has been my 
custom annually to address to you, previously to the general 
meeting, a statement or recapitulation of my principal proceedings 
in visiting different parts of the diocese, and in there carrying the 
purposes of the committee into effect. Since our last year's 
meeting, the time which it has been in my power to allot to distant 
engagements of that nature has been devoted principally to the 
inspection of the New Zealand Mission, and the visitation of 
Norfolk Island : both situations being, though on very different 
grounds, the objects of strong interest. The operations of our 
committee not extending to the former territory, any description 
of my proceedings in New Zealand would be out of place in an 
address to you; and I have accordingly forwarded the report of 
them to the secretary of the Church Missionary Society, which 
maintains the mission for the conversion of the natives of those 
Islands. With regard to Norfolk Island, this committee has always 
evinced a disposition to contribute as fully as its resources might 
admit of to the prisoners' comfort and improvement. Much has been 
done in aid of both, by the measure of supplying them with Bibles 
and other religious books, which by our connexion with the Society 
for Promoting Christian Knowledge we are enabled to do at a very 
moderate cost, as the Government may from time to time be dis- 
posed to require them. Some small allowance we may also advan- 
tageously make towards the more decent celebration of public wor- 


ship, and the encouragement of schools under the superintendence 
of the chaplain; whether for adult prisoners, or for the few child- 
ren of free parents (principally military); who may be for a time 
sojourners on the Island. Beyond this, I am not aware that the 
committee has the power of serving these outcasts from society, 
except by continually remembering them in their prayers that God 
will show "pity upon all prisoners and captives." I cannot quit' 
the subject without observing, that the spectacle which Norfolk 
Island presents if it cduld be generally beheld would furnish 
the most solemn warning against vice and the strongest dissuasive 
from sin which the world contains. The natural beauties of the 
Island can hardly be surpassed; whence the spectacle of from 
1200 to 1400 men convicted of the deepest crimes, and by the 
necessary severity of the law sequestered there from all human con- 
verse but that of their fellow criminals, is but rendered more pain- 
ful by the force of contrast. Condemned they are to a heavy 
penalty: to a state of existence, which, although if their conduct 
be but moderately good it entails no very severe personal suffering, 
is yet in itself lonely, so strictly guarded, so subjected to per- 
petual inspection, and, except upon the condition, most difficult to 
them, of a reformation of character, so utterly hopeless, that 
humanity shudders to think of a life so passed by men whose own 
reflections on their past conduct can afford little or no alleviation 
of present suffering. The committee, however, I am persuaded, will 
take so much interest in the fate of these prisoners, as to hear 
with pleasure that they exhibit one encouraging symptom and re- 
deeming characteristic in a very general disposition to pay attention 
to the ordinances of religion, and profess to be sensible of its com- 

The Scriptures are the ordinary study of very many; and the pos- 
session of a Common Prayer Book, or other improving work, is 
earnestly sought. During my stay, this disposition was very exten- 
sively manifested; although I endeavoured to cut off all motive 
for the insincere assumption of a religious demeanour by causing 
it to be generally understood that I had no power to interfere with 
their temporal condition, the improvement of which must depend 
altogether upon their own improvement in conduct. Since my 
return, I have had a small manual of devotions drawn up for their 
use, printed, and forwarded to the Island ; and I propose, as favour- 
able occasions may arise, to avail myself of the resolution of the 
committee, passed on the 4th December last, which places at my 
disposal such books as I might please to select for the use of that 
penal station. These will be entrusted to the charge of the Rev. 
Thomas Sharpe, 6 the humble-minded, persevering, and exemplary 
chaplain, under whom are placed the members of the Church of 
England, and those belonging to different Protestant persuasions, 
comprising rather more than one half of the entire convict popula- 
tion. It is my earnest prayer that they may not fail to profit by 
the means of improvement thus afforded them. Some hearts I trust 

'First ordained in Australia. 


may be really reached; and be unfeignedly and seriously penitent; 
nor am I under so much apprehension of their falling away while 
they continue resident in that Island, as in the event of their 
restoration to the world, whose snares and temptations they have 
in past times shown themselves so little capable of resisting. But 
God's goodness is not limited, and will manifest itself, I trust, in 
the effectual recovery even of some of these. 

The Sydney Diocesan Register Book also records that 
forty-two candidates were confirmed on the Island, in a 
government room used for purposes of public worship, on 
20 January 1839. 

The S.P.G., in an annual report reviewing letters re- 
ceived from the Bishop after his long voyages and jour- 
neyings, says: "These additional facts, if possible, increase 
the confidence which the Society has long felt in the pre- 
late who presides over the Church in Australia, and who 
devotes himself with unwearied zeal and signal ability to 
the propagation of the Gospel in a land where before his 
appointment the voice of the Christian teacher was so seldom 



SOME account has already been given 1 of the determined 
stand taken by the Bishop against the proposal of Governor 
Sir Richard Bourke, at the opening session of the Legis- 
lative Council in 1836, to introduce a public education policy 
following the plan generally known as the Irish system, in 
which the religious element consisted of "unsectarian ex- 
tracts" from the Holy Scriptures to be read by the school 
teachers "without note or comment," though special classes 
could be formed by ministers of religion for pupils of their 
several denominations. But the widespread opposition called 
forth by the scheme resulted in its being abandoned. 

On the return of the Bishop towards the close of January 
1839 from his visitation voyages, he found that Sir George 
Gipps, a fellow pupil of the Bishop at the King's School, 
Canterbury, who had succeeded Governor Bourke, was sup- 
porting educational reform, but from a different angle. The 
new scheme was introduced into the Legislative Council by 
four preliminary resolutions: "(i) That in the opinion of 
this Council all classes of the community are entitled to 
equal assistance from the public revenue in the establish- 
ment of schools or places of public education, (ii) That 
owing to the extreme dispersion of the population of this 
colony, a system of education to be effectual should be as 
comprehensive as possible, (iii) That in the opinion of this 
Council a system of education may be established that shall 


at least comprehend all classes of Protestants, (iv) That 
if the public schools of the colony be established upon prin- 
ciples essentially Protestant, some corresponding advantages 
ought to be secured for the schools of Roman Catholics." 
It was, therefore, proposed to grant 3000 per annum to- 
wards schools which should be available for "all classes of 
Protestants," and 1000 for Roman Catholic schools. Peti- 
tions with signatures totalling nearly 3000 were signed in 
opposition to the scheme by church people from all parts of 
the colony. 

At the annual meeting of the diocesan committee of the 
S.P.G. and S.P.C.K. in Sydney the Bishop had once again 
laid down the principles which he urged must guide the 
Church in her attitude towards educational questions. In 
this address he said: 

With regard to schools, I would only state that the progress of 
events, and the present state of affairs, clearly show that there 
can be no renovation of the human race, or the restoration of that 
state of society which ought to exist considering the length 
of time the Gospel of Christ has been preached upon the earth, 
except through the means of a Christian education. This matter 
has been much forced upon my attention, and I am fully persuaded 
that no system of education can be sound that is not based on the 
principles of revealed religion. There are theories afloat on the 
subject which appear to be liberal, and are encouraged by many, 
but the system we uphold is an ancient one, and under it have 
grown up many who are good subjects to God and their native 
land. We have an additional impulse which our ancestors had 
not. If they did not teach the people proper doctrines they 
remained ignorant and the evil was only negative, but now, if we 
do not instruct them in what is right, others will, and are ready 
enough to, instruct them in what is bad, and so the evil is positive. 

As he had now been legally reinstated as a member of the 
Council two years before, he was able in person to oppose the 
resolutions, and he did so in a speech which took more than 
two hours to deliver, and must ever hold a historic place 
in the records of Christian oratory by reason of its inherent 
power and its remarkable immediate effect. When the 
Bishop sat down no member of the Council rose to carry 
on the debate, and the resolutions were immediately with- 


drawn. Whatever may be thought of the views he cham- 
pioned, the Bishop evidently achieved a dramatic triumph, 
especially when it is remembered that he was challenging 
the proposals of the Governor of the colony, and his per- 
sonal friend. That he was conscious of this painful posi- 
tion is plain from Broughton's saying in an early stage of 
the speech: "I neither dread censure nor covet applause 
for what I may do in the discharge of duty : and in respect 
of my conduct in the present question I am quite satisfied 
to abide the award of impartial posterity, whatever it may 
be." Because of its extreme length the speech precludes 
reproduction here in full, but may be consulted in the par- 
liamentary reports of 1839. Its main contentions were: 
(i) That the church parochial schools, instead of being quite 
inefficient (as they had been represented) were really meet- 
ing the necessities of the situation with considerable satis- 
faction, having regard to the difficulties arising from the 
impossibility of providing a sufficient and qualified body of 
teachers at the slender salaries available, and the necessarily 
irregular attendance of pupils living in widely scattered 
areas. And the Bishop challenged an actual examination 
of his schools in comparison with any others in the colony, 
(ii) That the proposal to provide one type of "compre- 
hensive" schools for all Protestants was an invasion of the 
right of Church of England scholars to be instructed in the 
Christian faith as interpreted by the Church Catechism, 
and that the idea of being able to combine these scholars 
in a common school with children of the various sects of 
English Nonconformity was wholly fallacious in principle 
and impossible in practice. "There is but one step," said 
the Bishop, "from the persuasion that all forms of religion 
are alike to the still more fatal persuasion that all reli- 
gions are unimportant." (iii) That the provision of a sepa- 
rate grant for Roman Catholic schools was, from the govern- 
ing principle of the proposed education system, a logical in- 


The eloquence and earnestness of the Bishop's address 
may be gathered from its peroration : 

To your Excellency then I venture to address myself, in hope that 
the freedom with which I have spoken my sentiments has not 
betrayed me into any breach of moderation, or of that respect which 
I entertain for your Excellency's high station, the rights of which 
I would not invade for any earthly consideration. I appeal to your 
Excellency for that protection, which you alone perhaps of all men 
have power to afford us, against the calamity which threatens us. 
It is the Church of England, rather, which in her extremity appeals 
to you, as a mother to her offspring, beseeching you, that no sup- 
posed political necessity, no yielding or concession to those who 
seek her hurt, should cause your Excellency to withdraw from her 
the support of your powerful arm, at the very moment when she 
most requires it should be raised in her defence. Can your Ex- 
cellency be insensible to the dangers which are rising around us on 
every side? Your Excellency will perhaps impute to me that in 
painting those dangers, I have argued upon extreme cases it may 
be so; but my reasoning as to the future prospects of the Church, 
if the proposed plan be carried into effect, is not on that account 
to be slighted. In all religious declinations from that which is 
good there is that tendency to advance, by necessary though perhaps 
by slow degrees, to the extreme of evil, which renders it highly 
important to resist the beginnings of it. Therefore I have argued 
most justly in endeavouring to dissuade this Council from once 
admitting a false principle, by shewing them what it is in its con- 
sequences, when these shall have reached their natural and full 
proportions. I can imagine nothing more evident than that this 
system of education which is now proposed, will have the effect 
of totally changing the religious aspect of this community. We 
shall not have, as your Excellency describes our present condition, 
here a churchman, there a dissenter, here a Presbyterian, there 
a Roman Catholic; but we shall have first an increased diversity, 
and finally, growing out of this, we shall have the Unitarian and 
Romanist persuasions almost equally dividing the land. Your Ex- 
cellency I am aware may regard the views which I have taken as 
the mere prejudices of education and habit, by which I am still 
trammelled, though your more vigorous mind may have broken 
through and cast them off. I beseech you, Sir, do not yield to that 
way of thinking, if you desire your own happiness or the happiness 
of us all. Sir, I will venture my own soul upon the assertion that 
these _are not prejudices ; but truths as divine and eternal as God 
who is the Father of them; and who has set up the Church of 
England, I confidently feel, to be a faithful witness to them through- 
out the world. The schools which, if your Excellency's plan be 
carried, must be abolished, are to her as her right hand, by means 
of which she is to execute the work which is given her to do ; or 
rather they are the artery through which the life-blood is conveyed 
from the heart to the extremities of the body. Sever this, and she 


dies ! It is the heaviest and severest stroke which in this colony 
has ever been aimed at the welfare of the Church; and if it must 
fall, I wish that some other hand at least than your Excellency's 
should inflict the blow. Does your Excellency desire support in 
the position which I urge you to take? You have it then in the 
petitions which I and other members have brought to this table, 
bearing no fewer than 3000 signatures. Can your Excellency then 
doubt what the real feelings of the people are? The people, properly 
so called, are, I hesitate not to say, in favour of the Church of 
England; and there cannot be a measure which shall, in the just 
sense, be so popular as that which shall ensure to them and to 
their children the continuance of her edifying services. I have now 
concluded. Whatever the result of this debate may be, I have 
acquitted my own conscience. Yet I do not affect to deny that I 
await the determination of the Council with intense anxiety ; knowing 
that if it be in favour of these resolutions, my responsibilities must 
be increased in a fearful proportion, and, what weighs with me 
still more, the Church of England, in so far as this colony is con- 
cerned, must be placed in a condition of difficulty and peril such as 
she has not for some centuries of her history been called upon 
to encounter. 

That the Governor and the Bishop, who did not allow their 
political differences to mar their private friendship, found 
their final earthly resting-place within the walls of Canter- 
bury Cathedral, whither they must often have gone together 
in their schoolboy days, is a veritable romance of Christ- 

No further definite a'ction in the direction of educational 
reform in the colony took place for some years after the de- 
feat of Governor Gipps's scheme, but it is evident from the 
Bishop's address to his S.P.G. and S.P.C.K. committee a 
few months after his notable speech in the Legislative Coun- 
cil that he felt the persistent policy of the local Government 
must finally prevail. He therefore outlined a plan for divid- 
ing New South Wales for the purposes of diocesan educa- 
tion into four districts, each with a committee of its own, 
but all being under ultimate control at the headquarters of 
the diocese. And the Bishop continued the open advocacy 
of his educational views in most of his public utterances on 
church questions, more especially in his pastoral charges. 

But unfortunately his full deliverance on a very special 


occasion cannot be found. In the Register Book of Sydney 
dio'cese there is an entry that a "citation" to the clergy was 
issued by the senior 'chaplain, the Rev. W. Cowper, by direc- 
tion of the Bishop, to his first episcopal triennial visitation 
on 5 June 1839. The Bishop, as soon as possible after his 
consecration, had evidently followed the English episcopal 
custom of making an extensive personal inspection of the 
parishes before assembling the clergy for the primary charge, 
which therefore was not delivered until the third year from 
1836. The Sydney Register has also a record of the visi- 
tation having been held on the due date, twenty-two clergy 
being present and ten having obtained permission to be 
absent. The following brief report of the proceedings ap- 
pears in the Sydney Morning Herald of Friday, 7 June 

The Bishop of Australia held his Primary Triennial Visitation of 
the clergy of his diocese in St James's Church on Wednesday last, 
5th instant. Prayers were said by the incumbent, Rev. G. N. Wood, 
and the sermon was preached by the Rev. Wm. Stack, B.A., of West 
Maitland, from Acts vi, 4. The clergy, of whom there were 
twenty-two present, took their stations in the centre of the aisle 
while his lordship delivered his charge. Ten clergy apologized, 
making thirty-two in all. 

His Lordship commenced his address by allusions to the visitorial 
power being used a practice which was as old as the formation 
of dioceses. The intention of a visitation was that the Bishop 
might have opportunities of inquiring into the moral character 
of his clergy, and also into the state of their respective parishes 
not only as regards spiritual affairs but also temporal, such as the 
state of their churches. He particularly recommended the clergy 
to cultivate the friendship of their respective churchwardens, and 
stated that if spared to hold another visitation he would request 
the churchwardens as well as the clergy to attend in order that 
the different parishes might _ be more fully represented. 

His Lordship then went into details of the formation and the 
dissolution of "The Church and School Corporation," an organiza- 
tion which, he said, had never had a fair trial. He then explained 
the provisions of the Church Act, 1836, which he considered was 
likely to have very ill effects upon the religious welfare of the 
community: but, still, as it was the law of the land it must be 
treated with respect, and, although the clergy have a right as 
citizens to express freely their opinions of any public measure, there 
must be no evasions of the Act but it must be fairly worked accord- 
ing to its spirit. 


The Church of Rome in the colony, as well as all over the world, 
was making great struggles for advancement and superiority, and 
he particularly recommended the clergy to be on their guard and 
oppose her not to act on the aggressive but on the defensive. The 
great distinctive doctrines of the Church of Rome were Papal 
supremacy, and a parity of Tradition with the Scriptures. And the 
main doctrines of the Church of England were the sufficiency of 
the .Scriptures, and the authority of the Church in matters of faith. 

As to the Aborigines, he scarcely knew what measures (with 
the present means), to recommend, but the prospect was more cheer- 
ing ten years ago than now. ' 

With respect to the subject of general education, he hoped that 
every clergyman would exert himself to establish a school in con- 
nection with his parish, in which the rudiments of learning and the 
first principles of Christianity as set out in the Catechism may be 
taught. And these schools might be enlarged as circumstances allow. 
And every clergyman would be expected to have a Sunday school, 
and to spend a part of the day in it himself. 

The Bishop concluded by exhorting the clergy to live in accordance 
with their doctrines. 

That the first Bishop of Australia did hold a primary visi- 
tation cannot be questioned in face of this newspaper report, 
and the entries in the diocesan register at Sydney, but un- 
happily neither the original manuscript, nor a copy in print 
or writing can be found. This is the more remarkable 
because the Bishop had all his important pastoral charges, 
addresses, lectures, and sermons printed, and kept copies 
that were ultimately bound up into four octavo volumes, 
which are now in the possession of his descendants. Search 
has also been made in the principal government archives and 
libraries of Australia, and of the Society for the Propaga- 
tion of the Gospel and the Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge in London. Also the late Bishop Montgomery 
kindly interested himself in securing an examination of Lam- 
beth Palace Library, because Bishop Broughton, as a suffra- 
gan of the Archbishop of Canterbury, would have been ex- 
pected to forward a copy of such an important document 
as his primary charge to the Primate in London. The fore- 
going explanation that it is missing seems necessary in re- 
cording Broughton's career, and the fact, apparently, must 
remain, at any rate for the present, a mystery. 


It is not possible, therefore, to reproduce anything more 
than the Sydney Morning Herald report as to the Bishop's 
dealing with the education question (which presumably 
would have been carefully adequate), in the charge: but 
even that shows he steadfastly continued to adhere to his 
earlier pronouncements as to a religious basis being essen- 
tial for all true education. 

The triennial pastoral of 1841 dealt with several topics, 
chiefly of a doctrinal character, and so education did not 
receive detailed consideration, though references to it bore 
testimony to being based upon the Bishop's oft declared 

But the charge of 1844, the most lengthy and learned 
of these episcopal pronouncements, again sounded a clarion 
on behalf of definite religious teaching founded upon re- 
vealed religion, and the Bishop also, at some length, urged 
that the landholders of the colony should recognize it as 
a solemn responsibility to God to devote some of the revenue 
they derived from the cultivation of the soil towards the 
support of religion and education. 

The Government had not taken further steps after 
Broughton's famous speech in 1839 had effectually 
blocked the grants in aid to denominational schools scheme 
of Governor Sir George Gipps. Yet the general policy, both 
English and local, of "comprehensiveness" in the administra- 
tion of public education had grown in popular estimation, 
though the Church of England, Roman Catholics, Presby- 
terians, and Wesleyans continued to establish their sectional 
schools. In 1844 the Legislative Council appointed a com- 
mittee, with 'Mr Robert Lowe (afterwards the brilliant 
English Chancellor of the Exchequer, and ultimately Viscount 
Sherbrooke), as chairman, to review the whole position. This 
committee recommended the introduction of unsectarian 
national education, following the lines of the Irish system 
advocated by Governor Sir Richard Bourke in 1836. The 
Legislative Council adopted the 'committee's report, and 


proceeded to take steps to appoint a Board to organize 
control the scheme. But the religious bodies saw that the 
government proposal would seriously handicap their schools, 
and by their practically united opposition they succeeded in 
developing such an influential body of public opinion that 
the Legislative Council suspended further action. Nothing 
more was done by the State for four years, 2 but in 1848 
the Government established two Boards, one to organize 
and control a national unsectarian system, and the other to 
supervise the denominational schools. This educational policy 
prevailed to the close of Bishop Broughton's episcopate, and 
continued in operation until the introduction of Sir Henry 
(then Mr) Parkes's Public Schools Act in 1866, which 
established a Council of Education, though the grants in 
aid were still given to the schools associated with the denom- 
inations, until the Public Instruction Act of 1880 finally 
abolished government aid to denominational schools. It is 
at least some justification for the principle of the Bishop's 
persistent claim that religion must be the basis of education 
that quite within recent times a Premier of New South 
Wales (Mr Stevens), has expressed his anxiety as to the 
consequences of the secular educational system prevailing in 
his State, and indeed throughout Australia. And at the 
Methodist Conference of 1933 in Sydney, there were strong 
appeals made for better Christian tea'ching in the govern- 
ment schools of to-day. Perhaps more significant still is 
the fact that at the 1933 conference in Sydney of the head 
masters of the Australian Public Schools, the principal of 
Scotch College, Melbourne, and the head master of the 
Melbourne Church of England Grammar, emphatically ex- 
pressed their conviction of the necessity for religion in any 
complete system of education. 

'Alexander Lobban, The Place of Religion in the System of State 
Editcation in New South Wales (Sydney, 1909). 


ALTHOUGH such a considerable share of the Bishop's time 
had to be given, at his headquarters in Sydney, to his duties 
as a member of the Legislative and the Executive Councils, 
and to the administrative work of his huge diocese, he 
managed to accomplish amazing tours through the wide- 
spread country districts of New South Wales. 

It is often said that the labours of bishops and clergy 
to-day are more exacting and exhausting than were those 
of the earliest workers in the Australian Church, because of 
the variety and volume of the tasks devolving upon the 
episcopate and the rank and file of the clergy in these later 
times, when the motor car has so largely supplanted the 
horse as the means of transit. A wider knowledge of the 
physical toil and mental strain experienced by the pioneers 
in the church's work in almost every part of the overseas 
British Dominions may considerably modify this impression. 
And there is one element in arriving at an accurate judg- 
ment that probably is generally overlooked. The bishops, 
and a large proportion of the clergy, in the primal colonial 
days, came from homes where they had been surrounded 
by the comforts of civilization. Amongst these the Bishop 
of Australia must be given a prominent place. From his 
letters and diaries it is plain that he was rather unusually 
susceptible to the influence of comfortable surroundings, yet 
though he could not forbear from noting some of the 
rougher and more fatiguing incidents of his country tours 
he seldom, if ever, complained about them. 


After his memorable opposition to Sir George Gipps*s 
proposals for education in the public schools, and a con- 
siderable time spent in organizing his own plans for pre- 
serving as far as possible the work of the parochial schools, 
the Bishop arranged in addition to his second visitation of 
Port Phillip in 1843 an extensive programme of visits to 
the country districts of New South Wales. This involved 
much travelling, from 1840 to 1845, ^ rom which he returned 
at intervals to duties that required his presence at Sydney. 1 
The chief records of his journeyings are those for the years 
1843 and 1845, and some extracts from these will testify 
to the Bishop's unwearying zeal. 

Towards the close of 1840 he was able to report to the 

I have now before me a list of very nearly forty places where 
subscriptions have been raised, and either the church or the parson- 
age has been begun or agreed upon. In some instances the one 
or the other is complete. The number of additional clergy required 
for these stations will be from sixteen to twenty. To all of them 
I have either advanced .or promised contributions from the Society's 
funds, and I can only hope that if we should appear to press 
heavily upon its resources the imputation of extravagance will not 
be attached to me, seeing that a very moderate degree of assistance 
rendered to claims so numerous will .necessarily and very speedily 
exhaust even the most liberal and abundant supply. 

Early in the following year the Bishop made an im- 
portant communication to the S.P.G. in reference to govern- 
ment grants towards the support of clergy. He reports : 

With reference to the correspondence between the Marquis of 
Normanby and the Society (of which you did me the favour to 
forward copies), wherein his lordship declined, in consideration of 
the state of the funds of the colony, to sanction the nomination 
of any additional number of clergymen, I am happy to inform you 
that I have received a copy of a despatch from Lord John Russell 
to Sir George Gipps, consenting to send out as many clergymen as 
provision has already been made for in the colonial estimates. That 
provision extended to twelve additional clergymen for the year 1839, 
and for the year 1840 I believe (for I am unable at this moment 
to refer to the estimate), the same, or very nearly the same, pro- 
vision was made. The greater proportion of those numbers is there- 

1 Church in the Colonies, Australia, pts i and xiv (London, 1846). 

From an engraving in the possession of Mr William Dixson. 


fore still eligible, as I am under an impression that very few have 
been appointed beyond the number allowed for the year 1838. I 
thankfully, indeed most thankfully, receive this concession on the 
part of Her Majesty's Government, as it enables me to look for- 
ward with expectation of providing for the many places now miser- 
ably destitute. 

But the good Bishop's gratitude is soon swallowed up in 
depressing anxiety when he is in the midst of the wide 
areas for which little or no spiritual provision had yet been 
possible. He writes to the S.P.G. of 

the deplorable state of the people along the course of the River 
Hawkesbury as regards religion and education. . . , My difficulties, 
indeed, with regard to that entire district have been incessant, and 
are not yet at an end. The refusal of the Governor, Sir George 
Gipps, to recognize (in connection with Government grants to meet 
local subscriptions) as private contributions for the erection of 
schools either the sums granted by the societies of England, or 
provided by our own diocesan committee, by diminishing the pecuni- 
ary resources on which I had calculated, has fatally retarded the 
measures which during my visit in 1839 I felt were necessary for 
the preservation of even the name and form of Christianity in 
many parts of this district. 

And the Bishop proceeds to make a clever indictment of 
the official policy. He claims: 

It^is not my disposition, I trust the Society will be assured, to 
animadvert unbecomingly or unnecessarily on the conduct of the 
ruling powers, but I must interrupt the course of my statement to 
express my inability to comprehend how the Government of England 
or the Government of this colony, having suffered such a state of 
things to grow up through their fifty years' neglect to provide any 
means whatever of religious instruction for these poor people, can 
now reconcile it with any Christian principle to cast impediments 
and discouragements in the way of those who desire only to combine 
for the removal of such inveterate evils, rather than assist with 
its _ own influence and resources, an attempt which even human 
policy, putting Christian duty and charity out of the question, might 
recommend as founded upon most certain grounds of temporal ex- 

It is satisfactory to record that the unsympathetic attitude 
to the question of the government authorities was largely 
modified by subsequent concessions, and that in the mean- 
while the S.P.G. came to the rescue, its annual report for 
1841 making the announcement in its reference to the Diocese 


of Australia of a fact that must have gladdened Broughton's 
heart by relieving part of his incessant burden of anxiety: 
"To provide for the more pressing wants of the Church 
in this diocese, and to meet the difficulties arising from the 
suspension of grants from the Colonial Treasury, the Society 
have placed a further sum of 1000 at the disposal of the 
Bishop, to be expended in the promotion of his general de- 
signs in Australia. The amount of good already effected 
under the direction of this indefatigable prelate may be 
ascertained by a perusal of his letter to the secretaries of his 
diocesan committee." 

The middle of 1843 found the Bishop carrying on his 
visitation of the Hunter River and Bathurst districts and 
the contiguous areas, of which he wrote: "During my 
present progress I have been in one county Durham in 
the whole extent of which there is not a church, and but 
one clergyman. In the adjoining county of Brisbane there 
is one church and one clergyman. After that I shall pass 
through three "entire counties in which there is neither 
minister nor any ordinance of religion. And the five counties 
included in this numeration contain a fourth part of the 
area, of New South Wales, and from a sixteenth to an 
eighteenth of the whole population." 

It would be expected that in wandering over such wide 
expanses of bush country, incidents, which if undramatic 
were decidedly unpleasant, would be encountered, and 
Broughton's letters, diaries, and reports show that he had 
a fair share of such experiences. On one occasion he 
arrived at a primitive sheep station where heavy rain was 
falling and prevented the gathering of a congregation. The 
Bishop's diary notes : "The rain continued during the night 
and poured through the bark roof, raising apprehensions of 
its coming upon the bed which our entertainers had very 
kindly given up for our use, but fortunately we escaped." 
Less than a fortnight later, the diary entry is: "Left Mr 
Denison's at 10 a.m. In consequence of this late departure, 


compelled to remain all night at a place called Tongey/ a 
sheep station belonging to Mr Fitzgerald, of Windsor. As 
there, were many people about the place, assembled them 
for evg. service and sermon. The poor people were very 
civil and kind, giving us the best they had of everything. 
Lay down for a few hours in my clothes." 

Quite a graphic picture of the unexpected happenings 
in bush travelling is conveyed in a letter to Mrs Broughton : 

I hope you have not been expecting to hear from me sooner, or 
are uneasy at not having heard, as it has not been in my power 
to be near a post office on a post day. But though my journey has 
been very tedious and fatiguing I have been quite safe and well. 
On the day I left you, Mr Marsden drove me to his house at 
South Creek, and my carriage went on to the inn at the ford, 
where we slept when you and the children were with me. The 
next morning Mr Marsden took me as far as "The Pilgrim," 
where we breakfasted, you will recollect, and here I overtook the 
carriage. As there seemed to be a doubt whether our young horse 
would stand the journey, I exchanged it with Mr Marsden for 
one which looked so large and strong that he might draw the 
carriage by himself. But there is no trusting to appearances; for 
no sooner did we reach a sandy part of the road than the great 
gentleman chose to stop; and so at every hill or piece of sand 
we came to. In fact at last he grew so dull that we could make 
no progress, except by applying to a driver on the road to lend 
me his two bullocks to pull us up the hill ; and afterwards to a 
carter who hooked on his front horse, and by great whipping and 
urging we at last reached the weatherboard hut which you will no 
doubt remember. 

It is in point of comfort and cleanliness very much what it was 
three years ago; but the night being rather cold, the inmates .of 
the beds were not so active as we found them (!). Next day the 
horses came again to a comfortable stand-still after about four 
miles: and we were obliged to wait on the road until we sent for- 
ward and procured another horse; and so in about twelve hours, 
and after much exertion, we completed a journey of seven miles. 

Next day with a borrowed horse we went twenty-two miles, 
and on Friday, the officer commanding at the stockade lent me two 
bullocks which dragged us slowly over the hills : and then with the 
borrowed horse we went on to within eleven miles of Bathurst, 
and were there compelled to stop for the night. This was very 
provoking, as I knew the gentlemen of the parish were out wait- 
ing to receive me, and it was raining fast. But nothing was to be 
done except to await patiently until yesterday morning when by 
setting out at seven I was able to reach Mr Kearn's at breakfast 
time. At eleven o'clock we went to the church, which I con- 


secrated, with the churchyard : and as the news of my arrival quickly 
spread there was a very good congregation who were, I under- 
stand, much pleased and impressed with the ceremony which none 
of them had ever before witnessed. ( 

From Bathurst the Bishop started on his return to Sydney, 
by a route which enabled him to visit several centres not 
in the track of his outward journey. In all, the tour 
covered noo miles, and for most of it he travelled alone, 
excepting when kindly volunteers went with him over the 
roughest stretches of country. The element of personal 
peril, too, from bushrangers was not altogether absent, and 
on one occasion when a couple of these lawless men had 
been in the locality, the residents insisted upon the Bishop 
being accompanied by a mounted constable until it was 
considered that the danger zone had been passed. 

The 1845 visitation 2 covered much of the central area 
of New South Wales. The country was suffering severely 
from drought that lasted over two years, and which affected 
disastrously the. Church's work, as well as the material in- 
terests of the colony. But Edward Coleridge, on his own 
initiative, made a spirited appeal in England which yielded 
approximately 4000 and supplied Broughton with the 
means for meeting many of the financial liabilities as they 
matured, besides helping to carry on current expenditure. 
By the middle of January he was well launched on his 
country visitorial engagements, the I5th finding him at 
Camden, the headquarters of the Macarthur estate, which 
already possessed what the Bishop described in his diary 
as "a large, substantial, and really handsome church, built 
in a correct style of Decorated architecture with a lofty 
tower and spire, and even in its unfinished state forming 
a most striking feature in the landscape." The founder of 
the estate, 'Mr John Macarthur, had died, and will always 
be remembered as a pioneer in the establishing in Australia 
of the wool industry tb^t haf since made the continent 

3 Church in the Colonies. Australia, part iii. 


famous. Mrs Macarthur, however, still lived, in a vigorous 
old age, after fifty years' residence in the colony as mistress 
of Camden. 

A few days later, on the confines of the now popular 
tourist resort, Blackheath, in the Blue Mountains, one of 
the few remaining stockades still in use was visited, there 
being some seventy convicts employed in making the road 
over the mountain range. The Bishop conducted a service 
at the stockade and preached to the prisoners on the morn- 
ing after he reached Blackheath. When it is remembered 
that transportation had only ceased, after being in operation 
for half a century, six years before, the rapidity with which 
the signs of the penal occupation of the colony had disap- 
peared is noted by Broughton as quite remarkable. It may 
here be said that while the Bishop had always shown a com- 
passionate interest in the prisoner element in the population 
of New South Wales, yet he had ever been a vigorous 
advocate of the abolition of transportation as soon as it 
came within the possibilities of practical politics. As chair- 
man of the committee of the Legislative Council on Immi- 
gration, he had been brought into close contact with 
the subject, and the voluminous printed report, covering 
fifty quarto pages, discloses by its dignified diction the 
leading part Broughton took in its production. 

The next historic spot at which the Bishop arrived was 
"Duntroon," the country residence of Mr Robert Campbell, 
the head of a notable Australian family of earnest and 
munificent churchfolk. 3 George Campbell, a younger son 
of the last Laird of Ashfield in Argyleshire, came from 
Calcutta to Sydney in 1798, and is often spoken of as 
"Sydney's first merchant." In a time of shortage, the 
New South Wales Government commandeered one of 
Campbell's vessels to bring food from Calcutta, but the ship 
became a total wreck on the voyage, and the local Govern- 

?F. w. Robinson, M.A., Ph.D., Canberra's First Hundred Years 
(Sydney, 1924). 


ment gave Mr Campbell 5000 acres of land on Limestone 
Plains, a rich district of virgin soil, as part compensation, 
and Mr Campbell named the head station "Duntroon/' after 
Duntroon Castle on Loch Crinan, the ancestral home of the 

The first Australian Military College grew up on this 
site, and received the historic name, "Duntroon," which 
therefore will always have a place in Australian history. 
When the college was transferred to Sydney a few years 
ago, "Duntroon" developed into what has been described 
as "the most English looking suburb of Canberra." And 
overlooking the village from an adjacent hillside is the grave 
of General Bridges (the first commandant of "Duntroon"), 
who fell while commanding the Australian Division after 
the Gallipoli landing. 

From the widespreading acres of the estate the native 
appellation was retained, variously written as "Canbury," 
or "Canberry," or "Canberra," the last-named being 
officially fixed upon in connexion with the establishing of 
the Federal Capital of Australia, and its pronunciation 
settled at two, not three, syllables. The aboriginal signi- 
fication of the name is said to have meant "plenty grass," 
indicating good feeding-grounds for the native game, and 
so a favoured spot for finding native food. 

Together with his handsome country home, Mr Robert 
Campbell built in the township that had grown up on "Can- 
berry Plains" a church, at his own cost save for the Govern- 
ment grant in aid, of which Broughton wrote in his diary 
after inspecting it shortly before its consecration : "a hand- 
some and massive stone church, fitted up internally with 
all things orderly and becoming, and which is prepared for 
consecration on my return." The Bishop records that on 
Saturday, 8 March 1845, ^ e consecrated Christ Church, 
Queanbeyan, and on the following Monday St John Bap- 
tist's, "Canberry Plains," the text of the consecration sermon 
being Haggai i, 13-14. Dr Robinson, in his monograph on 


"Canberra," emphasizes that the church and its school bulk 
largely in the early history 'of the little township that has 
now grown into the capital of Australia, and adds that this 
is "quite appropriate, as there never has been an Australian 
town so strictly associated with the Church, as the district 
formerly known as Limestone Plains." And Sir Littleton 
Groom, formerly Speaker of the House of Representatives, 
in the Australian Commonwealth, in his foreword to Dr 
Robinson's book writes: "The pioneers were not forgetful 
of the part that religion must play in the development of 
the highest type of Australian citizenship." 

The Bishop gave Easter Day to Camden, and in the week 
following got back to Sydney, where several important en- 
gagements awaited him, including the consecration of the 
churches of St John Baptist, Ashfield, and St Stephen's, 
Camperdown (now Newtown), long ago grown into popu- 
lous centres extending to Sydney. He devotes much space 
to the consecration on 10 September of Christ Church, in 
the parish of St Lawrence, Sydney. Twenty-six clergy 
attended, and the Bishop makes very cordial reference to 
the dignified character of the building and its appointments. 
He speaks warmly of the devotion of the rector, Rev. W. 
H. Walsh, and his patient pursuance of the building of the 
church despite many and prolonged hindrances, chiefly 
financial. In the consecration sermon the Bishop said: "I 
do indeed exult in the belief that so far as any work has 
ever been begun and continued under a pure disposition to 
do all to the glory of God, under an unselfish spirit of 
anxiety that whatever was done might in some degree be 
fitted to promote His honour, and to testify that the affec- 
tions and anxieties of the people of this land were not 
wholly devoted to worldly things, this holy edifice in which 
we have now for the first time celebrated His praise, may 
be appealed to as an evidence of that spirit." The Bishop 
adds : "I have heard objections stated to some of the arrange- 
ments in the celebration of divine service as savouring of 


novelty and innovation; but I am bound to say that there 
is no contrariety in any part of the practices to the most 
approved usages of the Church of England with which I 
have been familiar from my earliest years; and everything 
is marked by such a degree of order and solemnity that I 
could wish the observances of this church to be taken, if 
it were possible, as a model for imitation by every church in 
my diocese." It is indeed meet that in Christ Church, 
Sydney, which gave such happiness to Broughton on the 
occasion of its consecration, there is now a replica of his 
tomb in Canterbury Cathedral. 

The Bishop was soon afield once more after he had 
fulfilled his Sydney appointments, and by October was at 
Armidale, where his experiences are worth recording when 
it is remembered that it is now quite a large city, the centre 
of the New England district of New South Wales, the seat 
of a bishopric, and widely considered as a fitting capital 
if and when the subdivisions of the mother colony take place. 
Broughton had been travelling alone a good deal since 
leaving Sydney, but the Commissioner of the New England 
District met him and took him as his guest in Armidale. 
He notes that 

the land around is fertile and well watered, and the country, though 
wholly in a state of nature, has nothing rude or desolate in its 
appearance. The settlement consists of twelve or fourteen scattered 
cottages, principally composed of timber and roofs of bark. Among 
them is a reasonably convenient inn, more substantially built; and a 
large store is in course of erection; and there is also a court 
house. ... To the judgment which should form its calculations 
upon the ground of what was immediately and visibly before it, 
very few encouraging expectations would present themselves. To 
find myself thus absolutely alone in the wilderness, with no other 
errand or design but that of attempting to fulfil God's injunction 
to His Church, "Feed thou thy people with thy rod, the flock of 
thine heritage which dwell solitarily in the wood," was enough to 
overwhelm me, it might be imagined, with dejection and trembling. 
But I know not how it came to pass, my mind felt elastic and 
confiding in viewing the prospect before me; conscious that I was 
doing the best in my power, however trifling that might be, for 
the welfare of these people; and entertaining the firmest assurance 


that God would not suffer any work to fall to the ground which 
was undertaken and to be continued in Him. My determination was 
taken to persevere. 

The Bishop gave two Sundays and the intervening week 
to the New England district, and on the second Sunday at 
a service in the Armidale court house a congregation of 
seventy-five assembled, and the Bishop celebrated a marriage 
just before it; after the second lesson baptized several in- 
fants, "the mothers duly returning thanks after childbirth" ; 
and before the sermon confirmed five candidates. He 
records : "The service therefore was long, but none present 
appeared to relax in their attention. To any seriously think- 
ing person the occasion must have been gratifying. I 
acknowledge it was supremely so to me." 

The Bishop was able to arrange for steps towards the 
building in Armidale of a church, for which he (as he 
often did) prepared a sketch plan, and decided should be 
dedicated to St Peter, which is the dedication of the present 
Armidale Cathedral, and in the Lent following his visitation 
of the district a recently ordained deacon, Mr John 
Tingcomb, was placed at Armidale. 

During his November journeyings the Bishop was able 
to stop at the station of Mr William Boydell (his son-in- 
law), on the Albyn River, taking part in the completion 
of a small church (which he had designed), and duly con- 
secrated at St Mary's-on- Albyn, with its adjacent burial 
ground. The Bishop notes in his diary: "I have seldom 
experienced more satisfaction than in providing this little 
sanctuary in which my descendants might practise that form 
of worship, in reverence, for which they have been brought 
up." By the middle of December the devoted Bishop returned 
to his home. The diary closes with a summary which notes 
that during 1845 the building of eighteen churches had been 
begun, and twelve had been consecrated. Its conclusion is 
such a revelation of humbleness of mind combined with 
calm courage that it may well be quoted in closing a synopsis 


of labours that show that the spirit of heroism definitely 
formed part of Broughton's character. But it is equally cer- 
tain that he would have been shocked rather than anything 
else at the suggestion. This is the end of the 1845 diary: 

The very nature of the occupations, the course of which, extending 
over so many months, is here recorded, has rendered unavoidable a 
more constant personal allusion than is agreeable to my disposition. 
It is therefore not without reluctance that I again make mention 
of myself. But it would be an act of ingratitude were I to close 
this account without acknowledging the watchful care of that 
Providence which has protected me during the course of these 
travels, extending in one year over more than 3000 miles. It may 
be recorded as a proof of such care, that throughout this entire 
distance I experienced no alarm or danger, nor so much as the 
apprehension of any: neither have I suffered, for a single instant, 
pain or sickness. These are benefits which surely demand a return 
of gratitude and acknowledgment; and may justify me in adopting 
the Psalmist's language, "In the shadow of Thy wings will I 

One other circumstance ought for the credit of the country to 
be recorded. Although continually travelling through the most 
lonely and unfrequented parts of it by day, and sleeping by 
night in the remotest stations, exposed to every outrage had there 
been the slightest disposition to commit acts of violence, being also 
perfectly unprotected, except on two or three occasions for a very 
short time by the attendance of a single mounted policeman, I never 
met with the slightest molestation, threat, or rudeness ; but experi- 
enced in all places, and on the part of all persons, and from the 
highest to the lowest, the most perfect attention, courtesy, kind- 
ness, hospitality, and respect. It is right that this should be 
mentioned in order to correct any impression that may prevail as 
to the general character of the people of this colony, my sincere 
persuasion being that there can be no country in which an un- 
protected solitary traveller could have spent so much time, and 
passed over such an extended space, with a more perfect freedom 
from annoyance or injury. Some weight is due to this testimony, 
resting upon the experience of the sixteen years which I have now 
completed here in journeyings often in the care of all the churches : 
but, thanks be to God, without perils of any kind. 


IT has already been recorded in an earlier chapter that after 
Broughton, as archdeacon, had made his first visits to the 
more settled districts, he declared his conviction that the 
two outstanding needs of the Church in Australia were an 
increase of clergy, and a system of public education based 
upon religion. It was because he could neither persuade 
the Home Government nor the local authorities to support 
his appeal for practical action in furtherance of his proposals 
that he went to England in 1834. As we have seen, he met 
with little official sympathy. Undeterred, however, by this 
discouragement, on returning to Sydney after his consec- 
ration, he used the occasion of his report 1 to the 
Secretary for the Colonies, of his cordial reception as 
Bishop by the colonists, for resuming his insistence upon 
the importance of his clerical staff being increased. 

"On my arrival here," he wrote, on 18 June 1836, "I 
received immediate applications for the services of additional 
clergymen in all those districts wherein, during my residence 
in England, I had the honour to represent the necessity 
of their being stationed. The disappointment of the people 
arising from my present inability to supply their wants has 
not prevented them from testifying their strong regard for 
the Church by the presentation of various addresses ex- 
pressive of their anxious desire that its ordinances should 
be extended and its .establishment in the colony strengthened." 

1 Return of Correspondence, etc. on Religion and Education in Aus- 
tralia presented to House of Commons, on motion of Mr Gladstone, 
11 March 1837 (pp. 4-78). 


But he failed to meet with any immediate practical 
response, and so he turned to the S.P.G., from whence action 
came without delay. The Society issued the following cir- 
cular letter, dated 8 May 1837, in which it included the 
Bishop's statement of his case, and announced what it 
proposed at once to do: 

The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts 
has received a pressing application from the Bishop of Australia 
to assist in engaging and sending out clergymen to N.S.W. 
The wants and peculiar -circumstances of the Colony are thus 
described by His Lordship in a letter dated Sydney, i4th October, 
1836: "The question upon which I have most urgent occasion to 
write to you is that of providing us with additional clergymen. Our 
obtaining, or not obtaining, them is a matter as it were of life 
and death. The Government requires from the inhabitants a 
contribution of at least 300 towards the erection of a church, and 
will then appoint a clergyman with a stipend (not exceeding 200 
per annum) proportionate to the number of the congregation. The 
above condition has been, or is being, complied with in twenty- 
one places, and there is an opportunity for settling nine additional 
clergymen with average incomes of 150 per annum, a house, some 
land, and in most cases some small advantages from fees, etc. 
I cannot but hope that among the numbers of highly qualified 
young men who are every year coming from the Universities, not 
knowing how or where to obtain a title for Orders and almost 
hopeless of obtaining a maintenance in the Church at Home, there 
must be some to whom even the modicum here presented would not 
be despicable; some to whom even the enterprise itself may not be 
unacceptable; some who by settling down here early in life and 
prudently availing themselves of the resources which the country 
affords, might enjoy competency in the married state which they 
could not at home, and might find easy and favourable oppor- 
tunities for educating their children, and establishing them in the 
world. I make it an object of earnest entreaty that you will, if 
ycu can, let these particulars be known at Oxford and Cambridge, 
and at Durham. I am oppressed almost beyond endurance by the 
variety of the duties, and extent of difficulties, with which I have- 
almost single-handed to contend. But I do not despair, knowing 
that we have the best of causes, and trusting that God will not 
forsake it, but 'will send forth labourers into His harvest,' where 
they are so much needed." _In consequence of this representation, 
the Society has resolved to invite application from clergymen, and 
candidates for Orders, desirous of proceeding to N.S.W., 
and to make some addition to the stipend mentioned by the Bishop 
of Australia. The average salary secured to each clergyman by 
the local legislature being 150 a year, together with a grant pf 
150 from the Colonial Office for passage money and outfit, a further 


salary of 50 a year, together with a like grant of 150 to defray 
the cost of settling in a new country, will be paid by the Society. 
It has been assured that these allowances will enable clergymen to 
maintain themselves and their families in respectability and comfort. 
And it trusts that persons will be found who are ready to discharge 
the duties of the Christian ministry in a land where the very 
existence of religion appears to depend upon the measures which 
may be adopted at the present crisis. 

But the most inapplicable charge that could rightly be 
brought against Broughton would be that he was an oppor- 
tunist. On the contrary, the fact looms large, as his epis- 
copal career is considered, that on all the main lines of his 
administration he ever thought of the future even more 
than the then present work of the Church in Australia. 
Hence, in connexion with the matter of the supply of clergy 
he soon saw that it would be impossible, if not also undesir- 
able, to look for a continuance in days to come of the liberal 
help that was given him by the S.P.C.K., the S.P.G., and 
private English benefactors, both in men and money. So 
he is found a year or two after his appeals to the Home 
Government and the S.P.G. making a further suggestion, 
that the theological dons of Oxford, Cambridge and Dur- 
ham, together with the heads of the leading British grammar 
schools, should be urged to seek in their work for religiously 
minded young men before whom might be placed detailed 
information as to the Australian Church, in the hope that 
some of them might be led to offer for service in her min- 
istry. He wrote urgently to Coleridge, Watson, and others 
asking for the consideration of this scheme, but apparently 
it never led to any substantial consequences. When Bishop 
Selwyn first visited Sydney in 1842, en route to New Zea- 
land, after his consecration in the preceding year, he spent 
some days with Bishop Broughton, who wrote a long letter 
to Coleridge detailing some of the important subjects which 
the two Bishops discussed, and of these it is said of the 
supply of clergy : "It is this question which above all others 
has come home to the hearts of both of us. ... The con- 
clusion at which we arrived was in favour of erecting, under 


the immediate eye of each, a school of divinity in which 
promising young men, from 18 to 23, might be trained in 
the knowledge of the duties of their profession, as well as 
initiated into the practical discharge of them. The Bishop 
of New Zealand has already certain funds and resources 
applicable to that object." 

Although this plan, by contemplating local candidates, 
introduced a new element into the consideration of ordin- 
ands. Bishop Broughton still hoped that his original idea 
would not be overlooked of getting some of the scholars 
who had completed their course at the English grammar 
schools to offer to take the course at the Sydney theological 
college and then be ordained ; but, as before, this plan appears 
to have failed to commend itself in England. It is much 
to be regretted that this was so, for the idea seems full 
of possibilities, both ecclesiastical and national. Is it too 
late for some Australian bishop once more to approach the 
authorities in higher education in the Homeland in the 
matter ? 

So in due course the nucleus of a divinity school was 
instituted at Sydney in the parsonage then at the corner of 
King and Macquarie streets and occupied by the Rev. C. 
Kemp, curate of St James's. Canon Allwood, incumbent 
of the parish, was principal of the school, and had the help 
of some of the Sydney clergy in the tuition, in which the 
Bishop also took part. Eight students were enrolled, and 
one of these, bearing the honoured name of Hassall, has 
published 2 some details of the inner working of the in- 
stitution, which about two years after it had been started 
was moved to quite a fine house, with extensive grounds 
"Lyndhurst," on the Glebe suburb, as it then was, over- 
looking Johnson's Bay. 

Mr Hassall writes : 

We had a very happy and enjoyable time there, though we worked 
hard, too, at old Pearson, Paley, and Burnett, the Greek Testament 

* Colonial Church Chronicle, vol. iii, p. 238. 


and other studies. Once a week we each took a sermon of our 
own composition to Bishop Broughton at Darlinghurst. He would 
look them over by the following week, make his comments on them 
then, and give us two hours' profitable instruction on various subjects. 
A good dinner followed, in the pleasant company of Mrs Broughton 
and her two daughters. Afterwards the Bishop sent us home in 
his carriage. Though so many years have passed, and I have met 
so many estimable people, I still have the idea that Bishop 
Broughton, Canon Allwood, and the Rev. Robert Forrest (first head- 
master of The King's School, Parramatta) were the best men I 
have ever known. 

This is an appropriate place for inserting, as at least of 
historic interest, the Bishop's syllabus for the examination 
of ordination candidates, which appears among the earliest 
records in Sydney Diocesan Registry. 3 

Order appointed by the Lord Bishop for the examination of can- 
didates for Holy Orders in the Diocese of Australia 

1. To compose a sermon upon a given text, without assistance 
except from a Bible and concordance in the case of deacons, 
and of a Bible only in the case of priests. 

2. An examination, exegetical and critical, of portions of the 
Gospels and Acts of the Apostles in the original in the 
case of deacons, with the addition of the Epistles in the 
case of priests. 

3. A paper of miscellaneous questions, to which answers in 
writing will be required concerning the evidence of the 
Christian religion and its advantages and necessity. 

4. A similar paper concerning the grounds of the Protestant 
Faith. _ 

5. A similar paper of questions relating to the doctrines con- 
tained in the Articles, Homilies, and Liturgy of the Church 
of England, with proofs of their Scriptural foundation. 

6. A similar paper concerning ministerial duty and authority. 

7. Miscellaneous questions upon Church history especially dur- 
ing the first three centuries of the Christian era; and upon 
Biblical criticism. 

8. .Miscellaneous questions concerning the nature of objections 
most commonly urged by unbelievers against the Divine auth- 
ority of the Scriptures and the sufficiency of Revelation; 
with satisfactory solutions. 

The examinations will be continued during five days and the 
average duration will be four hours each day. 

No textbooks are prescribed, so apparently the examina- 
tions were based upon the lectures given to the students. 

8 Acts and Proceedings of the Bishop of Australia, No . i. (Diocesan 
Registry, Sydney). 


With the removal to "Lyndhurst," the scope of the 
divinity school was enlarged by the admission of pupils 
other than those reading for ordination. The modest school 
was advanced by the Bishop, at a function at which the 
Governor was present, to the more imposing name of "St 
James's College/' becoming practically a grammar school, 
and public subscriptions were asked for its support. 4 

The proposal in Australasia, adopted after consultation 
by Bishops Broughton and Selwyn (but probably specially 
urged by the latter, who had some funds available for the 
purpose) for diocesan theological colleges seems to have 
turned Edward Coleridge's mind back to Broughton's first 
idea of a central institution in England to help all the 
missionary dioceses. He wrote in 1843 to Broughton: "I 
determined on issuing proposals for the foundation of one 
great Missionary College, at Oxford or elsewhere, for all 
the Colonies. ... In a few days came a most hearty letter 
from the Archbishop . . . with the one exception of a doubt 
as to Oxford as a site. I aim at 50,000, as a beginning, 
to be raised in two years. Meanwhile I beg you to re- 
member me in your daily prayers." 

Then came the veritable spiritual romance of the founding 
of St Augustine's College, Canterbury. 5 The story is well 
known. That noble layman, Robert Brett, of Stoke New- 
ington, when paying a visit to Canterbury in September 
1843, went over tne desolate area of the one-time famous 
monastery, and, as he wrote in a letter to the English Church- 
man, was "disgusted and horrified at the scene of sordid, 
revolting profanity and desecration which presented itself." 
An aged townsman with whom Mr Brett got into conversa- 
tion told him: "The Canterbury place is going to be sold; 
it's always changing, for God Almighty don't seem to prosper 
anybody who has it." Another notable layman, Mr Beres- 
ford Hope, next came into the story. After having seen 

* Colonial Church Chronicle, vol. ill, p. 238. 

5 Hev. G. F. Maclear, D.D., St Augustine's, Canterbury (London, 


the letter in the English Churchman, he went to pay a 
promised visit to Canterbury. While there he saw the ruins 
of the Abbey and heard of its then soon being offered for 
sale. Upon returning to London he arranged to purchase 
the property, but special statutory power had to be obtained 
before the Government could complete the contract. Edward 
Coleridge had learnt of the transaction, and with char- 
acteristic enthusiasm conceived the purpose of trying to 
secure the fulfilment of Bishop Broughton's great idea of 
a central theological college in England for training clergy 
for the colonial dioceses. He had previously been working 
steadily to advance the Bishop's project by collecting large 
funds for what obviously would be a big undertaking. When 
he came to know of Mr Beresford Hope's romantic pur- 
chase he quickly wrote to ask the purchaser whether the 
property, to quote from a speech at a great function after 
St Augustine's College had been established, "was for him." 
Ultimately, he not only achieved his object, but steps were 
soon taken for providing funds for rebuilding, upon the 
plans of 'Mr Butterfield, the ancient monastery of St Peter, 
St Paul and St Augustine and devoting it, as Mr Beresford 
aptly pointed out, "to the same missionary objects for which 
it was founded." And so on St Peter's Day, 1848, with 
reverent pomp and in the presence of a brilliant assem- 
blage of bishops, clergy, and laity, the restored abbey was 
consecrated, and St Augustine's College, Canterbury, entered 
upon its great career as a training school for the ministry 
in missionary dioceses. 

It can well be understood how deeply moved Bishop 
Broughton was by all these happenings. When Coleridge 
notified him of the inauguration of the great scheme the 
Bishop replied: "I had no sleep last night thinking of the 
news, and you will find some reason for thinking that I 
dream of it by day. Indeed, I hope it makes me thankful 
as well as thoughtful." 

The London Guardian of 30 September 1850, reports that 



the first student of St Augustine's to be certified as having 
passed the three years' course at the college was Mr Charles 
John Gillett. He had been given a letter of commendation 
to Bishop Broughton of Sydney. At a service in the college 
chapel on 31 August the warden read the letter, and in his 
sermon referred to the significance of the occasion. 

In connexion with higher education, theological and 
other, it seems desirable to make some reference to the 
attitude which Broughton took, as the official head of the 
Church of England, towards the University of Sydney, 
established in 1852. In the preliminary public discus- 
sions upon the subject it was well understood that 
the Bishop adhered to the principle which he had 
always regarded as essential, that all true education must 
be associated with a clear recognition of revealed religion as 
its foundation; and this for him meant the acceptance of 
historic Christianity. When the parliamentary select com- 
mittee reported to the Legislative Council, it outlined a 
purely secular constitution and provided that the visitor, 
the governing body, and all the professors should be lay- 
men, and that the University should seek for power to grant 
degrees in all subjects "excepting theology or divinity," 
Subsequently it was decided that four members of the Senate 
might be representative ministers of religion. The Governor 
invited Bishop Broughton to be one of these, the others 
being the Roman Catholic Archbishop, the Presbyterian 
Moderator, and the chairman of the Wesleyan Methodists. 
But in loyalty to his well-known views upon education, the 
Bishop felt bound to refuse the invitation. 

Soon after ^Broughton's death, under the leadership of 
Bishop Tyrrell, of Newcastle, the system of denominational 
colleges affiliated with the University was introduced at 
Sydney, and has extended to Melbourne, Adelaide, Perth, 
Tasmania, and Queensland. In later years efforts were made 
to get the Australian universities to establish faculties which 
should conduct examinations for degrees in theology but 


without giving tuition. The subject was brought before the 
Anglican General Synod, which decided that the proposal 
was impracticable. At a later synod a resolution was passed 
appointing a committee to consider the subject and consult 
the other churches. The attitude of the universities has 
become more sympathetic. At both Sydney and Tasmania 
the Senates have supported the suggestion, and the former 
has quite recently asked the premier of the State to act 
upon a resolution affirmed by the heads of various theological 
'colleges urging that the local parliament should agree to 
the introduction of faculties to govern the granting, upon 
examination only, of degrees in theology by the university. 
The premier promised to arrange for the matter to be 
brought before a representative committee of the several 

While dealing with movements for the supply and train- 
ing of clergy, mention should be made of the successful 
efforts of Edward Coleridge to provide a theological library 
for Sydney, so that the clergy might have opportunities for 
post-ordination study and material for fitting them to fulfil 
the teaching office of the ministry. He personally invited 
the universities and the leading publishers to make gifts of 
books, and met with much encouragement. He writes to 
the Bishop: "Glorious results in Oxford. . . . Am now 
proceeding to attack London and Cambridge." He sent off 
six large cases containing 500 volumes to be delivered free 
of expense at Sydney. Later on, he reported a large con- 
signment of "The Anglo-Catholic Library" publications, and 
adds: "They are given nominally by the publication com- 
mittee but really by that man of men, Dr Pusey. A box is 
also getting ready for you, New Zealand, and Tasmania, at 
Rivington's. He has given seventy volumes to each of the 
three colonies. I really cannot tell how many chests have 
been sent, or how many volumes." 

In a many-paged letter the Bishop warmly thanks his 
friend for this new contribution towards the well-being of 


the Australian Church, and then opens out into larger 

. . . Among the efforts which you have made I can account 
none more well timed or more important to the improvement of 
the present and future generations here than the supply of books 
for which we are indebted chiefly to your energy and prevailing 
influence. On my return from the visitation at Hunter's River at 
the end of February, having been there engaged during two 
months, in laborious journeys by land and in dirty steamers by sea, 
I found the last chest (as I presume) waiting my arrival. It 
contained the books from Oxford; most truly valuable and im- 
portant. ... I am having a catalogue prepared, which when 
printed, I shall have great pleasure in forwarding to you. Com- 
pared with even a good private library, our collection sinks into 
insignificance. Yet I cannot help reflecting with some pride that 
previously we had nothing like it or approaching to it here. We 
are in danger of being a colonia indocta, but any man who shall 
make himself master of the contents even of the books we can 
now produce, will not be contemptible either as a scholar or a 
divine. I think Origen is the only one of the great Fathers that 
we have not. The only person beside yourself to whom I have 
written to express thanks is Dr Pusey. I felt an invincible dis- 
position to do so; and, having this plea for introducing myself, I 
availed myself of it to go on to bespeak his attention to the probable 
condition of the reformed Church not in this colony only but 
throughout- this entire hemisphere. 

This continent of New Holland must become, and speedily too, 
the seat of great empires ; and around it lie the multitude of the 
isles like satellites attendant. Politically and religiously they will 
derive their condition and principles from us. Now look at the 
probability of what is to ensue, according to the arrangements and 
provisions hitherto made. Episcopacy herie rests upon my single 
person. The sphere was too vast ab initio for any one man to 
occupy : and is yet further extended by the addition of New Zealand. 
I am now within a few days of the age of fifty-two, so that even 
if my life be spared, I cannot reasonably calculate on being 
equal for more than eight or ten years longer to the wearing mode 
of life in which I am now involved. With me I am almost persuaded 
would end the whole concern of this Government in the maintenance 
of a bishop, and what is then to ensue? I have put these con- 
siderations before Dr Pusey, as I offer them to you, not imagining, 
as I tell him, that any individual can at once arrest the evils which 
I foresee and dread ; but if the question be presented in a proper 
light to men of reflecting minds, some resource may present itself 
to them before it is all too late. 

. . . My maxim is by all means to strengthen the Church of 
England _in this quarter : and this cannot be effectually done except 
by enabling her to expand, wherever she goes, her proper system 
of polity: her orders of bishops, priests, and deacons. As to the 


latter two, I presume we need not despair of finding means for 
their support, though upon a humble scale, and the question as 
to the bishops must be met boldly in the best way that circumstances 
will admit. I can from experience say that the occupation is not 
a gainful one, according to the present system. But if it be 
found really impossible to obtain the means of providing for them 
incomes to maintain them as heretofore in the foremost rank of 
society, we must be content, as colonial bishops, to take a lower 
room in civil life and be satisfied with maintenance in a decent 
mediocrity of circumstances. But be this as it may, I am con- 
vinced that bishops we must have in increased numbers ere long; 
or the fabric of the Church cannot for a continuance be held 
together. I hope that you and Dr Pusey and others of a right 
way of thinking may be able to talk over this subject occasionally: 
and although I see no immediate prospect of anything being done, 
it will be a great consolation to think that the subject is fairly 
within the knowledge and under the consideration of the right 
persons. . . . 


IF the long journeyings throughout New South Wales must 
have made a severe strain upon the good Bishop's physical 
vigour, probably the mental and spiritual strain imposed by 
the oversight of his huge diocese was at least an equally 
heavy burden, especially to a man of Broughton's tempera- 
ment. No one can follow the incidents of his life without 
being impressed by the witness they bear to the immense 
sense of responsibility which was ever with him. It does not 
appear that he had any hobby or was much attracted by the 
social side of life. Without doubt he would have lightened 
his load if he had recognized the positive value of these 
lighter sides of human existence, nor need his work have 
been done less effectively. Yet it is most impressive to 
think of this devout, cultivated English gentleman, who had 
by his scholarship made his mark as a curate, becoming so 
immersed in the problems of laying the foundation of the 
Church of England under the Southern Cross that 
he absolutely found no time for anything beyond his one 
great task and duties associated with it. But it is delightful 
to know that Broughton got a full meed of happiness out 
of his home life with his wife and their two daughters. 
Despite a continuously heavy correspondence he made time 
on his many travels to write charmingly affectionate letters 
to Mrs Broughton. In one of these he reminds her of their 
first meeting when he went up, a boy of nine years, to the 
King's School, Canterbury, was entered at the house of 


the second master, the Rev. John Francis, and first saw one 
of his daughters, Sarah Francis, a juvenile in a pinafore, 
who twenty years later became his wife. The couple had 
an ideal married life of twenty years and Broughton's letters 
disclose them as sweethearts to the end. 1 He was profoundly 
touched by the cheerful courage and devotion shown by 
Mrs Broughton when they were together in England in 1835 
and it was finally decided that her husband ought to become 
the first Bishop of Australia. 

So the Bishop as he journeyed over the vast areas of 
Australia must have been comforted by thoughts of the 
affectionate welcome that was always awaiting him at his 
home in Sydney, though such reflections must often have 
made the sense of solitude more acute. And the corres- 
pondence with his friends in England reveals that the strain 
of the lonely bush travelling was increased by the oppor- 
tunities which it supplied for anxious thought upon the 
apparent hopelessness of one bishop fulfilling with anything 
approaching effectiveness his episcopal office over all Aus- 
tralia, and also for a time, New Zealand. This to a deeply 
spiritual nature like Broughton's cannot but have added to 
his weight of cares to an extent difficult to be realized by 
those of later generations. But though it was impossible for 
Broughton to give personal supervision to much of his huge 
diocese he yet kept in touch by reports and correspondence 
with the several settlements, and so entered into their diffi- 
culties and sent them his always wise counsel. Yet the wide 
distances and only occasional facilities even for postal com- 
munication gave opportunities for the growth of local 
irregularities in church administration that caused the Bishop 
a good deal of trouble. 

A very serious position arose at headquarters in Sydney 
which may be referred to now, because it also directly 
affected the whole diocese. The Bishop's unquestionably 

fSee ante Chapter VI. 


autocratic administration, 2 it will have been seen, made him 
distinctly unpopular with the civil authorities of the colony, 
and was openly challenged as being designed to make the 
episcopal head of the Church the governing factor in all 
matters in which her essential policy was concerned. His 
statesmanlike mind foresaw that finally the local government 
authorities, in their desire to make pro rata its contributions 
to the different denominations must, under a democratic 
constitution, dethrone the Anglican Church from the pre- 
eminent position originally assigned to it. And so in his 
correspondence with his English counsellors he faced the 
prospect of a system mainly of voluntary financial support 
of the Church by her people. The Bishop, as usual, con- 
sulted his trusted adviser, Mr Joshua Watson, and an ex- 
tract from one of his letters may be given to show his own 
attitude, and also again to record his unfailing gratitude to 
the S.P.C.K. and the S.P.G. for their continuous backing 
of his work that can never be overlooked in any review of 
the noble service rendered by the mother Church of Eng- 
land as the Empire developed, but which practically receives 
scant recognition from her daughter Churches to-day. 
Broughton pleads with his ever sympathetic friend: 

... Do not let us fade from your recollection, I intreat 
you, for indeed we have a difficult part assigned to us, and though 
we appear now at the bottom of the roll, yet I am persuaded we 
are laying the groundwork for a building of God which hereafter 
will attract no limited portion of attention; and our successors 
will form the advance guard, in this quarter, against a very furious 
assault from Papal and anti-Christian powers. My anxiety is still, 
while it is day, to provide some kind of defence and shelter for 
them that they may not come to such a contest quite naked and 
defenceless, and without any ground to stand on which they can 
surely call their own. You have received, I trust, and if so you 
have read with pleasure I am sure, the statement which was issued 
detailing the beginning and progress of our S.P.C.K. and S.P.G. 
diocesan committee of the two Societies. That was a very en- 
couraging and gratifying document to every lover of the Church 
of England (qf whom we have many here) and we are now en- 
gaged in printing our first annual report which continues, confirms, 

3 See ante Chapters VIII and X. 


and even extends, the promises of encouragement held out to us 
at our first incorporation. As soon as possible we shall be anxious 
to have the pleasure of forwarding copies to our friends at home. 
You may be assured that there is only one sentiment of gratitude 
and respect for the societies which have so befriended us, and whose 
merits and claims upon the goodwill of every churchman are now 
beginning only to be known in this distant hemisphere. I have no 
doubt that district committees will gradually spread into every 
parish in the Colony; and will form admirable and effective agents 
for collecting the necessary funds for keeping our churches in 
repair, the expense of which the Government has transferred from 
itself to the people. In fact, as we are even now very much under 
the "Voluntary System," and, unless a total change of measures 
shall ensue, must in a few years be wholly so, I am anxious to 
make my machinery as perfect as I can for introducing under 
another name the English parochial system. A "parson" of the 
parish, or a "corporation" of any kind, will not be heard of here: 
and therefore I have been driven to employ the best substitutes in 
my power to obtain the thing aimed at as nearly as may be practical 
without giving rise to jealousies on the part of those who could 
negative the whole scheme if they should suspect what my object 
is. To be sure our Bill has not yet passed the Council; but from 
all that has yet been said I am greatly in hopes it will be allowed 
to do so. If I should be able to send it to you in its present 
shape I hope you will give credit for my ingenuity in enabling my 
Trustees to hold property, and to have a perpetual succession, with- 
out becoming a Corporation: and in giving the clergyman a secure 
right of possession of the church and parsonage while the property 
in them is vested in others. However, I will not anticipate too 
much lest my budding projects should be cut off by an unexpected 
blast from some unfriendly quarter and never reach maturity. . . . 

The Bishop's Bill, generally known as The Church of 
England Temporalities Act, 1837 (8 Wm. iv. c. 5), passed 
the Legislative Council. 3 It recites an act of the preceding 
year introduced by the Government to govern the adminis- 
tration of all the religious bodies working in the colony and 
receiving grants in aid. It enacted, inter alia, that when 300 
had been privately subscribed towards the building of a 
church and parsonage the Governor might add a like sum. 
The trustees of the property and two churchwardens would 
be elected by the "subscribers" to the church fund. The 
Bishop's Act vested this right of election in the whole con- 

8 Historical Records of Australia. Series I, vol. xix, pp. 774, 776. 
Also Archbishop Lowther Clarke, Constitutional Church Government 
in the Dominions, pp. 80, 87. 


gregation, and also added a clause providing that no clergy- 
man should officiate without a licence from the Bishop, and 
should not occupy the parsonage after such licence had been, 
upon sufficient cause shown, withdrawn, cancelled, or re- 
voked by the Bishop. But the opposition of those in the 
colony at variance with the Bishop's policy of strengthening 
the position of the Church of England independently of any 
others of the religious bodies continued, and probably was 
revived two years later when Edward Coleridge, in 1839, 
sent Broughton over 3000 of further subscriptions from 
England. The Bishop, overjoyed at this noble contribution 
to his finances, promptly outlined to the enthusiastic collector 
of it a scheme for using the money in buying and stocking 
lands, from which profits might be expected that would 
provide at least a foundation for an endowment fund to- 
wards the incomes of the parochial clergy, who would 
thereby be partly independent of the "Voluntary System" 
which Broughton so seriously distrusted. But Coleridge 
gave no encouragement to this proposal, and he succeeded 
in dissuading the Bishop from it. 

It can scarcely be doubted that the fact of such a large 
amount of money being received from England, and the 
proposal of the Bishop for its investment, became known, 
at any rate in church and government circles, and would 
have been interpreted as an additional indication that he was 
continuing the endeavour to make the Church as far as 
possible free from the necessity for state aid. Some years 
later an attempt was made by his opponents to restrict the 
Bishop's episcopal power by conferring upon the clergy 
a life tenancy in church and parsonage buildings irrespec- 
tive of the restrictions imposed by the Bishop's licence. Of 
course there were no legal incumbents or parishes in those 
days (though the terms are often loosely used), the Bishop 
being the administrative ecclesiastical authority, and from 
him the clergy received their licences as chaplains, which 
they held unless withdrawn by the Bishop upon cause shown. 


Mr Robert Lowe, the Sydney barrister who afterwards rose 
to su'ch fame in English politics, was the most able and per- 
sistent of the antagonists to Broughton's administration, and 
it was he who, in 1846, tried to limit its power by giving 
legal rights to the clergy over the property they used, apart 
from the conditions of the episcopal licence. Writing to Ed- 
ward Coleridge on 3 October 1846, the Bishop says: 

Our most mischievous legislator, Mr Lowe (formerly Magd. Coll. 
Oxford), gave notice of a Bill to confer a freehold in their benefices 
on clergymen of the C. of Eng. It was introduced, read a first 
time, and fixed for a second reading on the 22nd of last month. A 
few days only could be had for preparation: I scarcely knew what 
to determine on. But the Bill was an atrocious attempt to oust 
the Bishop of all control and to confer it on the lay-trustees of 
each church. It was generated out of hatred to the Church 
universally, and partly to me personally. Therefore, oppose it I 
was determined I would; and, as the only resource, made application 
to be heard against it at the bar of the Council, which was granted. 
That it was an unseemly position for me to be placed in I was very 
sensible, and should I break down why then actum est. I went 
therefore knowing and feeling all the risk, but God, I trust, gave 
me support and I spoke for nearly two hours without embarass- 
ment, and with so much effect as totally to defeat the measure. The 
mover did not rally the Council at all, and there was a long inter- 
val before any one could be found to second him; and finally the 
Bill was "cast to the moles and to the bats" so we are safe for 
the present. ... 

It will be noticed that this was the second time that 
Broughton had pleaded successfully before the Legislative 
Council in support of church principles. As has already 
been explained 4 he was, as archdeacon, by royal warrant a 
member of the Council, but by official inadvertence the right 
had not been renewed when he became a bishop. But the 
Colonial Government's amended public education proposals 
were not submitted to the Council until 1839 after the ad- 
mission had been rectified and so he then spoke from his 
seat as a councillor. But some years before he asked to be 
heard "at the bar of the House" in opposition to Lowe's 
bill, he had resigned from the Council. 

See Chapter X. 


A case of discipline of a more definitely spiritual char- 
acter, and directly infringing episcopal (prerogative, had 
arisen in Tasmania in 1841. Broughton epitomized the facts 
in a letter to Joshua Watson on 27 November of that year : 

You will have heard before this time of the death of Archdeacon 
Hutchins. In consequence of this vacancy, Sir John Franklin, acting 
under the impression that he was empowered so to do by the letters 
patent of the (Tasmanian) archdeaconry, issued on the 3rd of 
June two commissions nominating a clergyman to perform the duties 
of archdeacon during his (Sir John's) pleasure, and to be the com- 
missary for the Bishop within the same archdeaconry, and subject 
to the Bishop "during His Majesty's pleasure" which, as Sir John 
is acting executive officer on the spot, means of course his own. 
I demurred to the propriety of these measures, made without refer- 
ence to me, and I held doubtful whether even letters patent from 
the Crown could authorize a layman to appoint that the duties of an 
archdeacon shall be performed by a person who is not an 
archdeacon in as full and ample a manner as the same 
may be performed according to ecclesiastical laws, by any 
archdeacon within the realm of England. Also by foisting in 
the phrase "during my pleasure," which words are not in the 
King's letters patent, I thought Sir John had exceeded his Com- 
mission, or encroached upon the Royal Prerogative, and that there- 
fore the appointment was upon this ground invalid. But in order to 
shew, while I maintained my own rights, that I was desirous in 
all points of consulting as far as was in my power the wishes 
of the Lieut-Governor, I forwarded two commissions regularly made 
out under my seal, nominating the same clergyman to exercise 
spiritual jurisdiction in my stead during the vacancy, and to be my 
commissary within the archdeaconry. Sir John, however, was 
advised to make no surrender, and accordingly sent back my com- 
missions to the Registrar, and determines to stand upon his own. 
I have, therefore, declined and refused to receive or acknowledge his 
nominee as invested with any right of spiritual jurisdiction, or in the 
capacity of my commissary, and have written to the Secretary of 
State explaining my reasons, legal and ecclesiastical, for declining 
to admit Sir John's nomination, and desiring that a remedy may 
be applied to meet this and all future cases of the kind. I have com- 
municated the same, as in duty bound, to the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury and to my worthy friend Archdeacon Todd. My wish is to 
enable you to judge how far it will be expedient that measures 
should be taken in England to maintain my objections. To me 
they appear important to the whole colonial Church. ... As you 
will perceive, I have told Lord John Russell (or his successor) that 
according to the present^ arrangement the Pope actually exercises, 
and is permitted to exercise, in my diocese an extent of jurisdiction 
and control which is at the same time denied to me. What I have 
mentioned to the Archbishop as my wish is that in future letters 


patent founding or conferring archdeaconries, the right of deter- 
mining and appointing the person who shall exercise spiritual juris- 
diction during a vacancy shall be vested in the bishop, and not in 
the officer administering the government. . . . 

The important principle involved in these Tasmanian cases 
again came into prominence in the same diocese, and in a 
graver form, a few years after the appointment 
of the first bishop, Dr Nixon. Unquestionably the eccle- 
siastical and the political elements in early Australian 
history were usually in opposition because the church 
authorities, at any rate during Broughton's regime, con- 
tinuously claimed the traditional independence of the 
spirituality, while the civil government, both in England 
and the colony, persisted in regarding the administra- 
tion of religion as a department of a quasi-military system. 
Bishop Nixon, as a rigid churchman, willingly co-operated 
in the policy of his episcopal brother at Sydney, and, it may 
easily be understood, thereby soon brought himself into con- 
flict with the Tasmanian local political authorities. Within 
a year of his consecration as bishop, Broughton had occasion 
to assert his inherent spiritual authority by placing before 
the Secretary of State for the Colonies a protest against 
Sir John Franklin's having assumed the right, without 
having reference to the Bishop, to cite before himself and 
the Legislative Council two Tasmanian clergy, one of whom 
accused the other of having altered an educational return 
after it had been completed and signed for transmission to 
the Government. Broughton intervened, and in the course 
of a lengthy correspondence, 5 submitted before the Secre- 
tary of State the Bishop's right under the licence issued to 
the clergy by their diocesan to exercise discipline over them. 
In a very long letter to the Secretary of State, the Bishop 
wrote : 

Every clergyman of the Church of England, allow me most respect- 
fully to urge, is liable to a jurisdiction which has full power and 

8 Report to House of Commons Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction in Aus- 
tralian Colonies (25 March 1850), pt. ii., pp. 17-26. 


authority to visit him for any offences he may commit in his ecclesias- 
tical capacity, and it is so universally acknowledged as to amount 
to an axiom of law that a British subject carries with him to all 
parts of the dominions of England the same constitutional rights 
which were ensured to him on his native soil subject only to such 
modification and abridgement as the conditions of the society to 
which he transfers himself may render absolutely unavoidable. I 
trust that it will be in my power to satisfy your lordship that with 
respect to the Bright of the clergy to be judged for ecclesiastical 
offences by their proper ecclesiastical superiors there is nothing so 
peculiar in the situation of the Church of England in this diocese 
as to render such abridgement necessary. 

Lord Glenelg replied that the clergy, like any other mem- 
bers of the community, were responsible for offences against 
the law of the State. Ultimately the Bishop's claim to be 
consulted was recognized. 

But the Home Government, through the Secretary of 
State decided, soon after Dr Nixon became the first Bishop 
of Tasmania, to secure ecclesiastical authority in Tasmania 
by instituting a system which invested 6 (obviously with the 
intention of handicapping the powers and authority of the 
Bishop), the Lieutenant-Governor, without officially con- 
sulting* the Legislative Council and without any reference to 
the Bishop but with the san'ction of the English authori- 
ties, with power to have a number of men who acted as 
"religious instructors to the convicts" admitted to Holy 
Orders and styled "Convict Chaplains/' working under a 
clerical "Superintendent" described as "essentially a civil 
officer." The Bishop had in some instances raised a few 
of these men to the ministry, but under the new scheme his 
concurrence was not necessary. 

It is remarkable that Archdeacon Marriott, of Tasmania, 
accepted this post of Superintendent, but the Bishop records 
that he recognized the Archdeacon had done so believing 
that thereby he was conserving the Bishop's authority. More 
remarkable still is it that the Archbishop of Canterbury gave 
his approval to this extraordinary innovation upon episcopal 

9 Charge delivered to the Clergy of the Diocese of Tasmania at the 
Primary Visitation on April 23rd, 18^6, by the Bishop. 2nd edition, pp. 
42-52 (London, 1848). 


functions. "Most keenly," said Dr Nixon (Charge p. 
"do I feel the responsibility that I take upon myself in ven- 
turing to differ from the judgment of su'ch a man, and to 
prefer my own opinion. . . . My simple answer is I dare 
not do otherwise. The persuasion, too, is strong within me 
that when His Grace's attention is turned to the real nature 
of these concessions (which appear to me to have been made 
without a due regard to the important principles involved 
in them), he will not find reason to quarrel with my de- 
cision/' Earlier in the Charge (p. 44) the Bishop had stated 
the issue with dignity and courage : "It is distressing to me 
to have even the appearance of captiously placing my- 
self in unseemly opposition to the powers that be ; but if it 
is required of me to ratify concessions which, however they 
may be disguised, amount in my opinion to an actual sur- 
render of the true interests and privileges of the Church, 
sorrowfully but firmly I declare that those concessions will 
never be confirmed by me let the consequences to myself 
be what they may." 

The jurisdiction of a bishop to exercise disciplinary 
authority over his clergy was effectually settled less than 
twenty years' afterwards, when the first Bishop of Adelaide 
(Dr Short) founded in 1854 the first synod of a diocese 
upon the consensual compact basis of bishop, clergy, and 
laity which Gladstone had so strongly commended to the un- 
established churches. 7 Under this synod constitution (which 
he had framed after 'consultation in England with three 
first-rank legal luminaries, of whom the most distinguished 
was the Attorney-General for England, Sir R. Bethell, sub- 
sequently Lord Chancellor Westbury), the three constituent 
parties to the synodal contract accepted a system of govern- 
ment for the diocese, which gave it a legal foundation. The 
chief difficulty in its formation was concerned with the 
question of property, and ultimately it was determined that 

T F. T. Whitington, LL.B., Augustus Short, First Bishop of Adelaide, 
pp. 143-54 (London, 1888). 


the clergy should hold their temporalities as tenants-at-will 
of the Bishop, to facilitate dealing with disciplinary cases. 
After the Bishop had resigned his see, in 1883, and re- 
turned to London while the election of his successor was 
under consideration, what seemed the autocratic authority 
which the diocesan had over church property occupied by the 
parish clergy met with some opposition, but in a reassuring 
letter to the London Times Dr Short outlined the safeguards 
provided for the clergy under the synodal constitution. 




PERHAPS it may be necessary, to prevent a wrong impres- 
sion of Bishop Broughton, to make it clear that he was by 
no means simply an ecclesiastic and a theological contro- 
versialist. He had a big constructive mind in dealing with 
material things, and also more than a little of the artistic 

It is surprising, because not much public notice has been 
'called to it, to find what a prominent part he took in pro- 
viding Australia with its first cathedral. Apparently he had 
a bent towards church architecture, for more than once 
while on his journey ings he had quickened the wish among 
the residents in some outlying bush centre to have a church 
by drawing outline plans and making suggestions as to con- 
struction for the building. In later days, in the church on 
the estate of Mr William Boydell, his son-in-law, on the 
River Albyn, he had a double reason for gratification 1 when 
it was consecrated, because he had been its architect, and he 
did a little manual work on the day before the ceremony 
in helping to finish the path leading the the church. 

When he came from England as archdeacon, Broughton 
naturally gave his first attention to familiarizing himself 
with the needs of his immediate surroundings in New South 
Wales and of Tasmania, but he had also discussed the 
somewhat precipitate action of Governor Macquarie in lay- 

1 See Chapter XL 


ing in George Street, Sydney, the foundation on 31 August 
1819, as recorded in his diary, for a cathedral in a colony 
not constituted a see until nearly twenty years later. The 
Governor must indeed have had an eye to the future, for 
the site (now in the centre of the city) was covered by its 
native timber and a good walk from King Street, then the 
southern boundary of anything like a considerable popula- 
tion. Near at hand was the public cemetery, an unfenced 
property, belonging to the Governor (never vested in the 
Church, as is often erroneously stated) and upon which the 
Town Half and municipal buildings now stand. But Gover- 
nor Macquarie's foresight in the interests of the Church was 
not permitted to bear immediate fruit. Within a few weeks 
of the cathedral stone-laying there arrived from England J. 
T. Bigge, the English barrister appointed to examine into the 
somewhat disquieting accounts that were being circulated as 
to the general position of the colony of New South Wales. 
He was accompanied, as his secretary, it will be remembered, 
by Thomas Hobbes Scott, an Oxford graduate, who a few 
year later, having taken Holy Orders, was made the first 
Archdeacon of New South Wales, a step in the ecclesiastical 
organization of the Australian settlement recommended in 
Bigge's report. 2 The superintendent of public buildings at 
Sydney, Mr Greenway, had prepared plans, before the Gover- 
nor's cathedral project took shape, for law courts to be built 
in King Street on the site of the present St James's Church 
and the foundation stone was laid by Governor Macquarie 
on 7 October 1819, and in the presence of Commissioner 
Bigge, who then had been only a fortnight in the colony. But 
when the Commissioner found that a movement was on foot 
to provide a church for the growing population in that 
locality, he decided that a church on the law courts' site 
would best supply all the church a'ccommodation required 
for a considerable time, so the now famous St James's came 

"Journal and Proceedings of the Australian Historical Society, vol. 
i, pt v, p. 83. 


to be built. The Commissioner disallowed the cathedral pro- 
posal, and the foundation-stone alone remained for some 
eighteen years as the sole witness to the cathedral move- 
ment. This proved fortunate, for when the alignment of the 
Sydney streets came to be adjusted, it was found that the 
cathedral stone would be in about the middle of George 
Street where it remained until 1837, the year following 
Bishop Broughton's consecration. 

From the official early maps it is said to be. clear that 
when Governor Macquarie decided upon the cathedral site 
he intended the block of land to extend from George Street 
to Kent Street. Even then, the area would .have been only 
sufficient for a cathedral of moderate size, with but little 
space for associated buildings and appropriate lawns. But 
upon Sir Richard Bourke's succeeding to the governorship, 
he took over (there were no title deeds) part of the Kent 
Street cathedral frontage 3 to about the centre of the block 
and sanctioned its sale, thereby destroying the possibility of 
the first capital city and the mother See of Australia, as it 
was then, being provided on its original site with a mother 
church befitting- the prospective (and afterwards realized) 
ecclesiastical traditions of Sydney as the seat of the Metro- 
politan of New South Wales the first ecclesiastical pro- 
vince formed in Australia. The official explanation said to 
have been made at the time of the reduction by direction 
of Sir Richard Bourke of the original area reserved for the 
cathedral by Governor Lachlan Macquarie was that an ex- 
tension would be made of Clarence Street past the cathe- 
dral to Bathurst Street, which would allow of an additional 
entrance and further add to the dignity of the cathedral by 
giving it three street frontages. But the extension of 
Clarence Street was not made. 

When in 1834 Archdeacon Broughton, as he then was, 

3 This area has recently (1936) been resumed by the State Govern- 
ment and handed back to the Church for the purpose of extending 
the present cathedral. 


made his first visit to England, he could not have failed to 
note tHat the reviving historic and devotional life of the 
Church of England was showing signs of being reflected 
both in structural restoration and internal appointments, in 
many of the old churches, upon the lines designed by their 
architects in the earlier centuries, while for new buildings the 
previously prevailing Classic was giving way to the later 
Gothic and the early Perpendicular styles. Doubtless all this 
specially attracted him, because in Sydney the cathedral re- 
mained to be built, and so he gathered much information and 
carried back as bishop to his diocese some sketches and plans. 
In 1837, the year following his return, the Governor, Sir 
Richard Bourke, notified his intention to remove the cathe- 
dral foundation-stone to a spot within the recently settled 
alignment of George Street, and Broughton urged that an 
altogether new design, following the lines of St Mary's, 
Oxford, should be prepared, and a tower after the famous 
one, which Broughton greatly admired, of Magdalen Col- 
lege, Oxford, put at the west end. Governor Macquarie's 
original foundation-stone was transferred to its new location 
on 1 6 May 1837, and upon it was duly recorded a Latin 
inscription (almost certainly composed by Broughton) of 
its unique history. The work of building went on until 1839, 
when the devastating drought of that year so paralysed the 
resources of church people that sparse funds were contri- 
buted to the cathedral, and at last building operations were 
suspended at the end of 1842. But although this had to be 
done, the Bishop seems to have kept the project before him, 
for in 1844, in a correspondence with his friend Canon 
Gilbert, of Grantham (Line.), in whom he had quickened 
a deep interest in the Australian Church and to whom he 
had sent an amended sketch plan of the cathedral, he says : 
"You must not judge of the north porch from this view ; it is 
not at all like it. The rest is accurate. If either of the 
architectural societies you speak of would take the pains to 
criticize and improve you may be sure I should be very 


thankful. I formed the design in 1837, when those societies 
did not exist, and no person here has the slightest ability to 
give me a hint or to suggest a correction. At that time I 
was more proud of my production than I have been since, 
or am now, subsequent study of church architecture having 
revealed to me many mistakes and anachronisms." A ser- 
mon preached some years later in Christ Church, Sydney, 
on behalf of the cathedral fund, at any rate shows that 
Broughton had the true ideals of a cathedral builder, and 
of the object which a cathedral should achieve. 

It is gratifying to witness the transfer of the fine conceptions of 
immaterial thought to the substance of an earthly material: to 
have the abstract ideas of beauty and proportion made visible to 
the bodily sense, and to hail the triumph of art in the development, 
step by step, of the many detached members which finally combine 
to form the harmonious and well adjusted whole. But how much 
deeper and more intense the gratification for those who can almost 
overlook the outward form and substance in contemplation of the 
ends to which they are designed to minister: who can see that the 
expanse of space which can be measured is but a symbol of the 
breadth of that "love which passeth knowledge" : who are able to 
rise to the comprehension that our cares, and labour, and expense 
are bestowed not for the sake of that building which is to be 
brought into existence but for the sake of those eternally subsisting 
truths which we humbly trust it will be instrumental in advancing. 
This is the true aim of our labour upon this building that it may 
collect and associate those who will stand hereafter as advocates for 
the faith of the Gospel: that it may enable them, and others, to 
consolidate the now too devious and unconnected aims in support 
of "the truth as it is in Jesus," and render us more effective defenders 
of that truth, strengthening among us that power of internal dis- 
cipline in which we are now too sensibly defective. These are 
among the important objects which they who can penetrate futurity 
perceive that the cathedral institution may, under God's blessing, be 
made effectual to accomplish 

Actual work in 'continuance of the building of St An- 
drew's was not resumed until after the forming of the 
Church of England Lay Association, designed to help the 
Bishop and the clergy in strengthening church finances. A 
number of young men were members of it, and chiefly by 
them an offer to help in raising money for the cathedral 
building was made to the Bishop, who welcomed the pro- 


posal and arranged a meeting at which the Lay Associa- 
tion suggested that they should aim at providing an annual 
contribution for cathedral purposes. In the first year of 
their effort they raised 4000, and the prospect of strong 
support justified a return to building operations in April 
1846, with E. T. Blacket, who had recently come from Eng- 
land, as architect in charge. But again the subscriptions 
languished, partly owing to the forming of the parish of 
Christ Church to the south of St Andrew's, the spiritual 
needs of the surrounding district being thereby supplied. 
And so, as sufficient money was not available for 
going on with the permanent structure, it was de- 
cided to put up a wooden pro-cathedral near to where 
the deanery was built many years afterwards. This build- 
ing the Bishop recognized as his cathedral, in place of St 
James's, King Street, where the earlier official church func- 
tions had been conducted, and it continued so to be used 
until the consecration of St Andrew's Cathedral in 1868. 
During this long interval but little progress was made 
with the building, a contributing cause being a discussion 
as to whether the proposed single tower at the west end 
should be proceeded with, or whether for this should be 
substituted the double towers befitting the cathedral of a 
metropolitan see. The cramped site that Governor 
Sir Richard Bourke had left for St Andrew's increased 
the difficulty of the problem. While the matter was still 
under debate Bishop Selwyn came on a visit from New Zea- 
land, and his emphatic advocacy of the two towers was ac- 
cepted as the final decision. The building was kept going 
so far as the finances allowed, and it is of interest to note 
that in 1849 tne Bishop of Calcutta, Dr Daniel Wilson, 
who had been Broughton's diocesan until the founding of the 
See of Australia, notified that he hoped to subscribe 100 
to the Sydney Cathedral fund. In the letter he said: "My 
health is naturally failing in my 72nd year, but I feel the 
same lively interest in all the ten dio'ceses into which the see 


of Calcutta has been happily divided as I did when I was 
nominally the Bishop of them all." 

When in 1850, the six Australasian bishops met at Syd- 
ney for conference as to the possibility of securing a measure 
of self-government for the Church in their dioceses, they 
visited Sydney Cathedral, of which the nave and aisles were 
nearly completed, and the happy suggestion was made that as 
there were six pillars in the nave, they should be associated 
with the bishops by their names being severally carved upon 
the pillars, and some years afterwards this was done. This 
excellent example of helping to make history by using the 
first Australian cathedral as a shrine for the commemora- 
tion of those who, including bishops, clergy, and laity, did 
pioneer service in planting the English Church in the mother 
colony of Australia is worthy of being widely followed. 
Among those so commemorated in St Andrew's are Richard 
Johnson, first Australian chaplain; Samuel Marsden, his 
successor; Thomas Hobbes Scott, first archdeacon; William 
Grant Broughton, first Bishop of Australia; Ven. W. Cow- 
per, D.D., only archdeacon appointed by Bishop Brough- 
ton ; Mr James Norton, first Sydney dio'cesan registrar ; and 
Mr Thomas Moore, first local munificent benefactor to Syd- 
ney diocese. 

Another serious hindrance crossed the path of the com- 
pletion of the cathedral when, in 1851 the discovery of gold 
in rich quantities in the interior of New South Wales soon 
grew into a fever that disorganized all classes of the com- 
munity and made building operations of any kind all but 
impossible because of the fabulous prices to which materials 
and wages soared, masons demanding 263. a day, and con- 
tractors being at their wits' end to procure, and pay for, 
materials. In the middle of the year it was decided to post- 
pone much of the work that had been arranged for at the 
cathedral, but after being resumed in sections in the suc- 
cessive years it was considered ready for use some seven- 
teen years later. But the western towers were not added 


until 1874. Probably the small population of Sydney in the 
times when its lines were being- laid down and the unattrac- 
tive prospect of the 'colony may have limited the outlook 
of those, both in Church and State, who were responsible 
for erecting a cathedral on so limited a site, and accounts for 
the total outlay being only 160,000. The inadequate area 
of a century ago has now (1936), however, been enlarged 
by resumptions made on behalf of the Church by the State 
Government. It was to this action and to the sum of money 
also promised that the present Archbishop of Sydney re- 
ferred in his synod charge in October 1935. 

"The Government is giving us," so the Archbishop said, 
"20,000 a year for five years, the first instalment to be- 
come payable on July 1st next, in settlement of all outstand- 
ing claims in respect of resumptions of property and the 
encroachment on the original grant of land. This settle- 
ment of the Cathedral question has met with general appro- 
val. It is of the utmost importance that the opportunity 
presented by this additional land being handed back to 
the Church should be taken advantage of to erect a Cathe- 
dral and other necessary buildings which shall be really 
worthy of a city of the size and importance of Sydney. The 
proposal will include plans for a Cathedral enlarged to seat 
between 2000 and 3000 persons, a Chapter House to seat 
1200 persons, a greatly enlarged Church House, an adequate 
choir school, and a residence for the Dean." 

Scarcely second in importance to his duty in helping to 
provide his diocese with a 'cathedral would Broughton have 
reckoned his work as vice-president (the Governor being 
ex o'fficio president) of the Church and School Corporation, 
the body of local officials who became trustees in whom was 
vested the administration of the one-seventh of the unoccu- 
pied lands of New South Wales allotted by the English Gov- 
ernment as an endowment for the promotion of religion and 
education in the colony. It is not quite intelligible why the 


-? ' 


~^~ ! . ^& <r-/s< 



From the original in the possession of Mr William Dixson. 

, x 

. "S*zi? 




Home authorities adopted this policy of a state endowment 
of the Church of England, when it is remembered that it 
had been introduced into Canada in 1791, 4 only thirty-five 
years before the formation of the Australian Corporation, 
and was already rousing the opposition of the other Cana- 
dian religious bodies. Probably at headquarters in England 
the official opinion was that as Canada was an English 
possession she must be administered as far as possible in 
accord with English ecclesiastical as well as civil law. But 
the opposition in Canada to the state church system con- 
tinued to increase in urgency till in 1854, in sympathy with 
the trend towards local political self-government that had 
grown in strength throughout the British colonies, 
the Canadian provincial legislature decided to resume the 
"Clergy Reserves" lands still unoccupied, which were sold 
and the proceeds applied to unsectarian education. 

It seems worth while to supplement and complete the 
story of church endowment by lands in Australia after 
Archdeacon Broughton's unsuccessful attempt in England 
in 1834 to secure at least a postponement of the entire dis- 
solution of the Church and School Corporation. Notice of 
this had been given in 1829, in a dispatch dated 27 May, 
the day before Broughton left to take up the work of his 
archdeaconry, but he had not been notified of what was 
being done, although for four months previously he had 
been in frequent personal communication with the Home 
authorities. But it was found that through some office 
irregularity in London the instructions were invalid, and 
afterwards no active steps were taken by the Home Govern- 
ment until 1833, when the Corporation was legally dis- 
solved, but not until 1838 were any of the lands advertised 
for sale. And the Bishop then persuaded the Governor 
to submit only a part of the estates to auction, as he pro- 
posed to approach the English authorities to protect the 

4 Archbishop Lowther Clarke, Constitutional Church Government in 
the Dominions, pp. 78-80, 207-9. 


equity rights of the Church under the original charter, which 
provided that if the Corporation were dissolved, "all the 
lands should revert to the Crown to be held and applied 
and disposed of in such manner as to the Sovereign for 
the time being should appear most conducive to the main- 
tenance and promotion of religion and the education of 
youth in the said Colony." From its founding in 1826 the 
Sydney trustees had up to 1829 received grants of land 
amounting to more than 435,000 a'cres, of which they had 
sold or leased 16,000 acres, which produced a net income 
of several thousands of pounds from rents, and the wool 
and sheep and cattle for market, from the unleased land 
which the trustees farmed themselves. But this revenue 
could not be capitalized, as it was needed to support actual 
church work; stipends of the clergy had been assisted; 
churches and parsonages built ; and schoolhouses and school- 
masters provided, The King's School, Parramatta, the first 
institution for higher education in Australia, being the most 
notable recipient of help given for educational uses. 

The definite action by the local Government of announ- 
cing its intention to sell some of the lands in 1838 was pro- 
bably the fruit of a long dispatch by Governor Bourke in 
1833 to the .Secretary of State in which he reiterated his 
well-known views that the Corporation estates should be 
made available for the religious and educational uses of all 
the colonists. 5 But the dispatch remained unanswered for 
two years, when a new Secretary of State replied, at con- 
siderable length, notifying that the Ministry agreed in the 
main with the proposals submitted to them. An ordinance 
of the Legislative Council of New South Wales was passed, 
removing the management of the temporal affairs, both of 
the churches, and the schools, from the Archdeacon, the 
Executive Government resuming the control of them, which 

6 W. W. Burton, State of Religion and Education in New Bouth 
Wales. Appendixes X and XI. Also pp. 38-40. 


they had exercised prior to the granting of the Church and 
School Corporation. 

In a letter to Joshua Watson in 1844, which discloses that 
the formation of additional bishoprics in Australia (which 
Bishop Broughton had often forecasted) was coming to be 
regarded as ripe for consideration, the Bishop discussed the 
income of the original bishopric, pointing out that it con- 
tinued to consist of the 2000 per annum from the con- 
solidated revenue of New South Wales fixed when the 
archdeaconry had been established, and consequently that, 
depending upon the vote of Parliament, there was no security 
for it beyond the life of its then holder, the Bishop. Under 
these circumstances, the Secretary of State had, to quote 
the Bishop's letter, directed "that there should be annexed 
to the See of Australia in perpetuity 40 acres of land ad- 
joining Sydney," but upon condition that any rental derived 
from it should be regarded as part of the episcopal income, 
in diminution of his stipend of 2000 a year. The Bishop 
urged that this reduction should not be insisted upon, but 
that on the contrary he should receive an extra 40 per 
annum in view of his intention to surrender "iooo a year" 
to assist in constituting new bishoprics in Australia. He 
might, he thought, get some help from the Colonial Bishop- 
rics Fund for himself. With a rental of 300 a year for an 
inadequate house, and continuous heavy outlay on long jour- 
neys and other incidental expenditure, only about half his 
present income remained to him. This episcopal glebe, the 
Bishop recognized, in any event, could not produce any 
appreciable revenue for him, but he described it to Joshua 
Watson as "the most important property we possess," for it 
gave a legal foundation for the endowment of the see. He 
also discussed with the Governor the survey of the land for 
leasehold purposes, and the extension of the length of 
tenure. Broughton's foresight has been altogether endorsed 
by the after-development of the episcopal, glebe, which now 


provides the foundation for the local element in the income 
of the See of Sydney. 

It is suggestive to note that not only had Bishop Brough- 
ton unusual business capacity, but also that his personal 
influence seems, as such influence often does, to 
have, at any rate in one remarkable instance, brought 
large financial support to the Church. About twenty miles 
from Sydney on the Liverpool Plains it was the Bishop's 
custom when he visited the locality to receive the hospi- 
tality of its principal resident, one Thomas Moore, who 
may be well described as the first large benefactor to the 
Australian Church. He was a man of humble origin, but 
obviously of strong character, that led Governor Macquarie 
to use him as the informal agent of the Government in 
many directions. In return for this public service the Gov- 
ernor advanced Moore's interests in several, ways, and at 
length he became a man of much substance, and also had 
won the respect of his neighbours, which his wife shared 
with him. They were without children, but Mr Moore had a 
stepson, born to the wife by a former marriage, and they 
were able to secure service for him in the Royal Engineers, 
where he attained to a captaincy. Reading between the 
lines of the Bishop's letters to his English friends, it is 
evident that the Moores had a strong regard for the Bishop, 
and as loyal churchfolk, they were liberal supporters to 
diocesan and parochial funds, and Moore had superintended 
the building of the local church. The Bishop, in the course 
of his English correspondence, more than once mentioned 
that the owner of the property had confided to him that 
he intended in his will to remember the Church, but the 
Bishop added that he had impressed upon this godly layman 
that a man's first duty in such matters was to help all his 
natural relations whom he considered had any reasonable 
claim. Upon the death of Captain White, the stepson, 
and of Mrs Moore within a year afterwards, the way was 
altogether open to Thomas Moore to carry out his pious 


intentions, but the Bishop preferred that his personal friend, 
Judge Burton, formerly of the New South Wales Bench, 
should conduct thie negotiations for the Church, rather 
than that he should do so. The outcome was that, upon 
Moore's death in 1841, property in lands and houses valued 
at about 20,000 passed to the Church. The bequest pro- 
vided that the principal residence on the estate and 2000 
acres should be set apart as a residence for the occupant of 
the See of Sydney, upon the expiry of the current lease. 
When Judge Burton visited England, Joshua Watson and 
he devised a scheme for buying the leasehold at once and 
putting Bishop Broughton in possession, and they also ob- 
tained from the S.P.G. a promise to finance a chaplain for 
the Bishop, who would also be available for emergency 
clerical duty, of which Broughton had himself to take the 
greater part because all his staff were continuously occu- 
pied. But as the purchase of the Liverpool leasehold would 
have absorbed a goodly sum and the distance from Sydney 
would seriously affect episcopal work at headquarters, and 
as the proposed chaplain was mainly intended to lessen the 
Bishop's office work, he firmly asked that the proposals 
should not be pressed, and his good friends had to give 

On the Liverpool estate there was another house which 
Mr Moore occupied towards the close of his life. This he 
directed should be the site of "a college," to be endowed 
with the testator's lands in and around the township of 
Liverpool. Towards augmenting the stipends of the clergy 
he allotted 4000 acres, and a Sydney property let at 420 
a year was left to Sydney Cathedral. There was also a large 
amount of money to be applied for the benefit of a number 
of specified church purposes. 6 The trustees of the will de- 
termined to apply the college bequest to the foundation 
of a theological institution for the training of candidates for 

"Report of Moore Theological College 1916, by Archdeacon D. J. 
Davies, M-A. (Cantab.), the principal. 


Holy Orders, and so Moore College came into existence. 
But no actual steps were taken until after Bishop Barker 
succeeded to the see, and gave much encouragement and 
financial support to the project. Mr Moore's homestead, 
"Moorebank," became the home of the principal of the 
college, and many additional buildings were connected with 
it. The chapel appropriately bears the name of Bishop 
Broughton. Moore College was opened in 1856 and re- 
mained at Liverpool for thirty-three years, 157 students 
passing from it into the Ministry during that time, two 
becoming bishops. In 1889 the college was transferred to a 
site adjoining St Paul's College, University of Sydney. In 
the ensuing quarter of a century 200 more clergy received 
their training in the college, so that the total up to date 
must be quite an imposing one. 

Besides the godly layman, Thomas Moore, the name of 
an English clergyman who, like Mr Moore, had associations 
with Bishop Broughton, and showed the same pious muni- 
ficence towards the Australian Church in the early days, 
should be mentioned in recalling some of the sources of the 
financial help given to the Church's foundation work in 
pioneer times. Probably the existence of the Rev. Dr S. W. 
Warneford is unknown but to a few Australians, though 
a small Hobart street bears his name, and it is reasonable 
to suggest that Bishop Broughton by his public acknowledg- 
ments of the good clergyman's benefactions may have led 
to this simple memorial of him. He was a Gloucester vicar 
with apparently ample private means, and evidently looked 
upon his wealth as a trust to be largely devoted to religious 
uses. As a close friend of Joshua Watson he, like Brough- 
ton, made that wise counsellor an adviser as to objects 
worthy of his charity, and so he came to hear of the Bishop 
of Australia and his far-extending diocese. Upon Mr 
Watson's recommendation, the Bishop wrote in 1838 at 
length to the Gloucester vicar, indicating some of the urgent 
necessities of the Australian Church, and correspondence 


followed, but the two never met. When Judge Burton made 
a trip to England two years after the Bishop's letter, Joshua 
Watson brought Dr Warneford and him together, and the 
Bishop's plans and difficulties were laid before the good 
clergyman by his enthusiastic lay helper in Sydney. The 
first financial fruit of the mutual conversations was 1000 
given by the Doctor for general educational purposes in 
Australia. Help followed towards the theological library, 
for which Edward Coleridge and other English friends had 
already gathered a goodly collection of books. And there 
must have been other ways in which Dr Warneford sup- 
ported Broughton, for it is recorded. 7 "He was a warm 
admirer of Bishop Broughton's character, never mentioning 
his name without some expression of esteem, and of this 
esteem he afterwards gave sufficient proof by his bene- 
factions to the see of Sydney." 

7 Edward Churton, Memoir of Joshua Watson, vol. ii, p. 60. 


FROM one with Broughton's firm hold upon the necessity for 
apostolic order, as well as gospel teaching, in the 
extension of Christianity, it was to be expected that he 
would be often found in his private letters as well as in his 
public utterances insisting that the provision of clergy to 
minister in Australia must, as soon as practicable, be fol- 
lowed by bishops to supply the Catholic ministerial organ- 
ization in its completeness. But none would have under- 
stood better than he that the slow progress of the settle- 
ment of a free population upon the far-spreading lands, and 
the expense of maintaining a bishop, with the incidentals of 
his office, on a very moderate scale, were elements in the 
problem that must always be carefully considered. The 
financial aspect, the Bishop often urged, would not be serious 
if civil governments accepted the upkeep of religion and 
education as a first charge upon land revenues, and if pri- 
vate holders of estates recognized that voluntary offerings 
for the same purpose were due from them as a part of 
their duty to God from income accruing from the products 
of the soil. In his episcopal charge of 1841 he treated this 
question at some length and with uncompromising plain 
speaking. Yet despite all the difficulties, and the conscious- 
ness that his counsel was regarded as "the voice of one 
crying in the wilderness," the good Bishop sounded with 
increasing urgency, as the years rolled on, his slogan "We 
must have bishops." 




The Colonial Bishoprics Fund must, by its sympathy 
and support, have been his main earthly source of con- 
solation in this sphere of his activities, and his persistent 
appeal for the subdivision of his enormous diocese may 
well be credited as at least partly the cause of the launching 
of the fund, though the glory of getting it founded be- 
longs to that earnest protagonist of the extension of the 
Church of England throughout the British colonies in the 
middle of the nineteenth century, Bishop C. J. Blomfield, 
of London, ably seconded in the organization of details by 
the enthusiastic secretary of the S.P.G., the Rev. Ernest 
Hawkins. In his encouragement of the work of the 
S.P.C.K. and the S.P.G., Bishop Blomfield, in concert with 
Broughton's friends, Joshua Watson, Edward Coleridge, 
and H. H. Norris, must have heard much of Australia and 
its first bishop. 1 By his letter to the Archbishop of Can- 
terbury (Howley) in 1840 the Bishop of London took the 
lead in the movement for the development of the colonial 
episcopate and laid down the fundamental principle which 
should govern it. He wrote: 

The difference between our past labours in the work of erecting 
colonial churches and those which are now called for must be 
this that whereas we formerly began by sending out a few in- 
dividual missionaries to occupy detached and independent fields of 
labour, unconnected with one another by their relation to a common 
oversight in the execution of their task although deriving their 
spiritual authority from a common origin, and then after an inter- 
val of many years placing them under the guidance and control 
of bishops, we should now, after having supplied the wants of those 
older churches which are still destitute of the benefit of episcopal 
government, take care to let every new colony enjoy that blessing 
from the very first. Let every band of settlers which goes forth 
from Christian England with authority to occupy a distinct territory 
and to form a separate community take with it not only its civil 
rulers and functionaries but also its bishop and clergy. 

Shortly after the publication of this courageous letter the 
Archbishop called a meeting of 'clergy and laity, and what 

1 Rev. Ernest Hawkins, Hon Sec. Colonial Bishoprics Fund: 
Documents relating to Additional Bishoprics in the Colonies (1841- 
18&5), p. 12 f. (S.F.G., London). 



may rightly be described as an amazing gathering, remem- 
bering the dominant temper of the Church of England at 
the time, took place in Willis's Rooms, London, which was 
overcrowded by an assemblage of bishops, clergy, lawyers, 
doctors, and business men. When a report of the proceed- 
ings reached the Bishop of Australia he characterized it as 
"a miracle," and, referring to Bishop Blomfield, added "and 
will entitle his name to veneration in this hemisphere so 
long as the sun and moon endureth." The munificent finan- 
cial support it at once called forth may be taken as an in- 
dex of the deep impression it had made. The S.P.C.K. 
started the fund with a noble 'contribution of 10,000, and 
the S.P.G. followed with 7500. The Church Missionary 
Society guaranteed 600 a year, earmarked for New Zea- 
land. The Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of 
London each subscribed 1000, and there was a long list of 
other large contributors. The Archbishop of Canterbury, at 
the suggestion of this meeting, then arranged for a gathering 
of all the bishops at Lambeth Palace on the Tuesday in 
Whitsun Week, 1841, and the whole episcopate agreed to 
be appointed as trustees, while as treasurers to the proposed 
fund, Mr Justice Coleridge and Messrs W. E. Gladstone, 
J. G. Hubbard (who purchased the ruins of St Augustine's 
Monastery at Canterbury and gave them as the site for St 
Augustine's College) and W. H. Hale were secured. And 
so the Colonial Bishoprics Fund was legally constituted, and 
within twelve years endowed from the 140,000 received as 
the result of the inaugural meeting in 1841. The original 
capital of the fund had been supplemented by 33,000, 
mainly provided by the noble generosity of Miss (afterwards 
Baroness) Burdett Coutts for the endowment of the sees 
of Capetown and Adelaide. And Bishop Broughton, who, 
prior to the establishing of the fund, had offered to sur- 
render half of his income of 2000 a year towards providing 
bishops for Melbourne and Newcastle, New South Wales, 
was allowed to contribute 500 per annum for that purpose. 


In 1848, the year following the consecration of the four 
colonial bishops in Westminster Abbey, the treasurer of the 
Colonial Bishoprics Fund reported to its trustees, the Bench 
of Bishops, that the great total of 173,00x3 had been all 
allocated. The Archbishop of Canterbury (Sumner) con- 
vened a public meeting in Willis's Rooms, 2 London, on 
20 April 1849, to P ut before the Church the details of the 
increase of the episcopate in the overseas colonies from the 
ten sees of 1841 to the twenty-five of 1848, and also to ap- 
peal for money to carry on further work. All but three, 
Western Australia and Northern and Southern India, of 
the centres first 'commended by the originators of the fund 
as needing episcopal oversight, had already become sees. 
Provision for Indian bishoprics would probably not be made 
from the Colonial Bishoprics Fund. In other directions, 
however, the demands upon it would inevitably grow. 
The Rev. Ernest Hawkins (secretary of the fund), 
in his address, made the impressive statement that 
the number of clergy had increased within the areas of the 
new sees, from 274 when the Colonial Bishoprics Fund was 
founded, to 503 in the twelve years which had since elapsed. 
The large number of emigrants into the British colonies, 
he said, would also open up fields for more bishops, and 
already in some of the more thickly settled colonies the 
question was even now being raised of subdivision of the 
original dioceses. It was estimated that 10,000 would be 
needed for the endowment of each new see, and 5000 for 
settlement of clergy in the new dioceses, with other inciden- 
tal expenses. At the close of the meeting 4000 was sub- 
scribed, including 500 from the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury. The story of the Colonial Bishoprics Fund deserves 
wide publicity, for it may well prove ah inspiration for 
churchmen in every generation. And Australia has much 
cause for thankfulness that the first Bishop of Australia 
evidently took a prominent part in the launching and sup- 

3 Colonial Church Chronicle, vol. vi, p. 438. 


port of it. He had reported to the Archbishop and to his 
English friends that the local Government of New South,. 
Wales had decided to fix its financial grant in aid to re- 
ligion and education, at a block sum for all the denominations 
at 30,000, of which about 17,000 a year would be allotted 
to the Church of England. It would therefore be desirable, 
he urged, for the church authorities to settle their policy 
for the subdivision of the See of Australia, so that the 
17,000 could be at once equitably allocated in view of the 
proposed new conditions. 

At the request of the Archbishop, the Bishop supplied 
Canterbury with a lengthy preliminary report of recom- 
mendations as to how best to utilize the remarkable pro- 
vision that had been made for extending the episcopate in 
the huge Australian continent, suggesting that two more sees, 
covering, as he said, "half a million square miles," should 
be established, one including the seven northern 'counties 
of New South Wales, with Newcastle as its 'centre, and 
covering the Moreton Bay district, the Queensland of to- 
day ; the other, with Melbourne as the see town, comprising 
the whole of the Port Phillip district, now the State of Vic- 
toria. To the Diocese of Australia would remain the twelve 
counties of New South Wales after seven had been allotted 
to Newcastle. 

The delimitation of the three dioceses inevitably 
gave rise to inquiries as to the best available men for 
the new bishoprics, and this led to suggestions, in private 
correspondence, that show what' significant 'consequences 
might have happened if some of these suggestions had been 
carried out. Broughton had submitted for the new See of 
Melbourne the name of only one of the clergy then working 
in Australia, in answer to an inquiry from the Archbishop, 
the Rev. R. Allwood, a Cambridge man holding the incum- 
bency of St James's, Sydney, and Bishop Broughton's valued 
helper in the training of candidates for ordination. But 
Mr Allwood pleaded weak health as an insuperable difficulty 






in the way of his acceptance. As the breach between Bishop 
Nixon, of Tasmania, and Sir John Franklin, because the Gov- 
ernor claimed the power of disciplining the clergy without 
the concurrence of the Bishop, had resulted in strained 
relations, Broughton next hinted in a letter to Edward 
Coleridge that the Tasmanian bishop might be transferred 
to Melbourne. This led to Coleridge's telling the Bishop 
that his own name was being brought forward for Adelaide. 
To this Broughton offered strong opposition because he re- 
garded the proposal as a totally inadequate recognition of 
Coleridge's great services to the Colonial Church. He wrote : 

If you are to come to a colonial bishopric the only station worthy 
of you will be India or here (Sydney). I say here because from 
the continual augmentation of Australian sees, which has not yet 
reached its limit, and from the step recently taken at Rome of 
creating an archbishopric, it is plain that we must shortly have also 
a metropolitan in these parts, and that may indeed be a station suited 
for you. Were it proposed to me, it would be, speaking with full 
sincerity, the most painful offer ever made to man. I could not 
resolve to take it, if for no other reason, yet for the Apostle's "his 
bodily presence is weak, and his speech contemptible." Indeed 
I do not mean by any false assumption of modesty to undervalue 
the services which in fourteen years' hard work I have been mar- 
vellously enabled to render here, but I do seriously think and say 
that when the course of events leads on to the necessity of a higher 
and more conspicuous dignity, it ought to be committed not to me 
but to a younger man, and a more personable man. I have carried 
things perhaps to the point which my qualifications were best suited 
for, and there may be a fresh impulse necessary which a successor 
would communicate with more effect. There is Moore's College to 
bring to maturity, in connection with the King's _ School at Parra- 
matta and the Grammar School at Sydney which are to be its 
feeders; there is the Cathedral to complete; and there are half a 
dozen other undertakings plainly marked out to immortalise the 
doer of them. Without retracting therefore my caution as to your 
relinquishing your present post, I do say that if you are to enter 
upon any colonial bishopric, your proper post will be that of 
Metropolitan of Australia, and though I am prepared to go on with 
it so long as Providence appoints me to the task, I should never- 
theless very willingly surrender the charge into your hands. New 
Zealand would fall of course under the jurisdiction. I did once, 
slightly refer to the subject in writing to the Bishop of 
London, and you are quite at liberty, if the project should be can- 
vassed, to lay all that I have now said, and to dispose of me as you 
think best. You will ask me what do I myself propose to do? I 


reply that if my two dear children were moderately provided for 
(which would not be difficult) I have, no anxiety about myself. About 
400 a year, with the use of books, would give me all that I want, 
or my wife would want, for we are well matched in moderation 
of desires. But that which has fixed itself strongly in my thoughts 
is the design, which I wrote to you about last year, of having an 
institution in England for the preparation of candidates for Orders 
in the Colonies, beyond what the Universities may supply. The want 
of qualified clergymen is a serious calamity here and everywhere. 
If any such institution could be drawn together, and your able 
relative Bishop Coleridge would not undertake the guidance, I think 
that as an unworthy substitute I might do good, and that would be 
the way in which if I were to leave my present charge it would 
be my desire to be employed. At any rate, do not go to South 
Australia. There is no opening there worthy of you. Here you 
would have a hard battle to fight, but upon a stage where you 
may prove your qualities to the full. Indeed I know no grander 
destiny, nor one which would call forth more extended powers 
whether of mind or body. I do unfeignedly say that it is beyond 
mine or very soon will be, for at fifty-five, which I am very nearly, 
it is not natural that a man should be fitted for the endurance of 
continually increasing cares and duties, which in a new and growing 
world like this must necessarily be expected. I assure you in all 
this I am perfectly serious, although I would not say it to any- 
body but you. But if events work in the course I have supposed, 
and you have the inclination to encourage them in so working to- 
wards the consummation now mentioned, you have my full permission 
to act as the advantage of the Church may seem to you to require. 
If in twelve months you were to send me word that such an arrange- 
ment was so far settled as to leave no doubt of its being carried 
into effect I should very speedily avail myself of the leave of 
absence which you would procure and send me, and should lay my 
hands on you as my successor with gratitude and a safe conscience, 
because it is obvious that you would be equal to the burden. But 
notwithstanding all this, my dear Coleridge, when South Australia 
is offered to you, as you say it probably will be, let me entreat 
you to ponder well, to consult your own conscience, and the 
judgment of your friends, before you agree to accept it. My 
hesitation on your behalf, I repeat, is founded on the question which 
I cannot but entertain, whether you are not in your present station 
forwarding the cause of the colonial churches as effectively as you 
could do if you were to undertake the oversight of any one of 
them in particular, even of this which stands at the head of this 
hemisphere. . . . 

The unveiling of his soul to which Broughton shows he 
was moved by the discussion about the new bishops throws 
a beauteous light upon the depth of the spiritual nature of 
this usually reserved and austere man, with its striking 


admixture of personal humility and yet glorious readiness 
to respond to the call of duty. An earlier instance of the 
manifestation of this occurred in the first years of his Aus- 
tralian life. On the death of Bishop James, of Calcutta, 
who was Broughton's diocesan, attention was turned to the 
Archdeacon of New South Wales as a possible successor. 
When Broughton heard of this from his English friends 
he wrote with pathetic earnestness, disclaiming his fitness 
for such an important post, and beseeching that his name 
should not be brought forward, but he added that if the sug- 
gestion were made to him by the authorities of the Church 
he must consider whether it was not a rightful appeal to his 
duty. There is no further reference to the matter in his 

It may be concluded that Broughton was strongly in- 
fluenced in not pursuing the intimation he gave to Edward 
Coleridge that, if he could hope that the Eton master would 
succeed him in the See of Sydney, he would be quite ready 
to return to some such post as the wardenship of St Augus- 
tine's College, Canterbury, by a charming letter from Mr 
Justice Coleridge. The letter also deals, as a matter of 
news, with the sturdy Tractarian lawyer's view of the im- 
pending secession of Newman, and the attitude in general 
of the English bishops towards the Tractarian Movement. 
The Judge writes: 

Edward offers to inclose a note from me to you, and I venture 
on the liberty of writing a few lines. I am sure you must be aware 
of the deep interest with which I watch your proceedings, and how 
entirely I sympathize with you in the disheartening difficulties with 
which you have to contend. Our consolation here is that it has 
fallen on such as you are to encounter them, and we cannot 
entertain a doubt that you are strengthened and supplied, and will be, 
from above, in proportion as your difficulties grow upon you. With 
these feelings I assure you that it would dismay me much, if you 
were to "look backward." I am far from holding upon this point 
extreme doctrines, and I think that a bishop even had in many 
cases better not die in harness the public good, and a reasonable 
consideration for his own most precious interests may make a 
case for his retreat. But this time is not yet come for you, so far 
as we can judge by what you do and I cannot help thinking that to 


retreat just when the conflict is becoming most warm and the oppon- 
ent most powerful and active, would be very prejudicial to the 
cause. Excuse me, too, for thinking that though we here cannot 
judge so well on many parts of the question as you there especially 
in a matter so much dependent on yourself yet, on the other hand, 
you may be under feelings and temptations which may sometimes 
unfavourably affect your own judgment on the matter. Will you 
excuse my freedom in saying all this, and set it down only to 
the sincere and strong desire I have to retain your services for 
the diocese? 

You will be glad to glean from anyone intelligence as to the 
Church here especially in the conflict which divides her. The papers 
will inform you, and (may be) magnify, the importance of the in- 
opportune discussions which have lately taken place, and Newman's 
resignation of his living. The former are capable of satisfactory 
explanation, I mean as regards Newman; but the latter is not so 
easily disposed of, and will give a strong colour to what has been 
said, and whatever may occur. I regret it exceedingly unless he 
feels that he cannot conscientiously exercise the priestr ir office in our 
communion (which as yet, I am told, he disclaims) no vexation, I 
think, or misunderstanding should have driven him to this step. If 
he says, "I wish to show that you will force such men as me out 
of your communion," in the hopes thereby to arrest the course of 
his opponents, he should consider also how much the very step he 
has taken is likely to urge them on in their course. The man who 
drives a dog mad is only the more convinced that the dog was mad 
when he began to drive him. I own I am strongly led to think 
that there is a good deal of this same driving in the proceedings 
of our Spiritual Fathers. The truth is, I fear, that the Church was 
brought to this crisis when the studies of Churchmen had little 
prepared them to deal with it. 

I remain, my Lord, with the greatest respect, and the most sincere 

Your faithful well-wisher, 

The selection of the first bishops for Melbourne, Adelaide, 
and Newcastle, with the Rev. Robert Gray, vicar of Stock- 
ton-on-Tees, who became the courageous upholder of the 
Church's doctrine as Bishop of Capetown, was officially 
completed early in 1846; and some extracts from the his- 
toric documents, and brief personal notes concerning the 
Australian bishops-elect, is all that can, for want of space, 
be given as introductory to a short account of the consecra- 
tion in Westminster Abbey on St Peter's Day, 1847 which 
is often spoken of as "the birthday of the Colonial Church." 


A full report of this epoch-making ceremony, -which may 
rightly be so regarded in relation to the planting of trite 
Church of England in the British Empire, will be found 
in the Colonial Church Chronicle, 3 a monthly magazine es- 
tablished to further the expansion of the Church in the 
British Dominions, and ably conducted by an honorary 
literary staff for twenty-seven years, the profits being given 
to the Colonial Bishoprics Fund. 

On 25 February the Rev. Ernest Hawkins, as honorary 
secretary of the Colonial Bishoprics Fund, wrote to W. E. 
Gladstone, Under Secretary of State for the Colonies: 


With reference to the letter of His Grace the Archbishop of Can- 
terbury to Lord Stanley, dated 2ist July, 1845, I am directed to 
inform you that the Bishop of Australia, with a view to the imme- 
diate subdivision of his diocese, has consented to transfer 600 a year 
of his episcopal income for the endowment of a bishopric at Port 
Phillip, without any other stipulation than that of the annexation of 
the forty acres of land in the neighbourhood of Sydney to the 
Bishopric of Australia. 

The committee for the erection and endowment of bishoprics in 
the colonies have on their part, in addition to the grant of 1200 
for the purchase of an episcopal residence at Melbourne (as noti- 
fied in the letter to Lord Stanley) agreed to allow a sum of 500 
for a purchase of land for the endowment. 

Under these circumstances, I am to express the earnest hope of 
the committee that Her Majesty's Government will be pleased to 
take immediate measures . for the erection of Melbourne into a 
bishop's see. Should you, as empowered by the Act of 5 and 6 Vic. 
c 76 schedule C, think fit to order a perpetual appropriation of the 
2000 the income received by the present Bishop to the support 
of the Episcopate in Australia, permanent provision will be made 
for the two bishoprics. 

On 20 March following, Mr Hawkins writes to Mr Glad- 
stone : 

The Colonial Bishoprics Committee having learned from His Grace 
the Archbishop of Canterbury that the Government was prepared to 
sanction the appropriation of the annual sum of 500 to each of 
two new bishoprics to be erected within the present Diocese of 
Australia, provided that two-thirds of that amount were furnished 
from other sources, have directed me to inform you that they will 

' See vol. i, pp. 41-60. 


guarantee out of the monies at their disposal the proportion of 
income required by the Government for the endowment of the two 
sees namely 333/6/8 per annum for each. This income they pro- 
pose to secure by investment in land in the Colony of New South 
Wales, and I have only to express an earnest hope on the part of 
the Colonial Bishoprics Committee that Her Majesty's consent may 
be obtained with the least possible delay for a measure which Cannot 
fail to strengthen and consolidate the Church of England in that 
portion of Her Majesty's Dominions. 

Eight days later the Archbishop of Canterbury (Dr How- 
ley) writes to Gladstone: 

I have read with the greatest attention the draft of a despatch which 
it is your intention to address to Governor Sir Charles FitzRoy con- 
taining instructions with respect to the division of the see of Aus- 
tralia into three sees, and to the means of providing competent 
incomes for the bishops of these sees respectively. The plan as 
drawn out in this despatch appears to me to be admirably calculated 
to effect an object indispensable to the due administration of eccle- 
siastical government and consequently to the advancement of pure 
religion and morals in that most important and extensive colony. 

The terms in which you speak of the Bishop of Australia's pro- 
posal, on which this arrangement is founded, are particularly gratify- 
ing to me. The disregard of personal interests, and zeal for the 
interests of our holy religion, manifested on his lordship's part can- 
not be too highly estimated. From his hearty co-operation with the 
Governor, and the assistance which will be derived from his long 
experience and sound judgment in carrying put the general scheme 
and arranging the details, I anticipate the most satisfactory results. 

Allow me to suggest that the appropriation of a moderate portion 
of land to each of the new bishoprics would, if practicable, be very 
desirable, and might hereafter furnish the means of improving the 
incomes of the bishops, which are now unavoidably fixed on the 
lowest scale. 

In a postscript His Grace adds: "It is my intention to 
write to the Bishop of Australia by next Tuesday's mail for 
the purpose of apprising his lordship of the nature of the 
instructions sent out to the Governor, and of my entire con- 
currence in the proposed plan." 

In a dispatch dated 30 March, Gladstone, writing to the 
Governor of New South Wales, Sir Charles FitzRoy, on the 
subject of Bishop Broughton's proposal to give up part of 
his income towards formation of bishoprics of Melbourne 
and Newcastle, says : "It is my obvious and gratifying duty 


to request that you will, on the part of Her Majesty's ad- 
visers, convey to the Bishop of Australia the very strong 
sense which they entertain both of the eminent purity and 
disinterestedness of motive by which his lordship's munifi- 
cent offer has been prompted, and of the wisdom of the plan 
itself with reference to the interests of the' Church over 
which he presides." The Bishop of Sydney's income was fixed 
by this dispatch henceforward at 1500. It can only be sug- 
gested that the English Government allowed Bishop Brough- 
ton to surrender even 500 a year, the amount finally agreed 
upon, of his income from an insufficient knowledge of the 
facts, although Mr Justice Burton, of the New South Wales 
Bench, when he visited England a few years before the sub- 
division of the bishopric of Australia, had pressed upon 
Broughton's friends that the original stipend, fixed in the 
Bishop's letters patent, of 2000 per annum was not ade- 
quate, there being no episcopal residence and very consider- 
able expenses for travelling and other expenditure incidental 
to his office, and a substantial part of this expenditure re- 
mained to be met by him after the division of his see. It 
seems impossible that a devoted churchman like Gladstone 
should have individually approved of permitting Bishop 
Broughton to make such a heavy financial sacrifice towards 
extending the Australian episcopate. He probably only acted 
as the mouthpiece of the English and Colonial Governments. 
The suggestion that the poor Bishop should also agree to any 
revenue from the Bishop of Australia's glebe of forty acres 
being deducted from his reduced income of 1500 a year only 
made the whole incident look more deplorable, but Brough- 
ton properly objected in the interest of his successor to this 
being done, and the proposal seems not to have been pressed. 
All the important details for the creation of the new sees 
having been settled, Gladstone addressed a formal letter 
of information to Her Majesty Queen Victoria, and besought 
her royal consent to what had been agreed upon, 'and 


had received the approval of the Archbishop of Canterbury. 
In a concluding sentence Gladstone wrote that he "had 
great satisfaction in beseeching Your Majesty's favourable 
consideration of these arrangements, alike on account of 
their intrinsic advantage and of the eminently disinterested 
proceeding on the part of the Bishop of Australia, by which 
they have been rendered practical." The Queen in giving 
the consent asked for expressed the hope "that the two new 
bishops will be very carefully chosen." A review of the 
prolonged negotiations for securing fitting occupants for the 
new bishoprics shows that the wise caution advised by Her 
Majesty had been already before the minds of those who had 
the heavy responsibility of making recommendations cast 
upon them. And the results of their work proved that each 
had justified the confidence placed in him. 

Referring to the bishops who were secured for the Aus- 
tralasian Church as the fruit of the Colonial Bishoprics Fund, 
two of them prior to the St Peter's Day 1847 consecration, 
George Augustus Selwyn, consecrated in 1841 Bishop of 
New Zealand, the first see founded by the Bishoprics Fund, 
brought glory to the band of bishoprics under the Southern 
Cross, and set a noble example to those who were soon assor 
ciated with him. After graduating from St John's, Cam- 
bridge, with a second in the classical tripos, and ultimately 
receiving a fellowship, he worked as a private tutor at his be- 
loved Eton. Soon after his ordination to the priesthood he 
accepted what was actually a curacy in charge of Windsor, 
the rector being non-resident. Then came the offer of the 
bishopric of New Zealand, where he did his wonderful work 
until called to Lichfield on the express wish of the Queen. 
He was one of the trusted advisers of Broughton in the cam- 
paign for the self-government of the Colonial Churches. 

In the year following Selwyn's appointment to New Zea- 
land, the Colonial Bishoprics Fund enabled Tasmania to be 
raised to an episcopal see, as Bishop Broughton had urgently 


recommended. 4 Francis Russell Nixon, the first bishop, was 
a clergyman's son, educated at Merchant Taylors' School and 
St John's, Oxford, where he obtained a probationary fellow- 
ship, having graduated with a third class in classics. After 
ordination he served as chaplain to the Embassy at Naples, 
which may account for his life-long love of Italy. Returning 
to England he held in succession the parishes of Sandgate 
and Ash in Kent, and became one of six preachers of Canter- 
bury Cathedral. In his thirty-ninth year the Archbishop of 
Canterbury (Howley) nominated him to the Tasmanian see, 
and he was consecrated by Bishop Blomfield, of London, 
under commission from the Archbishop, in Westminster 
Abbey on St Bartholomew's Day, 1842. As a definite church- 
man he endorsed Bishop Broughton's policy for the Church 
in Australia, and Broughton strongly supported the Tas- 
manian Bishop in his opposition to the claim of the Gover- 
nor, Sir John Franklin, to exercise discipline over the clergy, 
because they were government chaplains, without reference 
to the Bishop. Bishop Nixon in his sixtieth year resigned his 
see after an episcopate of twenty-one years, and accepted the 
rectory of Bolton Percy, near York, from the Archbishop. 
But failing health drew him back to Italy, and having friends 
near Lago Maggiore he passed the evening of his days among 
them. Queen Victoria, with whom the Bishop had been 
brought into contact during her Italian holidays, formed a 
high opinion of him, and sent her physician to him in his last 
illness. He died in 1889, and his grave is in the cemetery, 
which he had himself consecrated, of Stressa. 

The consecration in Westminster Abbey on St Peter's 
Day, 1847, f tne three other Australian bishops thereby as- 
sociated with the Bishop of Australia, was celebrated with a 
dignity that happily contrasted with the services attending 
the setting apart for the episcopate of Broughton and 
Selwyn respectively, in Lambeth Palace Chapel, 5 of which 

4 R. A. Giles, Constitutional History of the Australian Church, p. 51. 
6 See Chapter V. 


they severally expressed disappointment and which Edward 
Coleridge vigorously criticized. Not only was the later conse- 
cration celebrated in the venerable fane which Anglicans have 
come to regard as the cathedral of the Empire but, in ex- 
pectation of an unusually large congregation, the wooden 
screens dividing the transepts from the choir were re- 
moved, thus providing space for 1600 people, and 
when all this became filled the Dean issued an order that 
every possible spot in the Abbey should be made avail- 
able. The consecration came, at its jappointed place 
in the Prayer Book, in a choral Eucharist, the occa- 
sional sermon being preached by the Bishop of London from 
St John xxi, 17. With his accustomed courage and enthu- 
siasm, Bishop Blomfield proclaimed the ancient doctrine of 
the apostolic ministry, and the obligation upon the Church 
in successive generations to labour for its maintenance and 
expansion. Speaking of the Church of England, the pre3.cher 
said : 

The Church's exertions in behalf of her remoter branches have 
been miserably inadequate to the exigency of the case. Whatever 
has been done for the enlargement of her boundaries and for the 
spiritual well-being of her children has been done by a compara- 
tively small number of persons. The members of Christ's mystical 
body have not sympathised with one another, nor laboured for the 
increase of the body itself, in any measure answerable to the plain 
requirements of Christian duty. Of the noble and wealthy of the 
land, those to whom others naturally look for an example, the num- 
ber v/ho have contributed to that holy and indispensable work is so 
inconsiderable that it is painful to think of. Let us pray the Lord 
of the harvest that He will put into the hearts of those of His 
servants whom He has entrusted with the means, to forward by an 
equitable measure of liberality the ingathering of souls into the 
garner of the Church. . . . 

In his special exhortation to those about to be consecrated, 
the preacher said : 

My brethren upon whom we are about to supplicate a special effu- 
sion of the Holy Spirit for the "office and work" of bishops "in 
the Church of God," bear forth with you the Church's benediction 
to her distant children, and tell them that while her prayers will 
ascend to the Mercy Seat for their edification and growth in grace 


under your pastoral government and paternal care, she greatly needs 
in return their prayers and yours for a larger measure of the influ- 
ence of that Holy Spirit upon her "bishops, and curates and all 
congregations committed to their charge," that they may be "watch- 
ful and strengthen the things which remain," and remember what 
they have received and heard, and hold fast and repent. Your zeal 
and order and harmony will be a testimony against our luke- 
warmness and confusion and divisions; your prayers in our behalf 
may possibly make that admonition effectual. It is thus that though 
absent in the flesh we may be joined together in the spirit, mutually 
fulfilling the most important duty implied in the communion of 
saints, strengthening each other by prayer and intercession. 

There were fourteen bishops, from Europe, Asia, Africa, 
America, and Australasia, at the service, 760 communions 
were made, and the alms amounting to 550 were given to 
the Colonial Bishoprics Fund. 

In its report of the consecration, the Colonial Church 
Chronicle* wrote : "Surely there has not been such a Com- 
munion in this our day, nor, as we believe, for ages in the 
Church here in England," and the writer very aptly quotes 
from St Augustine's commentary on Psalm xliv: "Vide 
templum Regis quam late diffusum est. . . . Haec est Cath- 
olica Ecclesia : filii eius constituti sunt principes super omnem 
terrain, filii ems constituti sunt pro patribus. Agnoscant qui 
praecisi sunt, venlant ad unitatem, ndducantur in templum 
Regis. Templum swum Deus ubique collocavitj fundamenta 
Prophetarum et Apostohkum ubiqu.e firmavit. Filios gemit 
Ecclesia,, constituit eos pro patribus suis principes super 
omnem terram." 

It is satisfactory to be able to record that the three bishops 
consecrated for Australia on that ever memorable St Peter's 
Day reached the high standard for bishops under the South- 
ern Cross which had been set by their two predecessors, 
Selwyn in New Zealand and Nixon in Tasmania. It is said 
that, quite informally, Gladstone, many years after the for- 
mation of the new sees, once observed referring to the whole 
five men: "There were giants in the earth in those days." 

Vol. i, p. 45. 


Charles Perry, first Bishop of Melbourne, went from Har- 
row to Cambridge intending to read law. He graduated from 
Trinity College as senior wrangler, first Smith's prizeman, 
first class in the classical tripos, and became a fellow of his 
college. His high scholarship gave him much influence in 
moulding the educational life of Victoria, and his cultured 
Evangelicalism made him a special power in the counsels of 
the Australian Church. Augustus Short, first Bishop of Ade- 
laide, graduating from Christ Church College, Oxon, took 
a first class in classics, and after some work as a private 
tutor he received a tutorship from his college, and became 
a junior censor. At Christ Church he came into touch with 
men who afterwards rose to distinction, among them Glad- 
stone, Pusey, Archibald Campbell Tait, Lord Shaftesbury, 
Canning, and Archbishop Longley. Many years later, in 
the library at Bishopscourt, Adelaide, to nervous candidates 
going through the ordination mill, the Bishop, during the 
blessed interval for afternoon tea, would often tell, en 
passant, how he had taken "Gladstone through Thucydides 
at Christ Church." The future bishop was also honoured 
by a Bampton lectureship. He identified himself with the 
Tractarian Movement, and corresponded with Pusey and 
others in relation to it, but was perturbed by Tract 90, and 
joined in the condemnation of Ward's Ideal of the Church, 
but refused to concur in its author's being penalized by the 
University. After his marriage he accepted the living of 
Ravensthorpe, in Northamptonshire, whence he was called 
to be first Bishop of Adelaide. With his educational experi- 
ences he from the first made higher education a prominent 
plank in his policy, and became Chancellor of the Univer- 

William Tyrrell, first Bishop of Newcastle, was a Charter- 
house boy who passed on to St John's, Cambridge, where he 
graduated senior optime. He had as his undergraduate 
friend George Augustus Selwyn, the two being first drawn 

From an engraving in the Mitchell Library, Sydney. 


together by their love of sport, especially rowing. After 
serving a curacy at Aylestone, near Leicester, where he re- 
mained for five years, he accepted from the Duke of Buc- 
cleugh the Hampshire rectorate of Beaulieu, in which he 
stayed until called to the episcopate. He was much loved by 
his parishioners because of the deep personal interest he 
showed in them. His friendship with Selwyn continued 
after university days, and upon the founding of the bishopric 
of New Zealand his old college chum urged him to accept 
an archdeaconry there, but Tyrrell decided to continue in his 
English parish. The strong friendship between the first 
Bishop of New Zealand and him was not broken by their 
wide separation, and when Tyrrell consented to become the 
first Bishop of Newcastle (New South Wales) they were 
drawn closer together. Their mutual definite churchmanship 
gave them an additional bond of sympathy, and they de- 
lighted to work together for the general good of the Aus- 
tralian Church. 

After their consecration the three new bishops, Mel- 
bourne, Adelaide, Newcastle, while preparing for embarka- 
tion to their dioceses occupied such time as they found avail- 
able in visiting centres in England where they gave informa- 
tion about Australia and the Church's work awaiting them 
there. 'Meanwhile Bishop Broughton wrote to the S.P.C.K. 
and S.P.G. societies and to his personal friends and sup- 
porters letters expressing profound gratitude for the won- 
derful recent development of the attitude of the mother 
Church of England towards her children overseas, and for 
the remarkable financial help given for expansion work in 
the British colonies. He then turned to the heavy and 
anxious task of formulating, in concert with the authorities 
in England, plans for inaugurating the preliminary mach- 
inery for starting the new dioceses, an undertaking that 
must have consumed much time and energy. But he saw 
the value it would be to him under the changed conditions to 



provide an archdeacon who in his official capacity could be 
of much use to himself and his diocese. He nominated in 
1858 to the office the Rev. William Cowper, D.D., who had 
been ordained in England as a colonial chaplain in 1809 and 
served a long ministry at St Philip's, Sydney, where he won 
the esteem of his people, as they showed by subscribing over 
700 for their clergyman to visit England for treatment for 
serious eye trouble, from which he practically recovered. 
Dr Cowper was thus the first Australian archdeacon selected, 
in accord with ecclesiastical usage, by the bishop under 
whom he was to serve. He continued in office until his death 
in 1868, and lived to see his son, who had graduated at Ox- 
ford. Dean of Svdnev and vicar-general of the diocese, who 
bv his gentleness and goodness won the affection of all 
classes and schools of thought in the diocese. 

The Bishop soon had the happiness he felt at the planting 
of a band of bishops greatly clouded by domestic sorrow. 
On the eve of St Bartholomew's Day, 1848, he was stricken 
by a severe attack of influenza. After more than a fort- 
night's illness a fatal ending to it was anticipated, but an 
improvement came and the patient passed the crisis, though 
his medical advisers gave the warning that his progress was 
slow, and it would be long before he could hope to do any 
work. All through the time of his sickness the most devoted 
of his nurses was the wife who had been the sunshine of his 
life. As the Bishop passed through his long convalescence 
he must have noticed that Mrs Broughton did not spend so 
long by his bedside, but upon being told that she had suf- 
fered a slight accident to an ankle he concluded that suffici- 
ently explained the position. The fact was that the beloved 
wife had been smitten by erysipelas, which all unknown to 
her fond husband had reached a critical stage and ultimately 
had a fatal ending. It was decided that the Bishop must be 
told of the affliction that had come to him, and he bore it as 


might be expected of such a great Christian. All Sydney 
showed deep sympathy. St James's Church was crowded 
for the obsequies, and the procession to the cemetery ex- 
tended a quarter of a mile in length. Mrs Broughton was 
regarded as a high type of the cultivated religious English- 



BROUGHTON, both as archdeacon and bishop, was primarily 
concerned with the task, in itself almost overwhelming, of 
planting and extending, of administering and guiding the 
Church of England in the colony : almost overwhelming, be- 
cause of the immense area to be covered and of the lack of 
resources both in funds and in clergy, under which he con- 
stantly laboured. But along with this, he found himself faced 
with another task almost as exacting and demanding other 
gifts than those of the pioneer builder, the task of maintain- 
ing and upholding the position of the Church of England, 
both in the eyes of her own members and in face of attacks 
prolonged and bitter from outside. Those other gifts, how- 
ever, gifts of theological and historical scholarship, gifts too 
of clear-sighted courage and persistence, the Bishop proved 
himself to possess in abundant measure; and by their exer- 
cise at a critical juncture of history, and on the distant field 
of New South Wales, he rendered a signal service not only 
to the infant Church in the colony but to the Anglican com- 
munion as a whole. 

The Bishop's convictions with regard to the position in 
Christendom of the Church of England are stated again and 
again in visitation addresses, sermons, and letters. He held 
that the Church of his baptism and his ordination was the 
truest embodiment to be found of primitive and scriptural 
Catholicism, and displayed "in doctrine and Constitution the 


most accurate model that existed in the world of the primi- 
tive form of the Holy Catholic Church." Her peculiar char- 
acter had been determined at the crucial epoch of the Re- 
formation. It was then that, without denying or severing 
herself from her past, she had liberated herself from later 
Roman accretions in doctrine and practice, and had made 
the undivided Church of the early centuries the standard by 
which she would be guided in framing her constitution. 

Foremost among those later and unwarranted accretions 
from which at the Reformation she had set herself free, was 
the doctrine of papal supremacy, and the conception of auth- 
ority which it implied. In the light of history, Broughton 
repudiated the assertion that upon the Pope, as the successor 
of Peter, was bestowed a universal jurisdiction by divine 
right, and held rather that "the government of the Church 
was meant to be vested in a body of co-ordinate bishops 
(each keeping the truth within his own diocese) and not in 
a body of bishops all subordinate to one." "Where and 
what is that authority?" he wrote in reference to the same 
subject. "My own conviction is that it resides in the Church 
collective, the keeper and witness of the truth, having 
authority in controversies of faith, and that the organ for 
its administration is the Episcopate apostolically derived, 
and firmly exercising its proper powers." 

The sentences just quoted appear in letters addressed to 
his friend Coleridge in September and December 1845. Cole- 
ridge appears to have written "of the growing impression 
that our Church is in a state of schism," with the implica- 
tion that submission to Rome was the logical step 
to be taken on the part of those who held this 
view: and the Bishop's letters are of profound in- 
terest in view of events in England, and not least 
of Newman's secession to Rome at this very time. 
Yet neither this tragic step, nor the arguments upon which 
it was based, could move the Bishop, as it also failed to 
move Keble, Pusey, and many others, from his allegiance to 


the Church of England or his belief in the unassailable char- 
acter of her position. He gives careful historical evidence to 
prove that in reference to Roman claims, "there is no symp- 
tom of a universal headship jure divino," and asserts that 
Rome "cannot prove either the institution of supremacy or 
her own pretention to hold it if it were even instituted." 

"The hope of the world," the Bishop maintained, "is still 
bound up with the cause of the Reformation, as it was un- 
dertaken and carried on within the Church of England." 1 
The sermon in which these words occur was preached in St 
James's, Sydney, on Whitsunday, 1849, on the occasion of 
the Tercentenary of the first use of the Book of Common 
Prayer in the reign of Edward VI, "a form of prayer, which, 
we may with admiration and gratitude contend, has done 
more than any other human composition whatever to cause 
the sound of the Gospel to go into all the earth." 2 On the 
same occasion he deprecated the "prevailing tendency to de- 
viate on the one hand, no less than on the other, into dan- 
gerous extremes, forsaking that middle way in which a seri- 
ous thoughtful spirit of piety, under the true guidance and 
teaching of the Church, would incline men to walk." 3 It is 
indeed the term "middle way" which, in the view of the 
Bishop, provides the truest indication of the position of the 
Church of England. She stands in a central place between 
two extremes and has constantly to sustain her position as 
such against aggression from either side. "It has been," he 
said, "the hard lot of the Church of England, that she has 
had to contend, first for the reduction of the limits of belief 
to a correspondency with 'the foundations of many genera- 
tions'; and, that object being effected, to sustain her mod- 
erate views against a spirit which would proceed to tear up 
the sacred foundations themselves, nor ever rest until every 
venerable and decent appendage of the Church should be 

. Grant Broughton, D.D., Sermons on the Church of England, 
p. 58 (London, 1857). 

'ibid., p. 54. 'ibid., p. 58. 


surrendered to the dominion of a rude self-will. It is still 
our arduous and anxious task to find the narrow middle way 
of truth and salvation, as it winds between the camps of en- 
croaching and impatient adversaries who hem it in on every 
side." 4 The Bishop's own prolonged battle for the rights of 
the Church, as he cherished them, against dissent on the one 
hand and Rome on the other, is a striking commentary on 
the truth of his contention. "Romanists on the one side," 
he wrote in September 1839, "and the Dissenters on the 
other allow me no rest: but their malignant abuse weighs 
little with me, and I hope not much with the respectable 
part of the community." 

It was in the appeal to antiquity that the Bishop felt that 
the Church of England stood on unassailable ground. "The 
declared design of the Reformers of the Church of Eng- 
land," he said iti a sermon, "was not to institute anything 
new, but to restore that which was most ancient and edifying 
in the form and order of the Church of Christ; that which 
was apostolical, that which was primitive, that which was 
catholic; abolishing whatsoever was merely Roman, the off- 
spring of the papal system, and therefore comparatively 
modern." Preaching again at an Ordination Service in De- 
cember 1842, the Bishop pleaded with those on whom he was 
about to lay hands not to allow themselves "to forget where- 
in its strength consists in the superior antiquity of every 
doctrine which we admit, and in the comparative recency 
of those which, with a daring innovation upon the primitive 
faith, the modern Church of Rome has embodied in her 
creed. It may be fearlessly affirmed, that not one of those 
particular tenets the tenets which we reject can be traced 
higher than the fourth century, at the utmost; while every 
article of belief which, after most patient scrutiny, the Eng- 
lish Church has retained as necessary to salvation, resting 
upon the testimony of Scripture, must be as old as the apos- 

Mbid., p. 188. 


tolic age. This is the true point of difference between the 
Churches." 5 

It was from this standpoint, that it was "of divine institu- 
tion, and of apostolical derivation," that Broughton vindi- 
cated the ministry of the Church as retained in the Church 
of England. Implicitly, if not explicitly, that ministry rests, 
he maintained, on the purpose and action of Christ Himself, 
in His institution of the Apostolate and His promise to be 
with them always even unto the end of the world. The 
Bishop sees the functions of "governments, teachers, helps," 
in St Paul's enumeration, as perpetuated in the threefold 
ministry of bishops, priests, and deacons. He strongly up- 
holds the retention of the term Priest and Priesthood against 
those who objected to its continuance in the Church on the 
alleged ground that "we neither have, nor pretend to have, 
any real sacrifice to offer," maintaining, as against this plea, 
that if the whole body of Christians may be termed "holy" 
and "a royal priesthood" in virtue of their offering of spirit- 
ual sacrifices, then "with a full and direct applicability may 
this title be transferred to those who minister in holy things 
under the Gospel covenant; who, in virtue of their office, 
stand forward to present before God the memorial of that 
one sufficient sacrifice which Christ once made, and of those 
spiritual sacrifices which the congregation offer, of them- 
selves, their souls and bodies, unto Him." 6 

Similarly he vindicates the retention of episcopacy and 
episcopal government in the Church of England against 
those who denied it "scriptural foundation and apostolical 
authority." He explains how between the two terms elder 
and bishop, used by St Paul indifferently of the same officers 
of the Church, a differentiation came to be made, under 
which the latter came to be applied to those who in succes- 
sion to the Apostles governed the Church. "For these 
reasons- the title of apostle was abandoned; and that of 

6 ibid., pp. 185f. "ibid., p. 175. 


bishop, or overseer, was assumed, as distinctive of the single 
ruler of the Churches within a particular district, instead 
of being attributed in common to all elders, as it had been 
heretofore, while episcopal power continued to be vested in 
the apostles." 7 

The Bishop was equally definite in his teaching of the Sac- 
raments. "The whole system of the Sacraments," he said, 
"rightly interpreted and understood, is the most powerful of 
all calls to holiness ; while on the other hand it is the most 
awful and threatening of denunciations to those who live in 
the neglect, perversion, or corruption of these holy pledges." 
In a sermon on the Sacrament of Baptism, preached on 
Whitsunday 1850, the very year in which the Judicial Com- 
mittee of the Privy Council gave judgment in the Gorham 
case, that the denial of baptismal regeneration was not con- 
trary or repugnant to the declared doctrine of the Church of 
England as by law established, Broughton maintained that 
"in our baptism we were born of the Spirit," that baptism 
carries with it "the heavenly gift of regeneration," 8 and is a 
means whereby we receive spiritual grace," at the same time 
insisting on the need of renewal and sanctification, and the 
disciplined life which these involved, if the grace of baptism 
is to prove effective. Similarly he urges the importance of the 
regular reception of the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper. 
"We cannot more surely," he said, "be made partakers of the 
salvation, which by His Cross and Passion He has thus pur- 
chased for us, than when we kneel in adoration before Him 
in that place, where, as His apostle says, 'the bread which 
we break is the communion of His body ; the cup which we 
bless is the communion of His blood.' " 9 

He lays stress, too, on the reality of the apostolical com- 
mission of the remission and retention of sins given by our 
Lord, as continued in the ministry of the Church, and 
presses, in face of objections, for the occasional use of pri- 

1 ibid., pp. 178f. 8 ibid., p. 94. ibid., p. 115. 


vate confession and absolution, as provided for in the Prayer 
Book, alongside the more general form. "It is said that the 
form, 'I absolve thee from all thy sins/ savours of arrogance. 
But why, if 'I absolve thee' be objectionable, is not 'I bap- 
tise thee 5 equally so? seeing that the one form denotes 
admission into the kingdom of heaven by an act of minis- 
terial authority ; and the other a continuance in it, dispensed 
by the like authority." 10 And again, in the Ordination ser- 
mon from which the above quotation is taken, he pleads that, 
"because some can dispense with the more direct and explicit 
absolution, the same is not, therefore, to be refused to 
trembling and desponding souls, who feel the burden of their 
sins, but cannot, though truly penitent, make application to 
themselves of the merits of a Saviour's righteousness." 11 

Thus the Bishop was a strong champion of the Church of 
England and her liturgy, and brought the rich stores of his 
learning and devotion to her defence. He saw, however, 
very clearly that the real strength of the Church lay not so 
much in reasoned apology, as in the devotion of her priests 
and people, and in the full and regular use of the provision 
which she made for daily and weekly acts of worship, sober, 
dignified, and inspiring. He saw that the real danger to the 
Church lay in "the admission within her sanctuary, and the 
adoption into her general approval and practice, of those 
cold, meagre, unimpassioned views of piety for feelings I 
cannot call them by which her true character would be 
destroyed; the attractiveness of her sober fervency, and 
habitually-recurring exercises of devotion, being replaced by 
a chill, formal, unfrequent, and (it may be feared) reluc- 
tant compliance with her invitation to rejoice heartily in the 
strength of her salvation." 12 There were many souls who 
needed more than this to sustain their religious life, and who 
"miss among us those necessary aids and encouragements," 13 

"ibid., p. 166. "ibid., p. 167. 

"ibid., p. 191. 13 ibid., p. 192. 


and in default of finding them in the Church of England 
might well be tempted to seek them elsewhere. 

In the Bishop's teaching as outlined above, his conception 
of the Church of England, in the purity of its doctrine and 
constitution, and in particular its appeal to apostolic anti- 
quity, its adherence to a primitive scriptural standard of 
Catholicism, in the view which he expresses as to its min- 
istry, its divine institution and apostolic derivation, the im- 
portance which he attaches to the Sacraments, and the stress 
which he lays on loyalty in practice to the liturgical standards 
of the Prayer Book, we are irresistibly reminded of the 
teaching of the early Tractarians, and of the reawakening 
of the Church of England and her ministry to a new sense 
of her origin, character, and mission which was the purpose 
and achievement of the Tractarian Movement. It would 
indeed be not untrue to speak of the Bishop as himself a 
Tractarian, in his outlook and teaching. He had left England 
too early to come directly under the influence of the early 
leaders of the Oxford Movement. He had, however, as has 
been shown in an earlier chapter (XII), intimate friends 
who were in close sympathy with the Movement, and on his 
long visit to England in 1834-5 may well have watched at 
first hand its early beginnings. Certainly his teaching was 
in close accord with theirs and he had a warm regard 
for their work. In a charge to his 'clergy, delivered 
in St James's Church, Sydney, on 6 October 1841, he ex- 
presses "his thankfulness to those among ourselves who have 
ventured, at this crisis, to promulgate what I must con- 
sider the juster view of the nature of the ministerial func- 

In a letter dated October 1837, he writes: 

You mention Mr Newman's sermon. I have not seen it: for works 
of merit in that class come very rarely and slowly to these shores. 
But your introduction of his name reminds me to say that if I 
might make choice of my fellow-labourers, they should be from his 
school. They take, I think, the most just and comprehensive view 
of the true Constitution of our Church, and of its actual duties in 


the present state of the world; and it is among the young men 
brought up in their principles that I should expect to find that tem- 
perate and professional ardour which appears to me the first re- 
quisite for a man's doing his duty well, and finding his chief support 
and reward in the consciousness of doing it. 

In a later letter he mentions the fact that in writing to the 
Bishop of Calcutta, he had "taken some pains to remove 
some prejudices which he appeared to have imbibed against 
these writers." 

But this, as he himself added, was "previous to Tract 90." 
He strongly felt that the attempt made in the final Tract, 
and Pusey's defence of the attempt, to reconcile the teach- 
ing of the Articles of the Church of England with the Tri- 
dentine affirmation of the Church of Rome was to embark 
upon "treacherous shallows." In particular he urged that 
the Roman doctrine of the Sacrifice of the Mass and of 
Purgatory could not be reconciled with, were indeed ex- 
plicitly repudiated by, the formularies of the Church of 
England, and that any attempt to demonstrate their mutual 
consistency was so much false and special pleading. He 
foresaw the danger of such an approach to unity. "If we go 
much further," he wrote, "I fear we shall once more give 
occasion to the Romanists to exult as the Arians did in the 
former instance ; and to circulate the news that the Anglican 
world has come over to their opinion." "We may have the 
Church of England or the Church of Rome," he added, "but 
the notion of a tertium quid which shall be of both and yet 
be neither, I cannot comprehend." 

Yet, mistaken as he believed the Tractarians to have been 
in some of the later phases of their teaching, he pleaded with 
his friend not to "lose, through any hallucination into which 
the wisest and best may be betrayed, the fruit of all their 
previous labours in the cause of the Church. They have 
been the honoured instruments of re-edifying and restor- 
ing much of its beautiful and substantial carved work which 


had been broken down by the axes and hammers of the ad- 
versaries which still roar in the midst of the congregations." 

Some three to four years after the above words were 
written, the news reached the Bishop of Newman's secession 
to the Church of Rome, a step the blindness of which came 
home with special force to one so convinced as he of the 
apostolic and catholic character of the Church of England. 
"It is impossible," he wrote to Coleridge in January 1846, 
"to think very well of the discriminative powers of any one 
who knowing the Scriptures, the Fathers, and the history 
of the Church, and the doctrines of our own Communion, 
cannot discover in all these 1 a sufficient warning against so 
great an error as that of the Roman Creed. Mr N. has of 
course still to attempt to justify what he has done; and 
whatever his talents and learning may be, he will fail in that, 
because facts are so decidedly opposed to him." A month 
earlier he had written in similar strain : "As to the justifi- 
cation of his secession, which you tell me he seeks in the 
assumption that the Reformation of the Church of England 
was an act of schism, I feel myself impelled to maintain 
upon the highest grounds that it was no such thing : neither 
could be for the plainest of reasons. To constitute it such, 
it must first be shewn that the Church of Rome was and is 
by divine appointment, the Mother and Mistress of all." 

The issue between the Church of England and the Church 
of Rome was one of urgent interest to the Bishop, owing 
to current events in New South Wales. He writes to 
Coleridge in January 1846 of his conviction "from the oc- 
currences of every day that here, upon the very spot whence 
I now write to you, will take place the most tremendous 
struggle, perhaps of all, between the opposing powers ; and 
here the Reformation will have to be defended eminently 
and expressly according to our system, as opposed to one 
which is merely Protestant or Sectarian. It is for an effort 
of this sort that I gather myself up." 

The following chapter will deal with the course of the 


Bishop's controversy with Rome. It must, however, not 
be forgotten that, like Hooker two and a half centuries 
earlier, the Bishop was forced to fight a battle on two fronts. 
He had to defend the Church, not only against Roman 
aggression and attack, but also against a conception of the 
Reformation which was "merely Protestant and Sectarian." 
Attacks from this side came not only from those without 
but even from those of the Bishop's own household. Bitter 
attacks were launched against him in 1849 by two young 
Irish deacons, whom he had treated with the utmost con- 
sideration, and who charged him with being "a Popish 
bishop" and with identifying himself "with that party whose 
avowed object it is to un-Protestantise our Church." We 
have seen, however, that the Bishop's conception of the 
Church, taught with courage and persistence, armed him 
against the assaults not only of the "zealots of the Church 
of Rome," but those also of "the zealots of a wild excess 
of private judgment and the advocates of a ^contumacious 
self-will." Such attacks only inclined him, as he maintained, 
"to hope that I may through divine grace, be walking in 
the narrow path of the Catholic and Apostolic Church of the 
nation, the Church of England: which as it declines from 
all excesses and extremes and observes the middle way of 
truth, must be exposed to hostility from those on either 



THE address presented by the Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel to the Bishop during his last visit to Eng- 
land and shortly before his death, included the declaration 
that "the Society has observed with real satisfaction the 
steady resistance which you have offered to the encroach- 
ments and usurpations of the Church of Rome. Your pro- 
test against the unwarrantable assumptions of that Church 
in the year 1843 is one in the necessity and far-seeing wis- 
dom of which the Society entirely concurs." In his reply, 
the Bishop referred at some length to "that a'ct of invasion 
and intrusion on the part of the Church of Rome, intro- 
ducing its own Bishop into a See already full, and assuming 
for him a title derived from the territories of Her Majesty, 
without any reference whatever to Her Majesty's sanction 
and approval." 

It was, as stated above, on the two grounds, as a breach 
both of ecclesiastical order and of civil law, that the Bishop 
made his spectacular protest in 1843 ( to be narrated later) 
against the intrusion of an alien hierarchy into a province 
of the Catholic Chur'ch already governed by a territorial 
bishop and within the Queen's dominions. Nor was it only 
on behalf of the Church in his own diocese that, both then 
and throughout his episcopate, he resisted what he regarded 
as an unwarranted encroachment on the part of Rome. He 
feared that what had happened in New South Wales would 
happen on a larger scale elsewhere; and he acknowledged 


that in the, public protest which he had made, he had been 
actuated by the conviction that unless the act of usurpation 
were resisted and openly objected to, "the result of the 
success of such an experiment in a distant quarter would 
have been cited as a precedent to be repeated, as it has been 
repeated, on a wider circuit in the Church of England it- 

The story of the Bishop's controversy with Rome, and 
indeed with the Home Government over its attitude to 
Roman usurpation, goes back to the first years of his episco- 
pate. As early as 1837, and again in 1839, he had found it 
necessary to remonstrate "against the reception by the Gov- 
ernor at his levee on the Queen's Birthday of Dr Folding, 
who styles himself 'Jhn Bede, by the Qrace of God and the 
appointment of the Holy See, Bishop, Vicar Apostolic of 
New Holland and Van Diemen's Land.' " Dr Folding had 
not at that time adopted, or had 'conferred upon him, a terri- 
torial title derived from the sphere of his episcopal juris- 
diction. He was titular bishop of Hiero-Caesarea. He 
claimed, however, and exercised episcopal authority in New 
South Wales, and he attended the Governor's levee in the 
habit and capacity of a bishop. It was to this that Bishop 
Broughton objected, on the ground that "such reception and 
recognition of a prelate appointed by the Holy See is con- 
trary to the spirit and terms of the Oath of Supremacy, in 
which we are required to swear that 'no foreign prelate hath 
or ought to have jurisdiction within Her Majesty's realm.' " 
The Bishop's protest against this unauthorized and indeed, 
as he held, illegal act on the part of the Governor called 
forth an angry reply on the Roman side, and a publicly 
adopted resolution for transmission to Lord Normanby 
in England, and in favour of "removing the Pro- 
testant Bishop from his seat on the Legislative and Executive 
Councils." The Bishop himself wrote to consult eminent 
legal authority in England and expressed the hope that the 
matter would be brought before Parliament. 


Early in 1843 a much more aggressive step was taken by 
Rome. "You are aware, probably," wrote the Bishop to 
Joshua Watson, in February of that year, "that the Pope 
has recently erected Australasia into an archdiocese, and 
has elevated Dr Folding (who has been here several years 
as Bishop of Hiero-Caesarea and V.A.) to be the first Arch- 
bishop of Sydney: giving him Metropolitan jurisdiction 
over the whole of Australia, Van Diemen's Land and New 
Zealand: all in Her Majesty's Dominions, and having under 
him, as is stated, five suffragan bishops." Here was a step 
without precedent in modern history. "It was the first in- 
stance," so Broughton believed, "since the Reformation, 
of the Pope's having established a Metropolitan See within 
the realm of England with a title derived from a city within 
that realm;" and it raised for Bishop Broughton an issue 
of quite exceptional difficulty. He felt, as has already been 
said, that the act was a breach of both civil and ecclesiastical 
order. He had a right to turn not only to the Church but 
to the Government to support him in his remonstrance. 

The Government, however, seemed wholly indifferent to 
the constitutional issue raised, and indeed to have decided 
it against the view which the Bishop so strongly held. He 
quotes a statement in a recent copy of The Times, announcing 
that "Lord Stanley in his official capacity of Secretary of 
State for the Colonies gave an audience by appointment at 
Knowsley on October 2ist (1842) to one of the Bishops of 
Canada, and to 'His Grace the Most Reverend Dr Folding, 
Archbish6p of Sydney and New South Wales, both of them 
being attired in their full State robes canonical of the 
Catholic Church' and were most graciously received by the 
noble lord." This act, so Broughton maintained, was tanta- 
mount to an official acknowledgment of the Pope's "jurisdic- 
tion, ecclesiastical and spiritual within Her Majesty's realm," 
contrary to the Oath of Supremacy, which formed an inte- 
gral part of the constitution. The act of Lord Stanley 
amounted also to "countenancing an invasion of the pro- 


vince of Canterbury within which there cannot be two lawful 
Archbishops at the same time." 

The Bishop acknowledged that a recent event had raised a 
doubt in his mind as to the legitimacy of his remonstrance 
on the ground just quoted. In 1841 the Jerusalem bishopric 
had been established by Act of Parliament and by agree- 
ment with the King of Prussia. Here was a case of an 
Anglican bishop being apparently intruded into a foreign 
city, which itself was already the see of a bishop. Bishop 
Broughton felt confident, however, that there were "grounds 
upon which a distinction may be drawn between the cases," 
and proceeded to act upon the conclusions which he had 

"I shall," he writes, "most assuredly protest publicly as 
a Suffragan of Canterbury against what I consider a viola- 
tion of the rights of my Metropolitan." The above words 
were written in February 1843; and on the Feast of the 
Annunciation (25 March) in the following month, the 
Bishop made his formal and public protest, in St James's 
Church, standing on the north side of the altar, "in the 
presence and with the assent of his clergy. The protest is 
of such historic interest and importance as to claim quo- 
tation in full : 

In the name of God, Amen. We, William Grant, by divine per- 
mission Bishop and Ordinary Pastor of the Diocese of Australia 
do protest publicly and explicitly on behalf of ourselves and our 
successors, bishops of Australia, and on behalf of the Clergy and 
all the faithful of the same Church and Diocese, and also on behalf 
of William, by divine providence, Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, 
Primate of all England and Metropolitan, and his successors, that 
the Bishop of Rome has not any right or authority, according to 
the laws of God, and the canonical order of the Church, to institute 
any episcopal or archi-episcopal see or sees within the limits of 
the Diocese of Australia and Province of Canterbury aforesaid. 
And we do hereby, publicly, explicitly and deliberately protest 
against, dissent from, and contradict, any and every act of epis- 
copal or metropolitan authority done or to be done, at any time, 
or by any person whatever, by virtue of any right or title derived 
from assumed jurisdiction, power, superiority, preeminence, or 


authority of the said Bishop of Rome, enabling him to institute 
any episcopal see or sees within the Diocese and Province here- 
inbefore named. 

The significance of the closing sentence of the protest 
is worth noting. The protest was not only intended to 
forestall and prevent similar action on a wider scale else- 
where on the part of Rome. It was also intended as a 
declaration on behalf of the Church of England of the 
invalidity of any episcopal acts, and particularly of ordina- 
tion, done by the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Sydney: 
Broughton's firm persuasion being that "as they were 
solemnized by a bishop in a state of schism they were, accord- 
ing to every ecclesiastical principle, utterly null and void"; 
so much so that in the event of any priest of the Roman 
Catholic Church desiring to abandon that Church and exer- 
cise his ministry in the Church of England, the Bishop 
would have regarded it as his duty "as a guardian of the 
rights of the Church, to say that his ordination was null and 
void." The Bishop laid stress on this aspect of his pro- 
test in his reply, already cited, to the address to the Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel in 1853, and expressed 
the hope that similar action would be taken by the Church 
in England where a Roman hierarchy with titles derived 
from English cities had been established three years earlier. 

Two further occurrences added to Broughton's anxieties 
on this subject. At the end of 1847 Lord Grey, the Sec- 
retary of State, had dispatched a circular to the Governor 
of New South Wales, Sir Charles FitzRoy, relative to the 
rank to be accorded to prelates of the Roman Catholic 
Church in the colony. Under these instructions Dr Folding 
was given precedence as Archbishop over Broughton as 
Bishop at all official functions. The effect of the instruc- 
tion, so it seemed to the Bishop and his clergy, was to 
deprive him of the rank in society which he had officially 
possessed since 1829 and "to transfer to the (Roman 
Catholic) Church that station which had hitherto been 


possessed by the Church of England." Both Bishop and 
clergy felt it their duty, in face of this act, to absent them- 
selves from the levee at Government House on the Queen's 

The second of the two occurrences caused the Bishop 
the deepest personal distress. Early in 1848 two of his 
clergy, J. C. Makinson and R. K. Sconce, graduates of 
Cambridge and Oxford respectively, and the latter the priest 
in charge of St Andrew's Church, resigned their incum- 
bencies with a declaration that they "considered it essential 
to their salvation to be in communion with the Holy See." 
Their resignation was followed by their public reception 
into the Church of Rome, following the renunciation of 
their baptism and ordination, and followed by their employ- 
ment as teachers in Dr Folding's seminary. It was gratify- 
ing that the example of the two priests was in no case 
followed by the laity. The Bishop himself took charge of 
St Andrew's Church until the clamour raised by these 
secessions abated : and by a declaration made on 27 Febru- 
ary, during a service in St Andrew's, he formally deposed 
the two clergy from the Orders of Deacon and Priest to 
which they had been admitted, at the same time seeking 
the concurrence of the remaining bishops of the province in 
the action so taken. 

The intense interest and anxiety which the Roman 
controversy aroused is reflected in the pages of the Sydney 
Guardian, "A Journal of religious, literary, and scientific 
information under the superintendence of clergymen of the 
United Church of England and Ireland," the first number 
of which appeared on i June 1848. Its monthly issues from 
then till 1850 contained article after article on the subject, 
articles, for example on "Idolatry or image-worship of the 
Church of Rome," "Worship of the Virgin Mary," "Sat- 
isfaction, Purgatory, and Indulgences," and "Infallibility." 
A course of fourteen lectures on the papal claim of suprem- 
acy, delivered by the Rev. R. Allwood, was published in 


full; and in December 1849 a long prayer is quoted from 
one originally framed in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and 
recommended for present use, "for the Queen, the Church, 
and the People of England, at a time when the face of the 
land is covered with the expulsed soldiery of Loyola: when 
the pestilence of Roman corruption is advancing its ravages 
among both clergy and laity: when the councillors of the 
Queen are dallying with the Papacy, and plotting the 
national endowment of its hierarchy." The journal con- 
tains, too, an article of inordinate length in the form of a 
letter to R. K. Sconce, B.A., and in reply to his "reasons 
for submitting to the Catholic Church." 

Meanwhile, the main scene of the controversy was trans- 
ferred to England. Broughton's fears and anticipations 
proved only too well grounded. In a letter addressed to the 
Archbishop of Canterbury in 1851, he recalled a prediction 
made eight years earlier, that "every encroachment upon 
the spiritual rights and character of the Church of England 
which shall have been connived at, and so encouraged, if 
not legalized, within the Colonies, will sooner or later be 
transplanted from there to England itself." And so it 
proved to be. Of the movement in England, Nicholas Wise- 
man was the leading figure on the Roman side. It was 
largely through his forceful and aggressive action that 
Roman Catholicism, from being represented by a scattered 
and obscure community, came to hold its head high in 
England. The secession to Rome of Newman and other 
former leaders in the Oxford 'Movement provided the 
occasion and emphasized the need of such action. If, as 
was confidently anticipated, the secession of the leaders 
was to be followed by that of the rank and file, there must 
be ready for them a spiritual home which they could be 
proud to enter, a fitting successor of the ancient Catholic 
Church in England. 

Practical steps were rapidly taken in this direction. 
Hitherto the appointment of Vicars Apostolic had sufficed 


for the administration of the Roman Catholic Church in 
England. Dr Wiseman, consecrated in 1840 by Gregory 
XVI, Bishop of Melipotamus and appointed President of 
Oscott College, himself became Vicar Apostolic in London 
in 1849. This was, however, only a first step in the direc- 
tion of far more decisive action. Already in 1848 a question 
was addressed to the Prime Minister in the House of 
Commons, whether "he had heard of any project of the 
Pope to divide England into dioceses, and to appoint an 
Archbishop of Westminster." Lprd John Russell replied 
that he had heard of no such project, and would "not give 
his assent to the formation of any such dioceses in the 
Queen's Dominion." Yet already at the close of the previ- 
ous year an authoritative review had declared the Pope's 
intention of "erecting those ecclesiastical offices, hereto- 
fore tolerated under the modest and sufficient title of Vicars 
Apostolic, into the dignities of Archbishops and Bishops, 
not merely nominal, not m partibus, but of Pope-created dio- 
ceses, Bishops of Westminster and Birmingham." 

And while the Government revealed its ignorance of and 
indifference to what was proceeding, the Pope acted. In 
July 1850 Dr Wiseman was summoned to Rome, was given 
a cardinal's hat, and was informed that he was to return 
to England as Archbishop of Westminster. Letters 
Apostolic were issued suppressing the existing vicariates 
and erecting in their stead a Metropolitan and twelve epis- 
copal sees with territorial titles. A few days later a pastoral 
letter, signed Nicholas, Archbishop of Westminster and 
headed "ex Porto, Flaminia" was published in England, in 
which the new cardinal spoke in grandiloquent terms of the 
restoration to England of a hierarchical government in com- 
munion with the See of Rome. The action so taken and 
the Cardinal's proclamation roused a storm of indignation 
in England. The No Popery cry was again raised through- 
out the land by Church, people and Government alike. The 
agitation was fed by the arrogant and contemptuous terms 


in which, in pulpit and press, the Anglican Church and the 
significance of the papal action were described. The Govern- 
ment was driven into hurried and intemperate action. Early 
in 1851 the Ecclesiastical Titles Bill, prohibiting the assump- 
tion of territorial titles derived from the Queen's dominions 
by an alien hierarchy, became law in spite of the opposition 
of Gladstone, Bright, and other leading statesmen. From 
the first, however, the action proved a dead letter. The 
territorial titles conferred by the Pope were openly used 
by Roman Catholic archbishops and bishops, and the act 
itself was repealed by Gladstone in 1871. 

Meanwhile the news of the papal aggression and of the 
erection of a Roman Catholic hierarchy in England had 
reached Australia. It was referred to at some length in 
his visitation address to the clergy by the Bishop of Tas- 
mania in May 1851. The apathy of the Home Government 
in the matter was animadverted upon in strong terms, "Civil 
authorities in England," said Bishop Nixon, "have long and 
knowingly allowed the law to be set aside, and the Sover- 
eign's prerogatives to be trampled under foot by the Pope, 
throughout the colonial dominions. In vain have colonial 
bishop's remonstrated, in vain have they by open protest, 
and by official communications, called the attention of the 
advisers of the Crown to the dangerous precedent thus 
established." And in view of the precedent having now 
been followed and adopted on a larger scale in England> he 
added: "We pause now to see whether Her Majesty's 
advisers will deem it needful to step forth, and prove their 
own hearty recognition of the existing law, and to vindicate 
the insult that has been offered, not to the Sovereign only, 
but to the whole Protestant people of England." 

Two months earlier a representative meeting of church- 
men, under the presidency of Bishop Broughton, had been 
held in Sydney, and resolutions were carried reaffirming 
the terms of the Bishop's public protest of 1843, an d ex- 
pressing "alarm and indignation" at "the recent assumption 


for the administration of the Roman Catholic Church in 
England. Dr Wiseman, consecrated in 1840 by Gregory 
XVI, Bishop of Melipotamus and appointed President of 
Oscott College, himself became Vicar Apostolic in London 
in 1849. This was, however, only a first step in the direc- 
tion of far more decisive action. Already in 1848 a question 
was addressed to the Prime Minister in the House of 
Commons, whether "he had heard of any project of the 
Pope to divide England into dioceses, and to appoint an 
Archbishop of Westminster." L<ord John Russell replied 
that he had heard of no such project, and would "not give 
his assent to the formation of any such dioceses in the 
Queen's Dominion." Yet already at the close of the previ- 
ous year an authoritative review had declared the Pope's 
intention of "erecting those ecclesiastical offices, hereto- 
fore tolerated under the modest and sufficient title of Vicars 
Apostolic, into the dignities of Archbishops and Bishops, 
not merely nominal, not in partibus, but of Pope-created dio- 
ceses, Bishops of Westminster and Birmingham." 

And while the Government revealed its ignorance of and 
indifference to what was proceeding, the Pope acted. In 
July 1850 Dr Wiseman was summoned to Rome, was given 
a cardinal's hat, and was informed that he was to return 
to England as Archbishop of Westminster. Letters 
Apostolic were issued suppressing the existing vicariates 
and erecting in their stead a Metropolitan and twelve epis- 
copal sees with territorial titles. A few days later a pastoral 
letter, signed Nicholas, Archbishop of Westminster and 
headed "ex Porta Fhminia" was published in England, in 
which the new cardinal spoke in grandiloquent terms of the 
restoration to England of a hierarchical government in com- 
munion with the See of Rome. The action so taken and 
the Cardinal's proclamation roused a storm of indignation 
in England. The No Popery cry was again raised through- 
out the land by Church, people and Government alike. The 
agitation was fed by the arrogant and contemptuous terms 


in which, in pulpit and press, the Anglican Church and the 
significance of the papal action were described. The Govern- 
ment was driven into hurried and intemperate action. Early 
in 1851 the Ecclesiastical Titles Bill, prohibiting the assump- 
tion of territorial titles derived from the Queen's dominions 
by an alien hierarchy, became law in spite of the opposition 
of Gladstone, Bright, and other leading statesmen. From 
the first, however, the action proved a dead letter. The 
territorial titles conferred by the Pope were openly used 
by Roman Catholic archbishops and bishops, and the act 
itself was repealed by Gladstone in 1871. 

Meanwhile the news of the papal aggression and of the 
erection of a Roman Catholic hierarchy in England had 
reached Australia. It was referred to at some length in 
his visitation address to the clergy by the Bishop of Tas- 
mania in May 1851. The apathy of the Home Government 
in the matter was animadverted upon in strong terms. "Civil 
authorities in England," said Bishop Nixon, "have long and 
knowingly allowed the law to be set aside, and the Sover- 
eign's prerogatives to be trampled under foot by the Pope, 
throughout the colonial dominions. In vain have colonial 
bishop's remonstrated, in vain have they by open protest, 
and by official communications, called the attention of the 
advisers of the Crown to the dangerous precedent thus 
established." And in view of the precedent having now 
been followed and adopted on a larger scale in England, he 
added: "We pause now to see whether Her Majesty's 
advisers will deem it needful to step forth, and prove their 
own hearty recognition of the existing law, and to vindicate 
the insult that has been offered, not to the Sovereign only, 
but to the whole Protestant people of England." 

Two months earlier a representative meeting of church- 
men, under the presidency of Bishop Broughton, had been 
held in Sydney, and resolutions were carried reaffirming 
the terms of the Bishop's public protest of 1843, and ex- 
pressing "alarm and indignation" at "the recent assumption 


by the Pope of authority to divide the territory of England 
into ecclesiastical sees; and at his sole jurisdiction to 
nominate bishops and archbishops to exercise spiritual juris- 
diction within the realm." The resolutions were to be trans- 
mitted through the Governor to the Secretary of State, and 
by the Bishop to the Archbishop of Canterbury: and in a 
covering letter addressed to the latter, Broughton expressed 
the earliest hope that no distinction would be made between 
the 'colonies and England in such measures as might be 
taken to counteract what he regarded as an unwarranted 
intrusion on the rights both of Church and State. He saw 
very clearly that much harm would be done by any measure 
"which would virtually separate the Church of England into 
two sections," and which "while it prohibited by law an 
invasion of the soil of England itself, should pass over its 
occurrence in all other portions of the Empire, and so 
leave them without equal protection from the state." Rome 
would be only too ready to take advantage of such incon- 
sistency and weakness. Concession to Roman aggression 
in the colonies would only lead to the demand "to enact 
upon the more conspicuous theatre of England, that which 
they had been, with England's own approval, rehearsing upon 
the narrower stage of the colonies." 

Bishop Broughton thus found himself forced to act as 
the spearhead of the whole Anglican communion in repelling 
Roman Catholic aggression, and in repudiating, in the name 
both of the Church and the State, the intrusion of a Roman 
Catholic hierarchy into sees within Her Majesty's dominions, 
and already occupied by duly constituted bishops. His own 
diocese was chosen as the first scene of such aggressive 
action, a circumstance which gave to his handling of the 
issue a special and typical importance; and we have seen 
that he did not fail in either vigour or clarity of judgment 
in the action which he took. The erection of rival sees 
within the Queen's dominions was, however, not the only 
act of Roman aggression which had to be met. A vigorous 


attack was also launched on the supposed Erastian character 
of the Church of England and its uncatholic and unspiritual 
subservience to the State. Here too it was Bishop Broughton 
upon whom the attack fell, though it was in reality directed 
towards "a higher quarry," the evident intention being to 
"thrust" through him "an additional javelin into the already 
too much stricken side of the Church of England." 

It was therefore Broughton upon whom devolved the 
task of returning an effective answer to the charges made. 
In December 1850 he addressed a long letter to the Right 
Reverend Nicholas Wiseman, D.D., in reply to a sermon 
which the latter, recently appointed, as we have seen, Car- 
dinal Archbishop of Westminster, had preached and pub- 
lished, and in which he had commented upon Bishop Brough- 
ton's ecclesiastical position as affected by the terms of the 
Queen's letters patent by and under which the Metropolitan 
See, which he occupied, was constituted. Extracts from the 
sermon which had come under the Bishop's notice show that 
the Cardinal had dilated upon the topic of the "supremacy 
of the Crown of England as it affects the independence of 
the Episcopal office, and assumes a prerogative of dictating 
the conditions according to which the functions, even the 
spiritual functions, of the episcopate shall be exercised." 
The letters patent issued in 1836 by the Crown constituting 
the See of Australia, and nominating Broughton as first 
bishop of the new see, were, as we have seen, the docu- 
mentary evidence upon which the attack was based, inter- 
preted as "binding the Church to nothing short of an 
Erastian surrender of her inherent spiritual privileges into 
the hands of the Crown." 

In his spirited reply given in the form of an open letter 
to Cardinal Wiseman, Broughton dwelt on the true signi- 
ficance of the royal supremacy as it affected the rightful 
liberties of the Church. When the reformers declared that 
"the Bishop of Rome had no jurisdiction in this realm of 
England," they were faced with the necessity of trans- 


ferring elsewhere the authority which had in fact been 
hitherto exercised by the Pope. That authority they de- 
clared rested in the National Church as a whole. Hence its 
exercise devolved on the Sovereign "as the representative 
and agent of the National Church." 

It may be questioned, the Bishop admitted, whether in 
the action so taken they "did sufficiently consider, or were 
even in a position sufficiently to consider, the extent to 
which the prerogatives heretofore vested in the Pope might 
now be beneficially vested in The Crown." Yet the. principle 
on which they acted was entirely right. "They felt . . . 
that the subjects of every independent Christian state form 
collectively a national church, qualified and entitled to 
manage and direct its own spiritual concerns, without inter- 
ference on the part of any foreign power, whether person, 
prelate, state, or potentate." So long as the nation and 
the national church were convertible terms, it was right too 
that supremacy in causes ecclesiastical should be vested in 
the King, as Defender of the Faith and "the organ and 
representative of the Church." It was true that the repre- 
sentative character of the Crown had been diminished and 
impaired by "that wilful spirit which has divided the nation 
and cast out unity from the Church." Cardinal Wiseman 
might, however, rest assured that, harmful and regrettable 
though these dissensions were, the English Church would 
not purchase deliverance from them by surrender to the 
supremacy of the Pope. 

It was not, however, the royal supremacy in its historical 
origin, but as identified with an authority which through 
the issue of letters patent "establishes bishoprics, names 
bishops, and bestows upon them their spiritual privileges" 
to which Cardinal Wiseman pointed as proof positive of 
the hopelessly Erastian character of the Church of England. 
In his reply to this charge, Bishop Broughton acknowledged 
that both in 1829, when he was nominated archdeacon, and 
again in 1836 when he was elevated to the episcopate, he 


had given very careful consideration to the implications of 
his appointment under letters patent, particularly in view 
of the altered character of the Crown, as representing the 
Church, which had been effected by the Catholic Emancipa- 
tion Act, passed in 1829, and the repeal of the Test and 
Corporations Acts effected in 1828. He had, however, come 
to the conclusion that this legislation had not so far im- 
paired the traditional relation between Church and Crown as 
no longer to "justify the Church in continuing a party to 
such engagements with the Crown," and that in particular 
there was no danger of the use of its supremacy by the 
Crown "for the purpose of thwarting, oppressing, or injur- 
ing the Colonial Church." There was, therefore, nothing in 
his mind contrary or prejudicial to the spiritual liberties of 
the Church in admitting the right of the Crown, "always 
acting in correspondence with the Church, and represen- 
tatively on behalf of its lay members," to establish bishop- 
rics and to name bishops. 

Cardinal Wiseman had, however, asserted that in virtue 
of the royal supremacy the Crown claimed not only to 
establish bishoprics and to nominate bishops, powers which 
Bishop Broughton asserted should be exercised without 
prejudice to the Church's liberties, but also to "make men 
bishops" and to "bestow upon them their spiritual privileges." 
If this authority was indeed claimed or exercised by the 
Crown, it would be a conclusive proof of the Erastian sub- 
jection of the Church to the State. It was, however, mani- 
festly untrue, as indeed the words of the letters patent them- 
selves made plain, had Cardinal Wiseman chosen to quote 
them in full. The King might nominate, but the person 
nominated could only exercise his episcopal office by right 
of consecration, and consecration lay not with the Crown 
but with the Archbishop of Canterbury and his fellow 
bishops. Moreover, if "the person nominated was one in 
the opinion of the Archbishop unfit for the office, he could 
refuse to consecrate him." And once consecrated a bishop's 


spiritual privileges were his, not by right of royal bestowal 
but by right of consecration. All that the Crown could do 
or claim to do was to delimit the sphere within which his 
episcopal office should be exercised. The Cardinal had seized 
on the words in the letters patent, "We thereby further give 
and grant to the said William Grant Broughton and his suc- 
cessors, Bishops of Australia, full power and authority to 
confirm those who are baptized and come to years of dis- 
cretion." The words, as so read in isolation, seemed indeed 
to corroborate the Cardinal's charge "to the great shame 
and scandal of the recreant Church of England." But their 
significance as so interpreted was wholly altered if regard 
were paid to the words that followed, viz., "within the 
limits of the said See of Australia, but not elsewhere." 

It was thus evident, so Bishop Broughton maintained, 
that "the only authority in contemplation, which it could 
be intended or pretended to confer upon the bishop, was 
liberty to exercise, within a particular district called the 
Diocese of Australia, a faculty which, in virtue of his epis- 
copal consecration, he already possessed." 

The letters patent issued later under which the Diocese 
of Australia was divided and 'the See of Sydney con- 
stituted were also misquoted by the Roman Catholic prelate, 
and were represented as embodying the terms under which 
"the Queen makes the bishop resign, in other words de- 
poses him, then divides his diocese into several." The gross 
absurdity of this charge, indeed the deliberate falsehood 
which it contained, was manifest enough : a charge intended 
to prove the Church of England to be "in a state of servile 
dependence on the mere will of the secular authority." In 
reply to this charge, Broughton gives a succinct account 
of the steps from 1845 onwards which had led to the division 
of his former diocese and the establishment of the Sees 
of 'Melbourne, Newcastle, and Sydney. The facts so nar- 
rated prove to the hilt that so far from the division being 
an arbitrary act on the part of the Crown, the initiation 


of the proposal, and the various steps, by which it was 
carried to completion, came entirely from the Bishop him- 
self : and if further testimony to the story as so narrated 
was necessary, it was provided by a letter from the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury dated 30 March 1847, and addressed 
to Broughton, in which the Archbishop referred in the 
highest terms to Broughton's initiative and energy in this 

Broughton had thus no difficulty in refuting the charges 
of Erastianism levelled at the Church of England, as evi- 
denced by the terms of his own appointment and the later 
division of his diocese. At the same time he did not dis- 
guise the fact that under the altered conditions of the time 
there were dangers to which the Church was exposed by 
the continuance of the royal supremacy and particularly by 
its exercise in the affairs of the Colonial Churches. But 
this danger, and the consequent possibility of the abolition 
of the royal supremacy in reference to the Church, did 
not mean that the Church would substitute the supremacy 
of the See of Rome for that of the Crown of England. 
The Church would find other means of asserting "its own 
inherent supremacy, neither admitting the secular element 
to assume to itself an influence, by the weight of which it 
is enabled to paralyse the spiritual . . . nor yet (as has 
been the case in Rome during many centuries) suffering 
the ecclesiastical authority to exclude the secular from all 
right of interference in the regulation of church affairs." 

The letter concluded with a reference to the conference 
of Australasian bishops held two months earlier in Sydney, 
a conference the summoning of which was largely due to 
the need of vesting the inherent supremacy of the Church 
elsewhere than in the Crown, in so far as the supremacy of 
the latter had proved, or was likely to prove, unduly 
restrictive to the rights and liberties of the Church. In 
these deliberations, so Broughton acknowledged, the Bishop 
had been "fully, even painfully conscious of the restraints 


imposed upon our free declaration of the true doctrine of 
the Church, by the supremacy of the Crown." They had 
however sought a remedy for this restraint, not in a re- 
version to papal supremacy but by the assertion of the 
Church's inherent self-governing power and by the recom- 
mendation of the erection of appropriate organs for the 
exercise of those powers. The outcome of the discussion 
had been the framing of the formal request "that the bishops 
and clergy should be allowed freely to meet in provincial 
and diocesan synods, for the discussion and decision of all 
questions pertaining to the doctrinal, and spiritual training 
of the Church: and that the laity, being communicants, duly 
elected, and empowered by their respective congregations, 
should simultaneously sit in conventions of their own, for 
the settlement of all the temporalities." Here asserted 
Broughton, was "a form of judicature which was not the 
creature of the State," but was "rational, practicable, scrip- 
tural and catholic." The acceptance of these proposals as 
the basis of the constitution of the Church might indeed 
"leave to the Crown but the shadow of supremacy over the 
Church in the Colonies." It would however secure "the 
true supremacy of the Church over itself," and it would 
finally dispose of "the false supremacy of the papal see, 
which by absorbing within itself the just and natural 
privileges of clergy and people, enslaves both." 



THE convening and assembling of the Conference of the 
Bishops, six in all, of his province in 1850, when con- 
sidered in conjunction with its results, was the crowning 
event of Broughton's career. The conference itself and 
its outcome bulk largely in the Bishop's correspondence 
during the last two and a half years of his life. He was 
mainly preoccupied during that period with the task of giv- 
ing effect to the resolutions of the conference, and parti- 
cularly to those which dealt with the government and polity 
of the Church and its appropriate organs. It was the press- 
ing need of securing a satisfactory conclusion to this all- 
important issue which impelled him to undertake a voyage 
to England in 1852: and it was his premature death in 
England early in the following year which alone prevented 
him from rebuilding on new and better foundations the 
constitutional structure of the Church in his diocese, upon 
which he had bestowed so much thought, study and labour. 
"The Metropolitan and Bishops of the Province of 
Australasia" assembled in "the metropolitan city of Sydney" 
on i October 1850, and remained in session during the 
whole of that month. The conference passed unnoticed in 
the daily Press of the time: and naturally so: for the dis- 
cussions were wholly private. Notices of sermons to be 
preached by the visiting bishops in the Sydney churches 
appear in the contemporary columns of the Sydney Morning 
Herald; and, as described elsewhere, much space was given 


in this journal to the public meeting held on 29 October 
for the formal establishment of the Australasian Board 
of Missions. But of the conference of bishops nothing is 
said. Resolutions on a wide variety of subjects were carried 
at the conference, and were embodied in a report drawn 
up by the Bishop of Newcastle (Tyrrell), who acted by re- 
quest as secretary of the conference, for publication and for 
transmission to "the Archbishops and Bishops of the United 
Church of England and Ireland." 

The bishops assembled expressly deprecated for their 
gathering the title and powers of a synod, "in consequence 
of doubts existing how far we are inhibited by the Queen's 
supremacy from exercising the powers of an ecclesiastical 
synod." 1 They met in conference under the presidency of 
the Bishop of Sydney "to consult together," so the report 
states, "upon the various difficulties in which we are at 
present placed by the doubtful application to the Church 
in this province of the ecclesiastical laws, which are now in 
force in England; and to suggest such measures as may 
seem to be most suitable for removing our present em- 
barrassment; to consider such questions as affect the pro- 
gress of true religion, and the preservation of ecclesiastical 
order in the several dioceses of this province ; and finally, in 
reliance in Divine Providence to adopt plans for the propa- 
gation of the Gospel among the heathen races in Aus- 
tralasia, and the adjacent islands of the Western Pacific." 2 

The published minutes of the conference throw an in- 
teresting light on the problems, whether of local or of more 
general interest, with which the Church in Australia and 
New Zealand was at the time faced. First in importance, 
as we have already noted, are those paragraphs of the 
Report which deal with the polity of the Church, with 
questions of clerical status, of lay and clerical discipline, 
and of the need of synods and conventions, provincial and 
diocesan, as providing the only satisfactory and constitu- 

* Minutes of Proceedings. a ibid. 


tional substitute for the existing arbitrary powers with 
which the Bishops were invested. For the present we pass 
by this subject, to which we shall be devoting considerable 
attention, in order to emphasize the importance at the time 
of other resolutions carried by the conference. The resolu- 
tions were in every case but one signed by the six bishops 
participating in the conference. The exception was that on 
Holy Baptism, with reference to which Bishop Perry of 
Melbourne dissociated himself from his brethren and issued 
a separate signed statement. That this issue should have 
been raised at the conference was rendered inevitable by the 
circumstances of the time. "It was impossible," says a 
writer in the Colonial Church Chronicle in June 1851, "for 
a synod of bishops to meet, under existing circumstances, and 
with the recent promulgation of the judgment of the 
Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, and not make some 
declaration in reference to the point of doctrine so strangely 
evaded, obscured, and finally misjudged of in that notorious 
decision/' 3 

The "point of doctrine" in question was that of the 
regeneration of infants in baptism as taught by the Church 
of England: and the "notorious decision" referred to was 
that which had recently been made by the final Court of 
Appeal in ecclesiastical causes which, reversing a previous 
judgment given in the Court of Arches, had upheld as "not 
contrary or repugnant to the declared doctrine of the Church 
of England as by law established," the view maintained by 
the Rev. G. C. Gorham, viz., that "the Church did not intend 
her language to be construed absolutely and unconditionally, 
but to be regarded as only conditional, hypothetical, 
charitable, and hopeful." With this view Bishop Perry 
heartily concurred, as one which might legitimately be held 
and asserted by accredited teachers of the Church of 
England, and the authoritative exclusion of which might 

3 Colonial Church Chronicle, vol. iv, pp. 444-5. 


well have rent the Church in twain. On the other hand the 
five bishops who issued the majority statement repudiated 
the Gorham doctrine and asserted the objective efficacy of 
the Sacrament as against an exclusive insistence upon the 
subjective qualifications "of our own personal repentance 
and faith" which Bishop Perry emphasized. 

The subject was, as we have seen, a burning ecclesiastical 
issue at the time: and its repercussion reached to the most 
distant of the Queen's dominions. But, for this very reason, 
it was highly unfortunate that there was open dissent upon 
it within the episcopal body and that the pronouncement 
upon it made by the conference was not unanimous. A 
cleavage of opinion between the bishops on a question so 
keenly debated could only serve to perplex the minds of 
the laity, and to afford a ground of reproach against the 
Church of England on the part of those who disowned, or 
were prepared to disown, her allegiance. And yet perhaps 
the view of the contemporary writer already quoted is the 
best commentary on the importance of this cleavage of view 
and statement. "That this decision should not have been 
quite unanimous," he says, "and that one prelate should 
have preferred to state in his own language his views of 
the doctrine under discussion, we cannot wonder at, nor is 
it with us a cause of much concern." "The statement of the 
Bishop of Melbourne," the writer adds, "so very nearly 
coincides with that of his brethren, and where it does not 
coincide, is to our minds so difficult to reconcile with the 
verities which he admits and subscribes, that we feel the 
truth is not seriously endangered in his hands." 4 

Section VII of the Report, under the title "Liturgy," pro- 
vided useful directions to the 'clergy in the conduct of public 
worship and kindred matters. The regulations are evidence 
of a rigid adherence to the letter of the Prayer Book, but 
also of the need of some modifications to meet local difficul- 
ties. The recognized morning service of the time included 



Morning Prayer, Litany, and Holy Communion. With a 
view, however, as is obvious, to bush conditions, the stress 
of travel and the necessity of conducting services at such 
times and places as were practicable, the bishops permitted 
the separate use of one or other of the three divisions, .pro- 
vided that "each of the services used should be read entire." 
The same need lay behind the provision that the Communion 
Service might be used, and the Lord's Supper administered 
"at an early hour" or, "in the afternoon if necessity so re- 
quired." And in the same section careful regulations are 
laid down as to the celebration of marriages, and the opinion 
is given that 'clergy of the Church of England "ought not 
to solemnize marriages between persons neither of whom is 
of our own communion, except in cases where the marriage 
cannot, without extreme difficulty, be solemnised in any other 

In Section IX dealing with Education, the bishops wel- 
comed the proposed establishment of the University of 
Sydney, and expressed their willingness to encourage stu- 
dents in church colleges and schools to compete in public 
university examinations. Yet in evident fear of the effects 
of the secular character of the proposed university on the 
student mind, they deprecated any "University system which 
might have the effect of withdrawing from our own col- 
legiate rule the students educated in our separate diocesan 
institution." Again the bishops dissociated themselves from 
any recognition of schools, established under the recently 
formed boards, in so far as such recognition might be re- 
garded as countenancing a system of "erroneous defective 
and indefinite religious instruction." It is not difficult to see 
the hand of Bishop Broughton in these provisions. We have 
traced the 'course of the battle which he fought for religious 
education as provided by the Church of England and for 
the maintenance of church schools, in which the full doc- 
trine of that Church could be taught ; and we have noted the 
resistance which he offered to a system of government-owned 


and Controlled schools, in which the religious teaching given 
would be of a vague, undenominational character. 

It is, however, those sections of the Report (III- VI) 
which deal with the proposed establishment of a constitu- 
tion for the Church in the dioceses of Australia and New 
Zealand, and with questions of discipline, status, and church 
membership, which have proved of most fundamental impor- 
tance. It is these sections which make the Report a memor- 
able document in its bearing on the history of the Anglican 
communion. It was the testing and implementing of the 
opinions expressed in these sections which proved the main 
concern of the bishops who had met in conference, during 
the years which immediately followed it. Indeed the history 
of which these recommendations were the first chapter is 
still being made in the yet unfinished task of providing the 
Church in Australia with a constitution adequate to its 
needs and to its place in the Commonwealth and in the 
Church as a whole. 

We are concerned with the conference and the course 
of events which emerged from it mainly as they bear on 
the subject of this memoir. It is however impossible to 
isolate Bishop Broughton and his work in this sphere from 
the main stream of events. His story is the story of the 
time. He was, as Metropolitan, the chairman of the 'con- 
ference. There is little doubt that as such he largely guided 
its deliberations to the conclusions reached: and he took a 
leading part in the course of action which followed the con- 
ference, although, as events proved, the bishops and dioceses 
concerned, instead of agreeing, as Broughton hoped they 
would agree, on. a common course of procedure, took their 
severally independent lines of action and adopted different 
methods of carrying into practice the recommendations of 
the conference, leaving Broughton and Tyrrell, whose dio- 
ceses of Sydney and Newcastle were within the one 'colony 
of New South Wales, as the only bishops who acted through- 
out in co-operation with each other in the matter. 


Sections V and VI of the Report, dealing with "Disci- 
pline" and "Status of Clergy" respectively, illustrate the 
legal and other difficulties with which the early Colonial 
Church, both in Australasia and elsewhere was confronted, 
and for which the proposals of Section III, dealing with 
"Future Synods and Conventions, Provincial and Diocesan," 
were intended to provide a remedy. These difficulties were 
concerned in the first instance with the legal status of the 
clergy, a status which left questions of security of tenure 
in benefices held and of 'clerical discipline at the sole and 
arbitrary discretion of the bishop. Incumbents to bene- 
fices were appointed directly by the bishop, and appoint- 
ments made on the bishop's sole authority could, by that 
same authority, be revoked. There was no parson's free- 
hold under the existing regime. Moreover the clergy held 
their cures of souls solely at the bishop's pleasure. Nor 
could the bishop, even if he would, establish an ecclesiastical 
court for the trial of clerical offences. He had no weapon 
at his disposal in dealing with such, except that of the with- 
drawing of the licence previously conferred. Moreover, 
such disciplinary powers as he possessed were his, not by 
consent of his clergy, nor were they exercised with their 
co-operation. They were derived from his letters patent 
issued by royal authority, and determining the nature and 
limits of the authority over his clergy which the bishop 
could exercise. 

The status of the clergy as so determined had a double 
disadvantage. It left them in a relation of wrongful de- 
pendence on the goodwill of the bishop. In practice, doubt- 
less, bishop and clergy worked together on a basis of mutual 
confidence; yet the exclusion of the clergy from any voice 
in the administration of the Church, particularly as it con- 
cerned their own status, could not fail to engender a feeling 
of insecurity and dependence inimical to the interests of the 
Church. There was a danger of its vindicating the pun- 
gent saying of "Bishop Broughton's rebellious deacon," that 


"the clergy are divided between the sycophants and the op- 
ponents of the bishop." It acted too as a deterrent to clergy 
of high capacity in England from offering themselves for 
service in the colonies. 

But if the position so constituted was resented by the 
clergy, it was disliked even more by the bishops them- 
selves. They felt themselves placed by their letters patent 
in a false position of arbitrary authority, which yet they 
could not disown or repudiate. The bishop, with inquiry, 
judgment, and sentence in his sole hands must always, as 
Bishop Tyrrell pointed out, "be subject to the charge of 
acting in a despotic, autocratic manner." The hope which 
he expressed, based on a trying experience, would have been 
voiced equally by his fellow bishops, "that he might never 
again be obliged to attempt to carry out any case of dis- 
cipline by the unsatisfactory protest of a powerless com- 
mission." Bishop Selwyn, of New Zealand, similarly as- 
serted his conviction that "the episcopal authority would 
really be more effective if it were in each case restrained 
by the superior authority of a synod," and expressed the 
hope of being "able to make arrangements for divesting 
himself of his present absolute power;" and Bishop Gray, 
of Capetown, spoke in even stronger terms of the over- 
whelming burden of personal responsibility which he was 
compelled to carry owing to the arbitrary and absolute 
nature of the authority conferred upon him by his letters 

In their report (Section V) the bishops asserted that 
"in consequence of statements which have been made ... of 
the arbitrary power possessed by bishops to suspend or 
revoke at their own discretion the licences of clergymen, 
we disclaim all wish to exercise any such power" ; 5 and they 
went on to recommend a 'course of constitutional procedure 
which would free them from the burden of a despotic 
authority, the possession and exercise of which they were 

6 Minutes of Proceedings. 


the first to resent. They recommended that "In all cases 
of doctrinal error, or other ecclesiastical offences ... the 
diocesan synod should be the court for the trial of a pres- 
byter or deacon/' and that "No clergyman who shall have 
been duly appointed and licensed to any church or per- 
manent cure of souls, should be removable therefrom, except 
by sentence pronounced, after judicial inquiry before the 
diocesan synod.'' 6 

It was thus suggested that questions of clerical disci- 
pline, and in particular the trial of clerical offences and the 
imposition of penalties of deprivation by sentence given, 
should be taken out of the sole hands of the bishop, and 
placed in the hands' of the bishop and clergy, or chosen re- 
presentatives of the clergy, of the diocese concerned, acting 
as a duly constituted synod. It was indeed one of the main 
proposals of the bishops that the Catholic and primitive in- 
stitution of a synod, both provincial and diocesan, should 
be revived as the only means of solving "many questions 
of great importance to the well-being of the Church in our 
province." The legal and other difficulties which stood in 
the way of re-establishing the synod will be 'considered when 
we trace the course of events which followed the conference. 
Here, however, it is important to note that by the synod 
and bishops meant an assembly of bishop or bishops and 
clergy only, and not one in which lay representatives formed 
an integral element. It was not of course that they wished 
to exclude the laity from the councils of the Church. Full 
provision, as we shall see, was made for lay representation 
in church government. It was rather that they adopted the 
term "synod" in its traditional sense as an assembly of 
those of the clerical estate. We shall note, too, the strong 
emphasis which Bishop Broughton at any rate laid upon 
the rights of a properly constituted body, consisting of 
bishops and clergy, for the discussion and determination of 
matters which were particularly the concern of the clergy. 



At the same time it was not anticipated that do'ctrinal 
issues would come within the purview of the proposed 
synod, except in so far as they might be called upon to act 
as an ecclesiastical court for the trial of cases of doctrinal 
error. It was far from the desire of the bishops to claim 
for the proposed synods the power "to alter the Thirty-nine 
Articles, the Book of Common Prayer, or the Authorized 
Version of the Holy Scriptures." To these maintained in 
their integrity and a'ccepted by common consent, Brough- 
ton looked as a main bond of unity between the Mother 
Church and the daughter Churches in the colonies or else- 
where, a bond which both Broughton and his fellow bishops 
again and again declared their solemn intention to maintc.n 
intact. No authority, Broughton asserted, was competent to 
touch them except a council representative of the whole 
Church. There were, however, many matters "of practice 
and ecclesiastical order" upon which such synods might be 
qualified to consult and agree: exercising the power of 
making rules on such subjects and conducting "the pro- 
cesses necessary for carrying suth rules into effect." It was 
thus mainly in matters of practical administration that the 
proposed synods were to assist the bishops, removing such 
matters from their sole authority and making them matters 
of joint consultation, determination, and action on the part 
of bishops and clergy acting in conjunction. 

Even more far-reaching, however, in its apparent novelty 
and even revolutionary 'character, than the establishment of 
synods of bishops and clergy was the further proposal "that 
the laity acting by their representatives duly elected should 
meet in diocesan and provincial Conventions simultaneously 
with the diocesan and provincial synods." 7 In this case too 
it was in part the difficulties of exercising discipline with 
respect to the laity which forced to the front the proposals 
just quoted. It was "practically impossible in these times," 
says a voluminous but lucid writer in the Colonial Chwch 

7 ibid. 


Chronicle of the time, "to maintain discipline or to exclude 
from the Communion of the Church those who are not fairly 
members of it, either on account of heresy or evil life, 
unless the laity are made to combine in some orderly way 
in their legislative arrangements." 8 Moreover, experience 
had increasingly convinced the bishops that particularly in 
new and democratically inclined countries the Church could 
not grow and flourish, and elicit the a'ctive support of its 
people, unless the laity were fully represented in the con- 
ciliar authorities of the Church. They, too, like the clergy, 
must share with the bishop the task of the control and man- 
agement of church affairs. It was not however the inten- 
tion of the bishops that the proposed conventions of the laity 
should form an integral element of the synod, which as we 
have seen was to consist of bishop and 'clergy only. The 
conventions were to sit "simultaneously with the diocesan 
and provincial synods," but as a separate house, debating 
and resolving independently those matters "affecting the 
temporalities of the Church" which were properly the con- 
cern of its lay members. 

The Report does not state what range of subjects was in- 
tended to be covered by the term "temporalities." It seems, 
however, obvious from Broughton's own comments that it 
was intended to include all matters, not merely financial, 
affecting the welfare and good government of the Church, 
with the exception of those of a more immediately spiritual 
nature which were the proper sphere of the clerical synod. 
Nor, so far as the language of the Report goes, is it made 
clear whether it was intended that synod and convention 
should always sit separately, or as seems obvious in the later 
declarations of Broughton and others, that the two bodies 
should normally sit and debate as one House on matters of 
joint concern, voting however as separate Houses. Yet the 
phrase "severally consult" would seem to point to the fact 
that at the time of the conf erence at least, the bishops con- 

8 Colonial Church Chronicle, vol. iv, p. 257. 


templated two Assemblies sitting separately and simultane- 
ously, though often deB'ating the same subjects. This con- 
clusion seems also borne out by the provision "that no act 
of either order . . . should be valid without the consent of 
the other." 

Such then were the main recommendations of the Report 
issued by the bishops as the outcome of their conference: 
and we shall deal in due course with the result of the con- 
ference and the steps which were taken by Broughton to 
carry into effect those provisions of the Report which con- 
cerned the bishops' suggestions as to the establishment of 
synods and lay conventions. It may, however, be well at 
this stage to set in clearer relief the fundamental issue at 
stake in these recommendations. Difficulties of discipline, 
clerical or lay, were only one outstanding example of the 
anomalous position in which the early Colonial Church was 
placed. The anomaly consisted of the fact that while the 
Colonial Church was nominally bound by the ecclesiastical 
laws in force in England, those laws could in many cases 
not be administered in the colonies. They 1 were laws applic- 
able to a Church "as by law established." They depended 
for their efficacy on the peculiar relations to the State in 
which the Church in England stood. In a colony however 
in which, to use Lord Grey's words in 1848, "the English 
Church was no more established than the Roman Catholic 
Church," there were no means of enforcing those laws. The 
position, at least so far as it 'concerned episcopal discipline, 
was well stated in the following words : "The exact state of 
the grievance appears to be this. By the patents under which 
the several colonial bishops were appointed to their sees all 
the laws and ordinances affecting the Church and the clergy 
at Home were extended to the Church and clergy abroad. 
The bishops were empowered to hear witnesses, and to 
exercise their ordinary episcopal power in their own courts. 
But on the very first occasion of their powers being put 
to the test they were disputed; and on reference being made 


to the highest legal authorities at home, it was determined 
that in granting those powers the Crown had exceeded its 
authority. They were, therefore, withdrawn from all subse- 
quent patents." Such was the impotence to which the bishops 
of the .Church in the colonies were reduced through the fact 
that the latter had no position of privilege in connexion with 
the State, such as was possessed by the Church in England. 

At the same time the Church in the colonies was de- 
barred by its nominal subjection to the ecclesiastical laws of 
England from taking any practical steps to organize itself 
on a voluntary basis and from adopting a constitution and 
laws of its own. The rigid restrictions imposed by law in 
England on the convening of ecclesiastical assemblies and on 
the discussion and adoption of rules and regulations for the 
good government of the Church were, it seemed apparent, 
also binding in the colonies : and any attempts on the part 
of the Church there to establish synods vested with legis- 
lative authority, and to exercise through them the right of 
regulating its own affairs, might well, it seemed, bring the 
bishops and clergy into conflict with the Queen's supremacy 
and the acts in which it was embodied, 9 and render them 
liable to legal penalties. "The great complaint seems to be," 
wrote Broughton to the Archbishop of Canterbury in De- 
cember 1851, "that through the operation of the Royal 
Supremacy we are reduced to a state of absolute inaction 
as to the internal regulation of our own church affairs, in- 
somuch that neither can any single bishop within his own 
diocese, nor all the bishops of the Province in conference 
assembled, take a single step in any measure of discipline 
or improvement with any assurance that his or their acts 
have the force of law," or, as he might have added, would 
not bring him and them into conflict with the law. 

Thus the Colonial Church was left "in the unhappy con- 

"By that statute of 1534 (25 Henry viii, c. 19) convocation was 
forbidden to make any canons or ordinances without the King's con- 
sent to do so." F. W. Warre . Cornish, The English Church in the 
Nineteenth Century, pt ii, p. 25 (London, 1910). 


dition of possessing neither the substantial advantages of 
an established, nor the compensating freedom of a volun- 
tary church." 10 "It was," adds the same writer, "fettered 
and crippled. It has all the encumbrances of an establish- 
ment with none of its benefits. It has thrust upon it the 
self-dependence of an English dissenting body, without its 
freedom of action." The extent and limits of episcopal 
authority, and the mode of its exercise, were defined in the 
letters patent issued by the Crown. Yet the bishop could 
not fall back on the Crown or on the civil courts to enforce 
the disciplinary action taken under the authority so con- 
ferred : and it became increasingly obvious that the authority 
so given not only, as we have seen, vitiated the relations of 
mutual confidence and co-operation which should exist be- 
tween bishop and clergy, but that it could not be validly 
exer'cised at all in a colony possessing its own legislature. 
The decisions of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Coun- 
cil in the Long v. Capetown case in 1863 that, letters patent 
were "ineffectual to create any jurisdiction, ecclesiastical or 
civil, within the Colony," and in the Colenso case three years 
later that "the letters patent of the Crown cannot confer 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction in a colony or settlement which 
is possessed of an independent legislature" only brought to 
a final head what had become increasingly apparent, viz., that 
the authority nominally conferred by the Crown under letters 
patent had completely broken down and must be replaced by 
an authority defined and conferred not by an external 'civil 
power but by the Church itself. 

It remained then for the Church to reorganize itself 
on a voluntary basis, to establish its own legislative and 
judicial organs, and through them to regulate its own 
affairs. "If it [the Colonial Church]," says a writer of the 
time, "can be shown to enjoy no especial or exclusive privi- 
lege, what plea exists for refusing, or even grudging to the 
Church, the assembly, or conference, or synod, for the regu- 

10 Colonial Church Chronicle, vol. vi, p, 282, 


lation and management of its own affairs, which is possessed 
by other communions standing in precisely the same relation 
to the State P" 11 "All that we demand," adds the same writer, 
"is liberty for the bishop, clergy, and laity of each diocese 
to meet together in authorized assemblies, to take into con- 
sideration from time to time the affairs of that diocese ; and 
so to adopt measures for supplying the needs and correcting 
the abuses of the Church." Yet just at this point, as we 
have seen, another set of difficulties arose : and the Church 
cut off from the authority conferred by the State, found it- 
self, by the restrictions which the State imposed, debarred 
from establishing a constitutional authority of its own. It 
seemed indeed to Broughton that there were formidable, if 
not insuperable, difficulties of a legal character, and the out- 
come of Tudor legislation by the English Parliament, which 
effectually thwarted any freedom of action in this direction. 
Something will be said later of these difficulties. The event 
showed that they were more apparent than real, and that in 
practice there was nothing to prevent the Church in the 
'colonies from taking matters into its own hands and estab- 
lishing its own organs of government precisely as if those 
difficulties did not exist. In any case, whatever the difficul- 
ties might be, the whole trend of events pointed to the urgent 
necessity of furnishing the Church with constitutional or- 
gans providing for and regulating the co-operation of clergy 
and laity with the bishops in the government of the Church : 
and such was the form taken by the recommendations agreed 
upon by the bishops at the 1850 conference. 

The report of the pro'ceedings at the conference was for- 
warded to the ecclesiastical authorities in England, and a 
reply, dated 15 July 1851, was received by Broughton from 
the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

The Archbishop recognized the difficulties under which 
the Colonial Church laboured owing to "the uncertain juris- 
diction of the bishop, and the consequent imperfection of 

"ibid., p. 281. 


discipline," but maintained that the Queen's supremacy which 
"must be assumed as unquestionable," effectually prevented 
"the issuing of any synodfcal mandate, or even the assemb- 
ling of any synod which should claim authority." He pressed 
the importance of the clear formulation of their needs and 
demands on the part of the bishops of the Colonial Church, 
"with especial view to the inconveniences which you ex- 
perience in the practical enforcement of discipline." Such 
a "specific scheme" he thought might be submitted to "the 
Colonial Secretary and the ecclesiastical officers of the 
Crown," who might be asked to prepare a legislative measure 
"such as would place you in a better condition for the right 
administration of church discipline." 

The comments of both Bishop Broughton and Bishop Tyr- 
rell on the Archbishop's reply are extant. Neither of them 
found it satisfactory. It implied, if it did not express, 
disapproval of the Australasian bishops' proceedings at the 
conference. It showed, in their judgment, little apprecia- 
tion of the real scope of their difficulties, regarding them as 
concerned solely with discipline. Nor in Broughton's 
opinion was the Colonial Office assisted by the ecclesiastical 
officers of the Crown, the authority to whose opinion the 
demands and difficulties of the Colonial Church should, in 
the first instance, be submitted. He felt that a matter affect- 
ing the Church should first come before the authorities of the 
Church at Home, and in his reply to the Archbishop urged 
"that the Church here would certainly desire any measures 
affecting their ecclesiastical condition to be debated in an 
assembly in which Your Grace and the other prelates of the 
English Bench should form a part." In a later letter to the 
Archbishop, dated March 1852, Broughton outlined what 
he regarded as the most practicable scheme for gaining the 
relief needed by the Colonial Church. He had meantime 
resolved to convene his clergy and to consult both repre- 
sentatives of the laity and them, on the constitutional issues 
raised in the conference report, with a view to securing 


their support for a petition to the Queen "seeking a re- 
moval of those obstacles which are supposed to subsist 
against synodical assembly of the bishops and clergy of the 

He hoped, moreover, that the action eventually taken 
would not be limited in its scope to his own diocese or even 
to the province to which he was Metropolitan. He foresaw 
the danger of disunion and of "incurable differences" which 
would arise if each diocese went its own way in the framing 
of its constitution. He had, too, been increasingly impressed 
by the extent to which similar demands as to the justice 
and necessity of reviving the synodical powers of the Church 
were being urged on the part of widely scattered churches of 
the Anglican Communion. The same need and the same 
remedy as had been pressed from Australia was also urged 
in Canada and in South Africa. It had found expression, 
too, in "the now prevailing deliberations in England for 
restoring Convocation to activity," 12 a movement which he 
hoped would aim not only at reviving the Assembly of the 
episcopal and clerical Houses, but also at establishing in 
connexion with them "a House of Lay Representatives." 
Such a revived and reformed assembly in England might 
well, he thought, provide a model which would be adopted 
by the Colonial Churches. The policy which he advocated 
was "that all these separate efforts should be brought to 
combine in one endeavour to obtain an identity of organ- 
isation and government for the English portion of the Re- 
formed Episcopal Church within Her Majesty's Dominions." 
Indeed he hoped that not only the Colonial, but the Scot- 
tish and American Churches might also be organized on the 
same model. "Only let it be provided," he wrote, "that the 
synods and lay conventions of the colonial dioceses shall, 
at it were, revolve around the central primary body of the 

M Convocation had been prorogued in 1717, and after some years of 
remonstrance and agitation met again for the transaction of business 
in February 1855. See The English Church in the Nineteenth Century, 
pt ii, ch. ii. 


English Convocation, deriving light from that source and 
retained in their proper orbits by its attraction, and regu- 
lated by its influence, and the greatest good will be attained." 
Such a union of Churches throughout the world "holding 
the principles of the English Reformation" might, he 
thought, be employed "to counterbalance that false and facti- 
tious system whereby the Church of Rome misleads all 

The Bishop's vision of a "confederation of episcopal 
churches, all agreeing in one form of doctrine, using the 
same Liturgy, and the same translation of Scripture, and . . . 
regulated each under their proper bishop, by synods and 
conventions (provincial and diocesan) all framed according 
to the same model," was not destined to be fulfilled in the 
way which he 'conceived was most desirable, viz., by com- 
mon action and the acceptance of a draft constitution alike, 
not in detail, but in outline, by all the colonial dioceses. Even 
within his own province the dioceses went their own way, 
framed their constitutions, and secured recognition for them 
along widely differing lines. So, too, with other episcopal 
Churches both within and without the Queen's dominions. 
Yet however independent and separate the action taken by 
dioceses and provinces in the framing of their constitutions, 
the actual result has proved to be much as Broughton aimed 
at and desired : and in the Anglican communion, combining 
freedom of self-government with a genuine coherence and 
unity in its various provincial and regional Churches, and 
with its own common organ of mutual consultation, there has 
grown up rather than been consciously built, that "con- 
federation of episcopal Churches" on which the Bishop's 
mind and heart were set. 

But meanwhile he had to deal with that part of the wider 
confederation with which he was immediately concerned. 
He hoped that at least so far as the Church in Australia 
was concerned the dioceses would agree on a common state- 
ment of their constitutional needs, which could then be pre- 


sented for the consideration of the authorities at Home. 
He hoped, too, that if it should seem desirable that he 
should proceed to England to present the case so framed, 
he would go as the recognized representative of the whole 
provin'ce, and not of his own diocese or colony only. In 
these hopes, however, he was destined to be disappointed. 
The dioceses proceeded to take independent action. The 
Bishop of Melbourne convened a conference of clergy and 
laity in June 1851 to discuss the question of "the expediency 
and mode of organizing diocesan synods and conventions." 
The conference sat for a fortnight and passed resolutions 
in favour of the establishment of a representative church 
assembly: and Perry defended the a'ction so taken against 
the criticism expressed by Broughton, that he had shown 
"a spirit of independency and separation" in not consulting 
his Metropolitan before taking such a step. 

Similarly the Bishop found fault with the disposition 
"to sit in judgment upon us and upon our conclusions ex- 
hibited in Adelaide and Hobart Town," and with the sug- 
gested constitution for the government of the Church which 
had been proposed by the Bishop of Adelaide as involving 
"almost a total departure from the catholic principle of 
primitive episcopacy." Similarly independent action was 
taken in New Zealand. 

The course of events thus abundantly justified Bishop 
Tyrrell in his conviction that "any attempt to unite the six 
dioceses of the province in one form, or under one code 
of church laws and regulations, will be labour lost." "The 
united action," he added, "of the Church in this province 
would seem to be a matter of great and real difficulty": 
and if the bishops, as proved to be the case, acted inde- 
pendently in shaping the constitutions of their respective 
dioceses, it would naturally follow that there would be un- 
willingness on the part of the five bishops "to allow the 
sixth to be considered as proctor or representative of the 
province" in any representations made at Home, and that 



if the Metropolitan went to England he would go to speak 
the mind, not of the whole province, but of two of its 
dioceses only, Sydney and Newcastle. 

Even under this limitation, however, the Bishop saw very 
clearly that it might be necessary for him to proceed to Eng- 
land in order to be in touch with the authorities, lay and 
ecclesiastical, at Home, who would be charged with the 
handling of the question remitted to them from many quar- 
ters by the Church in the colonies, and to keep them in- 
formed of the difficulties, legal and constitutional, with 
which the Church overseas was faced. He determined, 
however, to leave the decision on the matter in the hands 
of his clergy whom he purposed to call into consultation 
with himself, early in 1852, on the recommendations of the 
1850 conference, particularly with regard to the forma- 
tion of synods and conventions of the laity. 





THE conference of the Bishop with his clergy, long planned 
and long delayed, eventually met on 14 April 1852, in the 
schoolroom of St Andrew's Cathedral Church. Two questions 
only were submitted to the meeting for consideration, viz., 
whether the clergy were in favour of establishing a con- 
stitution for the Church, and what steps should be taken 
to effect this, especially as it related to the place which the 
laity were to take in the councils of the Church. The address 
delivered by the Bishop on this occasion, 1 extending in its 
published form to twenty closely printed pages, consisted 
mainly of a plea urged with restraint and moderation yet 
with masterly skill, advocating the recommendations of the 
bishops at the 1850 conference, that the laity should be 
associated in each diocese with the bishop and clergy in the 
responsible government of the Church. "We have," he 
said, "but one object in view, that of introducing the laity 
in an elective convention to undertake, in conjunction with 
the bishop and clergy, that superintendence of the ordinary 
and 'current affairs of the Church as to its internal manage- 
ment, which the force of circumstances no longer suffers 
the Sovereign, as head of the Church, to administer." The 
principle or the fiction of the Sovereign as the representa- 
tive of the lay element in the government of the Church 

A The address is reported in full in the Sydney Morning Herald, 
15 April 1852. 


had broken down under colonial conditions. "The Sovereign 
neither does nor can interfere in the direction of the con- 
cerns of a colonial church." At the same time the laity 
in the colonies were themselves, it appeared, largely debarred 
from taking that "part in church affairs which becomes their 
intimate relation to the body." Hence it was right and 
expedient that "the Church should in all humility petition 
that liberty may be granted her to exert her inherent powers 
in those particulars wherein the State now ceases or declines 
to act." Moreover, however new, and even revolutionary, 
the proposed step might seem, all they asked was that they 
might "return as nearly as possible to the primitive rule in 
matters ecclesiastical." He adduced scriptural evidence to 
show that the laity enjoyed a share, if a strictly limited 
one, in the government of the primitive Church. The task 
assigned to them in early times was that of "ratifying by 
their consent every judgment in religious questions." It 
was now, however, proposed to extend this very limited 
privilege by making it necessary that "such judgment cannot 
become a law without their ratification." 2 "The Bishops 
have proposed," he added, "that neither their own order, 
nor the order of the clergy, nor both united, should be 
competent to decree any fresh formulary of faith or doc- 
trine, order or discipline ecclesiastical, to be conclusively 
binding on the Church, unless it be accepted and ratified 
by the consenting vote of the lay convention." 

Thus the object of Broughton and his fellow bishops 
who had met in conference had been "simply to secure 
the great principle of giving the laity a voice, and a 
due share of influence in the management of church affairs." 
There were at present anomalies of discipline and govern- 

a For the principle underlying this provision see Hooker, Laws of 
Ecclesiastical Polity, bk viii, ch. vi (London, 1867). "Till it be 
proved that some special law of Christ hath for ever annexed unto 
the clergy alone the power to make ecclesiastical laws, we are to hold 
it a thing most consonant with equity and reason, that no ecclesiasti- 
cal law be made in a Christian commonwealth, without consent as well 
of the laity as of the clergy." 


ment in the Church which could not be rectified "without 
the consent of the laity," to whom furthermore it was pre- 
pared to accord a representative place in the councils of the 
Church. They were to sit in conventions "simultaneously" 
with the synods. It was anticipated by the bishops, said 
Broughton, that "as a general rule the clerical synod and 
lay convention should sit and deliberate as the members of 
one body." Yet there were occasions on which it was 
desirable that the two houses should sit and deliberate 
separately. There were questions "so obviously spiritual/' 
that the clergy had a right "in virtue of their office, to con- 
sult among themselves exclusively upon them." Similarly 
there were matters "so closely touching upon pecuniary 
interests" as to make it appropriate that they should be con- 
sidered exclusively by the laity. 

On this point the Bishop was adamant in his insistence. 
His "deep and settled conviction was that Christ established 
as a rule of the Gospel ministry that it was essentially 
separate from the lay portion of the Church." To obliterate 
this distinction would be, he maintained, "to destroy the 
form and substance of Christianity." The clergy were the 
"appointed teachers of the laity," and if they surrendered 
the right and duty of framing "their instructions separately 
from those who were to receive them," they would be 
"tearing off the seal of Ordination," and "abandoning the 
lot from which they derived their title." Nor would he 
for worlds "be the first bishop in the Church of England to 
give his assent" to the proposal that the clergy should never 
sit separately. The laity must be prepared "to allow that 
there may be, and must be, some cases in which they cannot 
be properly or lawfully associated with the consultation of 
the clergy." In a letter to Canon Allwood, written the day 
before the conference met, it was on this point that the 
Bishop laid most stress. Allwood had apparently pressed 
for the amalgamation of clergy and laity in one House for 
all purposes of deliberation and voting; and Broughton 


warns him of so revolutionary a step, and insists on the 
need of maintaining for the clergy "the privilege of meet- 
ing separately for discussion, if they should think the wel- 
fare of the Church demanded it." He pointed out that the 
clergy were excluded from the House of Commons on the 
assumption that "they have a different class of interests to 
attend to, and ought therefore to sit and debate in an 
assembly of their own." He believed that the separation 
between the functions of clergy and laity was a fundamental 
principle of the Church, and nothing would induce him to 
compromise it "unless the Church of England by a general 
determination should declare the contrary." 

Equally insistent was the Bishop on the retention in the 
bishop's hands of the power of veto on all church legisla- 
tion. He shrank from the ultra-democratic course taken, 
he understood, in this respect by the Episcopal Church in 
America in "the regulation that in a diocesan synod the 
bishops should sit, not as a distinct estate or order, having 
a controlling voice, but simply as a chairman of a meeting, 
having but a casting vote." This was an arrangement, he 
maintained, which "presents an idea of the office of a bishop, 
which, it is scarcely necessary to say . , . the Church of 
England has never accepted, the primitive churches never 
contemplated, and the Scriptures do not recognize/' That, 
in the legislative assemblies of the Church the bishop con- 
stituted a separate House and that no measure should be 
regarded as carried unless it had received his separate 
assent, was a principle not only rooted in the traditions of 
the Church but one, the expediency of which has been more 
than abundantly justified by the test of experience. 

We have dwelt at some length on the Bishop's addresses 
at this important conference, both that delivered at its 
opening and that given at the adjourned meeting on the 
following day. The latter was followed by a debate in 
which a number of the clergy took part, and which was fully 


reported in the Sydney Morning H&rdd of the following 
day. The two main resolutions were moved by the Rev. 
R. Allwood, incumbent of St James's Church, and after 
considerable discussion were carried, the one dealing with 
the place of the laity in the future constitution of the Church 
by twenty-nine votes to eighteen, the other approving of the 
form of petition to the Queen by thirty-five votes to eight. 
In subsequent private letters the Bishop gives his own 
impressions of the dis'cussion. In the formal notice issued 
early in March convening the conference he had impressed 
on the clergy the need of attending it equipped, as fully as 
possible, with materials for forming a well-considered judg- 
ment on the issues on which their decision was to be asked : 
and he had requested them with this end in view to summon 
meetings of their parishioners, at which they would bring 
under consideration the two papers which were later to be 
submitted to the conference, the one a declaration to be 
signed by the bishop and clergy, approving of the proposal 
to establish a synod and convention of lay representatives 
for the Diocese of Sydney and to present to Her 'Majesty 
the Queen a petition praying for the removal by royal 
grant or by legislation of such legal obstacles as existed to 
the holding of such synods and conventions, and the other 
the actual form of the petition to be presented. 

The Bishop was disappointed with the response made to 
this request. Those who attended the vestry meetings failed 
to understand the question at stake and raised a variety of 
side issues and factious objections, and this mainly because 
the clergy themselves had not taken the trouble to acquaint 
themselves with the facts and proposals and so to be pre- 
pared to give the necessary guidance. "With the exception 
of Mr Allwood, and perhaps one or two more, I really 
believe that they had not bestowed all of them together a 
good half hour's thoughtful attention upon the subject since 
our Minutes were circulated." So wrote the Bishop to 
Tyrrell a month after the conference. Within the con- 


ference, so the Bishop said, opposition came from two sides, 
those who were opposed to any introduction of the lay ele- 
ment into the government of the Church, and those who 
advocated the admission of the laity to a share in all deter- 
minations on church matters, thus "obliterating all dis- 
tinction between them and the clergy." There was also the 
Irish element which opposed for the sake of opposition. 
Fortunately, however, these groups were so divided among 
themselves that they failed to unite in opposition, and came 
over separately to vote in favour of the petition to Her 

The action so taken by the Bishop and clergy was not 
however allowed to pass without protest from without the 
conference. It aroused fears of clerical presumption in the 
minds of the conservative laity. Protests 3 were made and 
published in the Press, only differing from each other in 
the degree of ignorance which they betrayed of the real 
nature of the Bishop's proposals: and at a representative 
meeting of laymen held just a month after the conference 
of clergy, a resolution was unanimously carried in favour of 
a counter petition to the Queen praying her to withhold her 
consent to the petition adopted by the clergy, and declaring 
that the petitioners "most firmly protest against the 
establishment by law of any system of church government 
in which the bishops, clergy, and laity shall not meet and 
vote in one council, with equal and concurrent authority and 
jurisdiction, reserving to Your Majesty all the authority 
vested in Your Majesty as the Head of the Church." The 
petition as thus framed ran counter to a principle on adher- 
ence to which, as we have seen, the Bishop laid the greatest 
stress, viz., that provision should be made for the clergy to 
sit and debate separately from the laity on any matter of 

8 One such protest included the assertion that "if Legislative auth- 
ority be given to enforce ecclesiastical discipline, either by fine, im- 
prisonment, or other corporal punishment, to any one Church, such 
legal authority would be to the imminent peril of civil and religious 
liberty in general." 


special concern to them: and in a subsequent letter com- 
menting on these proceedings Broughton alluded to the lay 
petition as one which seeks "to elevate the laity to an 
equality of authority and jurisdiction with the bishops and 
clergy in all matters whatsoever, temporal or spiritual, con- 
nected with the Church," and as thus containing "mon- 
strous proposals" such as "would have subordinated and 
overthrown the Church of England altogether." There was 
some ground as we shall see for the Bishop's apprehension, 
even if the event has not fully justified it. 

The result of the conference in April brought the Bishop 
to a definite decision to visit England in 'connexion with 
the constitutional issue thus raised. For long he had 
hesitated as to the need or advisability of this course. As 
late as March he had written to Coleridge that he feared 
that he would be too late to influence the course of proceed- 
ings in England, even if he sailed immediately, in view of 
the possibility of the bill proposed by Gladstone "for con- 
ferring on the Australasian Churches the privileges we have 
asked for" becoming law before his arrival. This however 
he thought unlikely: and he increasingly saw that his own 
presence in England would be of marked value in securing 
a satisfactory legal and legislative settlement of the matter, 
a settlement which would not be applicable to this or that 
diocese only, but would "tie together in one fellowship the 
entire Reformed Episcopal Church." So he determined to 
go, and in May was already discussing with the Bishop of 
Newcastle the ship and route by which he would travel. In 
the same letter he also outlined the course of proceedings 
which he proposed to follow on his arrival in England. 
These were the proposed successive steps which he hoped 
would be taken : 

i. He would first go to the Archbishop whose opposition 
to the introduction of a lay element in the councils of the 
Church he hoped to overcome, and with his assistance would 
gain access to Lord Grey, the Secretary of State. 


2. Through the latter he hoped to secure the appoint- 
ment of a Royal Commission, including "a certain number 
of bishops and clergy, with a competent proportion of lay- 
men, consisting of some lawyers, common and ecclesiastical, 
to examine into and report on the application." He hoped 
thus to secure a weighty body of opinion as to "the prin- 
ciples which must be admitted and acted upon in proposing 
the framework of a constitution for the entire colonial 

3. The Report of the Commission would in due course 
be laid before the Queen. 

4. The Queen would be requested to appoint a sub- 
commission in each 'colonial diocese "for the purpose of re- 
viewing the proposed constitution as recommended by the 
head Commission in England, and adapting it to the cir- 
cumstances of the particular diocese for which that sub- 
commission is acting." 

5. The Report of such sub-commissions, after approval 
by the clergy and laity in each diocese, would be returned 
to England "for the approval and ratification of the Queen 
in the exercise of Her Supremacy." 

6. Application would then be made to the Colonial 
Legislative Councils to give effect to the provisions of the 
Constitutions regarded in the same light as the by-laws of 
any other body corporate." 

The Bishop eventually sailed, as narrated elsewhere, 4 on 
16 August. In a farewell address to his clergy on the eve 
of his departure he explained that his main purpose in 
undertaking the journey was "to solicit in the proper quarter 
the removal of those restrictions by which our Church is 
at present inhibited from the free exercise of those faculties 
of self -guidance with which she was originally endowed: 
that there might no longer exist any obstacle to the meeting 
of the bishops, clergy, and laity in a lawful assembly, to con- 
sult and make regulations for the better management of 

* See Chapter XX. 


the affairs of the Church within this diocese." 5 Those re- 
strictions he believed could only be removed by parliamentary 
authority in England or by the personal intervention of the 
Queen. To take direct action in the establishment of a 
legislative assembly for the Church without such sanction 
would, he believed, be illegal and a contravention of the 
oaths which both he and his clergy had taken. This belief, 
that royal sanction or an enabling act of parliament was 
required to establish the legality of the action contemplated, 
was generally held both in ecclesiastical and political circles. 
The same need which drew the Bishop of Sydney to England 
impelled other colonial bishops to take a similar course : and 
Broughton hoped to confer not only with English authority 
but with fellow bishops from overseas who had arranged 
their visits to England to coincide with his. We have seen 
that the Bishop had not only his own diocese in view, or 
those in Australia, in his hopes for the future. He hoped 
to see the establishment of "one uniform system . . . 
throughout all the colonial churches (uniform I mean as 
to all its vital and essential observances) whereby they may 
be bound together in one great system of unity," an object 
which would be greatly facilitated by opportunities of per- 
sonal consultation with bishops from other overseas dioceses. 
The event was to prove that Broughton was able to carry 
out only a fraction of the plan in its successive stages which 
he had proposed to himself. He landed in England on 
20 November 1852, and died on 20 February 1853. He had 
interviews in December on the subject which had brought 
him to England with the Archbishop of Canterbury, with 
the Bishop of London, and with Gladstone. He wrote 
also of a "convention of colonial bishops" which was to be 
held in January with the express approval of the Arch- 
bishop, to be followed by a further conference with the 
Archbishop himself. Illness and death, however, prevented 
any decisive results from being reached. Broughton was 

5 Colonial Church Chronicle, vol. vi, p. 221. 


the acknowledged leader in the 'cause and, his leadership 
once removed, efforts for combined action on the part of 
the colonial episcopate fell increasingly into abeyance. 

The initiative, however, in constitutional reform had not 
rested only with the Colonial Church and its bishops. Their 
cause had aroused increasing interest in England. Already 
in 1850 the question of the position of the Church in the 
colonies had been opened in both Houses of Parliament. A 
preliminary attempt was made in that year by Gladstone 
in the House of Commons and by the Bishop of Oxford in 
the House of Lords to remove the difficulties under which 
the Church in the colonies laboured. Their action took the 
form of "a resolution providing that when members of the 
Church of England, bishops, clergy, and laity, assembled 
together, and by consent laid down rules for their internal 
government, it should be impossible for persons who had 
consented to those rules, afterwards to appeal against them 
to courts at Home." The attempt so made was unsuccess- 
ful, but elicited from Lord Grey the admission that "a case 
for enquiry had been made out." 

In 1852 Gladstone went further, and brought in a bill 
alluded to by Broughton in the farewell address to his 
clergy already referred to, as one providing "that in each 
of the colonial dioceses named in the bill, or to be here- 
after included by the authority of Her Majesty, it shall 
be lawful for the clergy and laity, under suitable regulations, 
and with the assent of the bishop, to frame such regulations 
as by the concurrence of all shall be deemed most salutary 
and conducive to the welfare of the Church." 6 The Bishop 
welcomed the fact that, so far as his information went, the 
proposed bill was in agreement with the recommendations 
of the Bishops' Conference of 1850, viz. "to extend to the 
laity of the Church a degree of active influence, which from 

"ibid., p. 221. 


the outset they have never possessed directly, and perhaps 
hardly indirectly, in the management of its affairs." 7 

Actually the bill in question, 8 of the introduction of which 
in the House of Commons Broughton had already received 
information before he sailed for England, was one enabling 
the bishop, clergy, and representative laity in the colonial 
dioceses to meet together from time to time "to make . . . 
any such regulations as local circumstances shall in their 
judgment render necessary for the better conduct of their 
ecclesiastical affairs," and exempting them from the pro- 
vision of any "statute law, rule or other authority" which 
might be construed as prohibiting such action. Appended to 
the main enabling clause of the bill were a number of 
limiting or safeguarding clauses framed mainly to secure the 
supremacy of the Queen in the appointment of bishops, and 
the due subordination of the bishops, clergy, and laity to 
the See of Canterbury. 

Gladstone failed to secure the passage of his bill through 
the House of Commons. His action was however followed 
in the next year, 1853, by a similar measure, the Colonial 
Church Regulation Bill, 9 which was introduced in the House 
of Lords by the Archbishop of Canterbury (Summer), and 
which in that House passed its third reading in July. In the 
case of this bill, the purpose of which was "to enable the 
bishops, clergy, and laity of the United Church of England 
and Ireland in Her 'Majesty's colonial and foreign possessions 
to provide for the regulation of the affairs of the said 
Church in such possessions," the provisions and restrictions 
appended to the main clause were even more detailed and 
specific than in the case of the previous bill. Elaborate 
regulations were provided for the election of lay represen- 
tatives to the synods or assemblies of the dioceses concerned : 
and it was ruled that the votes of clergy and laity must 
be taken separately, and that no resolution could be valid 

7 ibid. "For the terms of the bill see ibid., pp. 68-70. 
*>ee Colonial Church Chronicle, vol, vii, p, 55-6. 


unless it had been approved by a majority of both Houses 
and had received the assent of the bishop. 

It was further provided that "a copy of the regulations 
passed at the first Assembly (in each case) ... or later 
alterations in them should be sent by the bishop to the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, and that the latter within six 
months of the receipt of them should submit them with 
observations for the consideration of Her Majesty in Coun- 
cil," and "Her Majesty by and with the advice of the Privy 
Council, may allow or disallow the same as to Her Majesty, 
with such advice, shall seem fit." 

It was thus obviously intended in the proposed act to 
maintain the active exercise of the supremacy of the Crown 
with reference to the Church in the colonies, so far at least 
as under colonial conditions was possible. Indeed the whole 
bill was couched in terms which sought to provide that while 
the Church in the colonial dioceses was to be freed for the 
management of its own affairs, yet the bond uniting -that 
Church to the Church at Home and to the Crown should 
be maintained by express statutory provision. 

The Archbishop of Canterbury's bill met the same fate 
as that of Gladstone when it was taken from the House of 
Lords to the House of Commons. In some quarters it was 
viewed with groundless suspicion as an attempt to obtain 
for the Church of England exclusive rights and privileges, 
and to enhance the authority of the bishops at the expense 
of the clergy. The main reason for its rejection, however, 
seems to have been a reluctance on the part of the Church 
at Home and its loyal members "to interfere or seem to 
interfere by any act of the Imperial Legislature with the 
Church's position in the distant provinces of the Empire." 
The article in the Melbourne Church of Engfond Messenger, 
from which the above quotation is made, is an outspoken 
expression of the standpoint of the Church in the colonies. 
It showed from the actual terms of the bill how ground- 
less were the suspicions that it had encountered, particularly 


with regard to the charge of an attempt to increase the 
arbitrary authority of the bishops. It expressed the view, 
which it believed the bill also reflected, "that the present 
despotic power of Colonial Bishops should be taken away, 
and a much diminished and duly regulated authority be con- 
ferred in its stead ; because we believe that such a limitation 
of episcopal authority would be greatly beneficial to the 
Church, and would remove an objection which many ex- 
cellent clergymen now fe.el to emigrate." 

In view, however, of the rejection of the bill the article 
goes on to face the question, "What ought the members 
of the Church of England in this colony to do?" and it 
gives the unhesitating answer: "Let them act as if it had 
passed ... let them hold an assembly of the clergy and lay 
representatives elected according to the provisions of the 
bill; and let this assembly proceed to make such regulations 
for the management of all the local affairs of the Church 
and adopt such measures for giving effect to these regula- 
tions as they shall deem expedient." This counsel was in 
effect the inevitable outcome of three years of careful 
thought and experiment. Throughout that period the assump- 
tion underlying all discussion of the question at issue had 
been that the Colonial Church could not move in the matter 
of providing constitutional means for the regulation of its 
affairs without the authority of Parliament and Crown in 
England : and various avenues had been explored, and action 
taken to secure that authority. Yet neither Crown nor 
Parliament would intervene in the matter to resolve those 
difficulties or to confer the required authority. Hence the 
Colonial Church was thrown back on its own resources and 
compelled to take action on its own authority without re- 
ference to the Imperial Government at Home. 

Yet it was equally clear that the colonial dioceses could 
not revert, for purposes of church government, to the coer- 
cive jurisdiction conferred by letters patent. It was not, it 
is true, till 1866 that letters patent prescribing the sphere 


and limits of episcopal jurisdiction ceased to be issued, and 
not till 1873 that the Imperial Government formally resolved 
that they should no longer be issued. We have seen that 
the authority which they conferred, and the mode of its 
exercise, were irksome to clergy and laity, and perhaps most 
of all to the bishops themselves. Moreover, in the years 
following the death of Bishop Broughton, the authority 
which letters patent purported to confer on the bishops of 
colonial dioceses was invalidated by a series of important 
Privy Council judgments. But while these judgments thus 
ended the regime of letters patent, they expressly laid 
upon the Colonial Church the task of setting its own house 
in order in its own way. They declared that the Church of 
England in the colonies, as a non-established Church, stood 
on precisely the same level as any other religious body, and 
that "its members may adopt, as the members of any other 
Communion may adopt, rules for enforcing discipline within 
their body which will be binding on those who expressly 
or by implication have assented to them." 

It still remained, however, for the Church in the colonies, 
including Australia, to decide what form local action could 
take in default of recourse to the Imperial authorities at 
Home, and particularly after the failure of Archbishop 
Sumner's bill to secure the approval of Parliament. More 
especially it had to be decided whether and to what extent 
recourse should be had to the local state legislatures in 
order to secure the legal and constitutional character of the 
organs, legislative and judicial, for self-government which 
the different dioceses were in process of erecting. The 
course of action eventually adopted in New South Wales 
and in other Australian colonies takes us some years beyond 
the death of the subject of this memoir: yet it will not be 
out of place to add a brief and summary account of this 
creative epoch of ecclesiastical history, if only as revealing 
the outlines of the constitutional structure of which 
Broughton had done so much to lay the foundation. 



Two main possibilities lay open to the bishops concerned 
and their advisers, either to secure the sanction of the state 
legislatures to the proposed constitutions, whether in detail 
or in the form of a general enabling bill, or to act by con- 
sensual compact without reference to the civil authorities of 
the State except in so far as this was necessary to secure 
the property of the Church. Of bishops and dioceses in 
Australia, which adopted the former course, Melbourne was 
the first and most outstanding example, and Adelaide of 
those which adopted the latter. Bishop Perry was through- 
out a convinced advocate of the necessity of legislative sanc- 
tion for the proposed constitution of his diocese. Even 
before the colony of Victoria was separated from New 
South Wales and obtained a legislature of its own, the 
Bishop had promoted bills on patronage and discipline in 
the Legislative Council in Sydney, the hostile and critical 
attitude of which, however, compelled their withdrawal. 
Failure in this effort was followed in June 1851, by a confer- 
ence of bishops, clergy, and laity which resolved in favour 
of organizing diocesan synods and conventions. Three years 
later, in June 1854, a similar conference was convened to 
consider a draft constitution and bill which had in the mean- 
time been prepared by the Bishop's legal advisers. The draft 
was carried by a large majority, and in November of that 
year the Church Constitution Bill was placed on the statute 
book of the colony. The Bishop then proceeded to England 
early in 1855 in order to secure the royal assent to the act, 
but in view of difficulties and objections which he there 
encountered, he left England on his return journey in April 
1856, with his object still unattained. The assent of the 
Queen was, however, given after he had sailed and Victoria 
thus represents an early example of a colony in which the 
sanction of the local legislature, followed by the royal assent, 
was obtained for the constitution of the Church." 10 

10 Rev. Geo. Goodman, The Church in Victoria during the Episcopate 
of Bishop Perry, pp. 2 2 If. 


As against Bishop Perry's insistence on the necessity of 
legislative sanction for the constitution of the diocese, Bishop 
Short, of Adelaide, was an equally strong and consistent 
advocate of the method of consensual compact. The views 
which he held were expressed later in a pastoral charge de- 
livered in 1858, in which he maintained that the wisest 
course, the course which had actually been followed in his 
diocese, was "not to leave the bishop to administer the dio- 
cese on the absolute authority of his letters patent, nor to 
seek legal authority over his clergy by ordinance of the local 
legislature," but "to establish by mutual compact between 
the bishop, clergy, and laity a system of self -regulation, to 
which the 'civil law would so far give effect as to uphold 
the agreements finally made between the respective parties, 
and fairly carried out according to its provisions." . At a con- 
ference held at Adelaide on 6 January 1852 a draft con- 
stitution was accepted, and a resolution carried authorizing 
a petition to the Queen to sanction and to give effect to its 
provisions. Early in the following year the Bishop jour- 
neyed to England in order to submit the petition, and 
although the petition was not granted the visit had two im- 
portant results. The provisions of the bill, already men- 
tioned, brought by Archbishop Sumner before the House of 
Lords, and tarried in that House, but rejected by the House 
of Commons, were in no small measure suggested by the 
terms of the Adelaide petition. More important yet, the 
Bishop secured high legal opinion in England in favour 
of the right of a colonial diocese to adopt and carry out 
the provisions of a draft constitution without the sanction 
of the Imperial legislature. Armed with this opinion Short 
returned to his diocese, and in October 1855 convened a 
diocesan assembly which considered, accepted and solemnly 
signed the synodal compact and fundamental provisions 
which thenceforward were to form the constitution of the 
diocese: and the synod met under this constitution for the 
first time in April 1856. The example of Adelaide in pro- 


ceeding by the method of consensual contract was followed 
by the dioceses of New Zealand and Capetown. 

In New South Wales action to secure a constitution for 
the Church was necessarily delayed by the death of Bishop 
Broughton. The delay, however, had the advantage of pro- 
viding the Church in this colony with additional materials 
on which to form its judgment and to take action, in the 
experience of other dioceses and the varied courses of action 
adopted by them. Broughton's successor, Frederick Barker, 
did not arrive in Sydney until March 1855, and it was two 
years later that for the first time he found himself free to 
direct his attention to this subject. In the year 1857 he 
secured the preparation of a draft bill by three experienced 
lawyers, which after consideration and acceptance by con- 
ferences held in each of the two dioceses of the colony, 
was to be submitted to Parliament. The conference in Syd- 
ney was held in the Church Society's House, Phillip Street, 
in November 1858. Canon Allwood, incumbent of St 
James's Church, pressed for the acceptance of an enabling 
bill only, giving the Church permission to hold synods and 
to pass ordinances which should be legally valid. The 
majority, however, maintained the view, an opinion in which 
at that time Bishop Tyrrell concurred, "that the Church was 
free to form synods, but feared that the exercise of this 
power was a doubtful good without legislative definition and 
compulsion . . . and that a mere Enabling Bill, ajnd still 
more a Constitution founded on agreement or consensual 
compact, like those in New Zealand and Adelaide, would 
prove a mere rope of sand, powerless to secure coherence 
to the Church in the colony." 11 

The conferences held in the two dioceses then accepted the 
draft bill with some amendments of importance, and in 1859 
sent it to the legislature for parliamentary sanction. It was 
passed by the Legislative Council, and by April 1861 was 
ready for presentation for a second reading in the Legisla- 

and Labours of William Tyrrell, D.D., p. 184 (London, 1882). 


live Assembly. It was found, however, that meantime the 
Legislative Council had on its own initiative introduced an 
amendment into the bill, limiting the scope of the bishop's 
veto and excluding from it matters "of temporal concern 
only." Here was a matter of principle, with respect to 
which the legislature proposed to override the express and 
unanimous view of the Church. So anxious was Barker 
to secure the passage of the bill that he would have accepted 
it even with this amendment; so strong, however, were the 
representations of Tyrrell and others in ob jetting to this 
high-headed action of the State that the bill was withdrawn 
from the cognizance of Parliament, and the Church in New 
South Wales was, as the result proved, not only secured 
from submission to the intervention of the civil authority 
in its affairs, but was diverted from the course taken by the 
Church in Victoria with respect to legislative sanction for 
its constitution. 

In spite of the action of the Legislative Council, Barker 
remained throughout a consistent advocate of the method 
of legislative enactment, a view in which he was the more 
confirmed after his return from a visit to England in 1862 
and 1863 by a dispatch addressed to the Governor of Cape 
Colony by the Duke of New'castle, Secretary of State for 
the Colonies, pointing out in reference to the Privy Coun- 
cil judgment in the Long v. Capetown case that the synod 
of the Diocese of Capetown in assembling and legislating 
without parliamentary sanction had assumed powers and 
taken action, which were legally ultra vires. Tyrrell on 
the other hand had completely changed his views, and by 
1865, when the constitutional question again came up for 
consideration, had rea'ched the conclusion that even an en- 
abling act was unnecessary to secure the legality of the 
Church's action, as based on agreement, that it was best 
for the Church to have as little as possible to do with the 
legislature, and that it could meet in synod and pass regu- 
lations binding on its members simply on its own volition: 


and in accordance with these vi'ews the conference of 
bishops, clergy, and laity in Newcastle met as a synod in 

By this time, however, another factor had entered into 
the question through the consecration of Mesac Thomas, as 
Bishop of Goulburn, in March 1863. Thus the concur- 
rence of not two only but three dioceses to the proposed 
action of the Church in New South Wales became a matter 
of importance, indeed of necessity, if the Church in the 
colony was to seek uniform legislation for itself as a whole. 
Further the addition of a third diocese 'constituted the 
colony an ecclesiastical province, and raised the question 
whether a provincial synod should be formed as well as 
synods of the dioceses, and whether it should take pre- 
cedence of the diocesan synods as the main legislative body 
for the whole church in the colony. The latter course was 
indeed strongly urged by Tyrrell, influenced in this direc- 
tion, it may well be, by the course adopted in New Zealand, 
where through the action of Bishop Selwyn provincial synod 
was made the paramount legislative authority for the 

Barker summoned a conference representative of his own 
diocese in February 1865 and endeavoured to secure the 
acceptance of an enabling bill, based on the act which regu- 
lated synodical organization in Canada, for submission to 
Parliament. The bill however had reference to the Diocese 
of Sydney only and made no reference to or provision for 
a provincial synod. To this action Tyrrell was strenuously 
opposed, and in deference to his protests the proposed bill 
was not submitted to Parliament, and Tyrrell, too, gained 
increasing support for his view that the legislature should 
be applied to only for a Church Temporalities Bill, to 
which the constitution should be appended as a schedule, 
for the regulation of the property of the Church. 

He urged further that a provincial conference should be 
summoned, representative of the three dioceses, in order to 


determine a form of constitution for the Church in the 
colony, and to decide to what extent application should be 
made to the legislature : and he stated that he was prepared 
to accept the judgment of the majority in such a conference, 
even if it ran counter to his own views. The proposed 
conference eventually met in 1866, and Tyrrell found him- 
self confronted by a formidable opposition led by the bishops 
and chancellors of the dioceses of Sydney and Goulburn, 
who 'clung to the necessity of legislative action and were 
strongly opposed to according to provincial synods, 
if formed, any direct legislative authority. Grudging pro- 
vision was indeed made by the conference for a provin- 
cial synod, but its powers were so far crippled by the pro- 
vision that only matters referred to it by all the dioceses 'con- 
cerned could be taken into consideration, as to render it 
wholly ineffective as an organ of church government. 

Pressure was also brought on the conference to sanc- 
tion approach to the legislature, both to secure the practical 
working of the constitution and the management of the pro- 
perty of the Church. In the event it was only the latter 
which was made the subject of legislation: and by a short 
bill which became law in October 1866 it was provided 
that "the several Articles and provisions in the said con- 
stitutions and any rules and ordinances to be made under 
or by virtue, or in pursuance thereof are and shall for all 
purposes connected with or in any way relating to the pro- 
perty of the said United Church of England and Ireland 
within the Colony of New South Wales be binding upon 
the members of the said Church." 12 It was also provided 
that a copy of the constitution should within three months 
of the passing of the act "be recorded in the Supreme 
Court." Thus mainly owing to the influence and efforts of 
Tyrrell New South Wales stands with Adelaide and New 
Zealand as a state within which the constitution of the 

u 30 Victoria. An Act to enable the members of the United Church 
of England and Ireland in New South Wales to manage the property 
of the said Church. 


Church was based on 'consensual compact, such legislation 
as was applied for and obtained dealing only with the 
recognition of the Church as a body corporate holding pro- 
perty and with the conditions of its tenure of property. 

We have thus carried the story to the point, well beyond 
Bishop Broughton's death, of the establishment in 
the different dioceses of his province of constitutional gov- 
ernment in the form which practically it has retained to this 
day. It is true that in 1872 the Church in Australia was 
provided through the establishment of general synod with 
a common organ of consultation and determination. It is 
true again that provincial synods have been established in 
other states than New South Wales, and in two cases have 
been given direct legislative authority on a limited number 
of specified subjects. Yet it is the diocesan synod, and not 
provincial or general synod, which has remained the auto- 
nomous unit of government, and, more particularly in the 
case of those earliest established, has clung jealously to its 
original charter and has shown a marked unwillingness to 
surrender any legislative power to a larger and more repre- 
sentative body. To a large extent this jealous attachment 
to diocesan independence is the outcome of the circum- 
stances under which diocesan synods were first established 
in the middle of the last century. We have seen how 
anxious Broughton was that, in framing these 'constitu- 
tions and in seeking authoritative recognition for them, the 
dioceses in Australasia should act in close co-operation, and 
should present a common front; and we have seen traces 
of the almost bitter disappointment which he felt at the 
centrifugal tendencies of the dioceses of his province and 
at their determination to act separately and independently 
in this all-important matter. 

It may indeed be said that this adherence to a jealous 
and exclusive diocesanism has dogged the footsteps of the 
Church in Australia throughout its subsequent history. It 
effectuallv Drevented the vesting of general synod with any 


measure of direct legislative authority. It reduced pro- 
vincial action to a grudging minimum: and it has proved 
the main difficulty in the way of the accomplishment of the 
next and perhaps final stage of constitutional reform which 
began in 1905 and is still incomplete. It is true that for 
long the original constitutions, whether based on legisla- 
tion or consensual compact, remained adequate to the needs 
of the Church. Diocesan independence and separateness was 
perhaps the natural counterpart of the political indepen- 
dence, the one of the other, of the states. But increasingly, 
and not least as a result of the establishment of the Com- 
monwealth and the growth of national consciousness and 
unity, it became obvious that the Church needed a far more 
effectual organ of common legislation and action than is 
provided by the existing general synod. Years of thought 
and effort have been given to the matter of enlarging the 
powers of general synod and of integrating the dioceses into 
an organic unity for purposes of joint consultation and legis- 
lation : and still the completion of the task lags through un- 
willingness on the part of the larger dioceses to merge them- 
selves in a greater whole and to surrender their indepen- 
dence in matters of vital concern to the whole Church. 

The other matter in connexion with which experience has 
revealed the inadequacy of the diocesan constitutions as 
originally formed is that of the connexion of the Church 
in Australia with the Mother Church in England. Brough- 
ton and his fellow bishops were anxious, as we have seen, 
to place the administration of the Church on a more satis- 
factory basis than that provided by the letters patent de- 
fining the scope of their jurisdiction and disciplinary 
authority. They desired that the s'cope of their jurisdic- 
tion, and the authority to exercise it, should be derived ex- 
plicitly not from the Crown, but from the Church : and they 
laboured to provide the Colonial Church with its own organs 
of discussion and administration, with full representation 
for the clergy and laity acting in conjunction with them- 


selves. But they were equally anxious to disclaim any inde- 
pendence of the Home Church in matters of doctrine and 
worship. They had no thought of altering the Book of 
Common Prayer and the formularies of the Church on their 
own authority: they had no thought of establishing or ac- 
cepting any final Court of Appeal in matters of doctrine and 
discipline other than that legally established for the Church 
in England. Broughton indeed supposed that the main- 
tenance of an exact identity in these respects must prove 
the main bond of unity in that "confederation of episcopal 
churches" which was, we have seen, the goal of his own am- 
bition. Hence in the framing of the diocesan constitutions 
the bishops and their advisers assumed no power of inde- 
pendent action in these directions. Indeed they explicitly 
disclaimed any desire for such authority. The legal bond 
with the Mother Church which was thus left untouched has 
proved, however, unduly to fetter the Church's freedom of 
action in the light of 'changing circumstances. The growth 
of the Church in Australia into a self-governing national or 
regional church of the Anglican communion has brought 
with it the necessity of the assumption under proper safe- 
guards of authority to revise or alter the Book of Common 
Prayer and the formularies of the Church. It has also 
involved the proposal to erect a final Court of Appeal, for 
matters of doctrine as well as of discipline, within and for 
the Church in Australia. This was a development which 
naturally lay beyond the horizon for those who framed 
and accepted the original constitutions of the Australian 

On one matter, however, we believe that Broughton 
showed a wise prescience. We have noted the insistent 
stress which he laid on the independence of the clerical estate 
and on the right of its members to sit and debate with the 
bishop, but apart from the laity, when any matter arose for 
consideration which lay within the special province of the 
clergy. Broughton's desire in this respect was not fulfilled. 
Once admitted to the 'councils of the Church the laity were 


not content with conventions separate from the synods of 
bishop and clergy. They sought and obtained complete 
equality with the clergy, whatever the subject of debate and 
decision. The synods of the Australian dioceses do not con- 
sist, in accordance with the traditional form of those assem- 
blies and with the recommendations of the bishops of the 
1850 conference, of bishop and clergy only, but of 
bishop, clergy, and lay representatives. Moreover, in 
the provision made for lay representation the laity consider- 
ably outnumber the clergy, not infrequently by two 
to one, in the diocesan synods. Often too their represen- 
tatives are elected by a very inadequate parochial consti- 
tuency. In the case of the largest metropolitan diocese 
the unbeneficed clergy are entirely excluded from synod. 
The laity have an equal voice and vote on all ques- 
tions which arise for discussion and resolution, however 
"spiritual" or doctrinal they may be: and the only 
opportunity which the clergy possess of expressing their 
own independent view is that which is provided by the 
method, when demanded, of voting by orders. We believe 
that in this matter, however, history has proved Broughton 
right, and that the efforts which he and his fellow bishops 
made to secure for the laity a responsible share in the coun- 
cils of the Church has in effect led to an undue measure of 
lay domination in those councils. That it was right and 
indeed inevitable to ac'cord to the laity a share of such 
responsibility we fully recognize, as also that the action so 
taken has broadened the basis of church government and 
administration, and strengthened the hold of the Church on 
the loyalty of its people. We suggest, however, that the ac- 
ceptance of the limitations on lay action proposed by 
Broughton, such as would have enabled the clergy to deliber- 
ate and decide separately on matters of specifically clerical 
concern, would have made for a better and more propor- 
tionate distribution of powers in the councils of the Church, 
and often for greater progressiveness in handling matters of 
primary importance. 



THE first white settlers in New South Wales found them- 
selves in contact with a primitive people, which from time 
immemorial had occupied the land. The aborigines with 
whom they were brought into contact, and often into con- 
flict, were "pure nomads, the members of a tribe hunting 
over the land that had belonged to their ancestors, and 
not encroaching on that of others." They were neither a 
pastoral nor an agricultural community. They lived by 
the chase, and the grass-seeds which their women ground 
and cooked. They built no settled abodes, their only shel- 
ter being the bark mia-mias, which they erected at their 
camping-places. Their weapons, too, were of the most 
primitive kind, the spear, the boomerang, and the nulla- 
nulla. Charles Darwin in 1836 thus describes them : "They 
will not cultivate the ground, or build houses, or even take 
the trouble of tending a flock of sheep when given to them. 
On the whole they appear to me to stand some few degrees 
higher in the scale of civilization than the Fuegians." 

Primitive though they were, the most archaic people ex- 
tant, they made a far from unfavourable impression on sym- 
pathetic observers. In 1822 Baron Field wrote: "They 
bear themselves erect and address you with confidence, 
always with good humour, often with grace." A recent es- 
timate of them speaks of them as follows: "As a race, the 
aborigines are polite, proper in their behaviour, modest, 
unassuming, gay, fond of jokes and laughter, and skilful 


mimics ... by nature frank, open, and confiding, of a lively 
disposition, and 'cheerful under all sorts of privations." 
They were not without religion. They believed in beings 
with power superior to their own, beings, however, to which 
they did not look for help, and which had no interest in their 
conduct. Practical religion for them meant sheer magic, 
"the magic of pointing bones and sticks, practised by medi- 
cine men, themselves initiated by others." Disaster, sick- 
ness, and death were never to them natural occurrences. 
They were caused by magic, often directed from a distance. 
Apart from the fashioning of their primitive weapons and 
the chase, in which their capacity for observation and track- 
ing almost reached the level of a fine art, much of their 
time was spent in religious ceremonies, particularly those 
connected with the initiation of adolescents into the full 
privileges of tribal life. At the same time their social 
code was far from undeveloped. The prohibitions and sanc- 
tions connected with marriage were based on sound prin- 
ciples and were rigidly enforced. It has indeed been the 
motive of protection of their women from the lust and 
rapacity of the lower 'class of white man which has been 
one of the commonest grounds of conflict between the two, 
of attacks on the part of the blacks and reprisals on that 
of the white man. 

The blackfellow, the original occupant of the land, could 
not be ignored by the white invader. His presence consti- 
tuted a claim both upon the Government and the Church. 
Yet both government prote'ction and missionary enterprise 
were rendered peculiarly difficult by the unsettled nomadic 
life lived by the aborigines, and by a general lack of under- 
standing of their mentality, beliefs, and customs. Subse- 
quent experience has shown that the only satisfactory 
method of handling the problem is by the setting aside on 
the part of the Government of reserves of considerable 
area, within which the blacks can live their own life un- 
disturbed by the white pastoralist or mineral exploiter, and 


within which are admitted only those white men, mission- 
aries and others, who are there in the interests of the blacks. 
In the early years of white settlement, when the small 
community was struggling for its very existen'ce and its pio- 
neers were gradually extending the area of effectual occu- 
pation, it was hardly to be expected that this method would 
be adopted: and in fact little or nothing was done to fulfil 
this obligation, with one or two exceptions to be mentioned, 
either on the part of the Government or the Church during 
the first half-century of white settlement in the territory. 

Yet it was not that the obligation was ignored. In 1839 
Lord John Russell wrote to Sir George Gipps, Governor of 
New South Wales : "You cannot overrate the solicitude of 
H.M. Government on the subject of the aborigines of New 
Holland. It is impossible to contemplate the condition 
and the prospects of that unfortunate race without the 
deepest commiseration. ... It is impossible that the Gov- 
ernment should forget that the original aggression was our 
own, and that we have never yet performed the sacred 
duty of making any systematic or considerable attempt to 
impart to the former occupiers of New South Wales the 
blessings of Christianity, or the knowledge of the arts and 
advantages of civilised life." The truth 'contained in this 
admonition had not been a dead letter in New South Wales. 
In the previous year a commission had been appointed by 
Government, with Bishop Broughton as one of its members, 
to inquire into the condition of the aborigines ; and an official 
document, emanating in 1839 from the Chief Secretary's 
office, records the appropriation of 5454 I2s. from public 
funds, as the result of an "Estimate of the Public Expenses 
of the Establishments for the Protection of the Aborigines, 
and of Missions for their civilization and conversion to 

Yet the story of the earlier organized efforts of a mis- 
sionary or government character on behalf of the aborigines 
was a record of repeated failure. In December 1814 Cover- 


nor Macquarie had issued a proclamation in the following 
terms : "With a view to effect the civilization of the aborig- 
ines of New South Wales and to render their habits more 
domesticated and industrious, and to render them not only 
happy in themselves but also in some degree useful to the 
'community, he has determined to institute a school for the 
education of the native children of both sexes, and to assign 
a portion of land for the occupancy and cultivation of the 
adult natives." 

Early the next year an Asylum for Aboriginal Children, 
six of either sex, was opened at Parramatta, placed under 
the superintendence of Mr W. Shelley, a missionary from 
Tahiti, and under the general control of a mixed committee, 
from which strangely enough the name of Samuel Marsden 
was omitted. In 1823, after Governor Macquarie's de- 
parture from the colony, the school was removed to Bla'ck- 
town and was abandoned three years later. 

A second attempt was made at Lake Macquarie in 1825. 
A mission was established under the Rev. L. Threlkeld, with 
financial support from the Colonial Government, but was 
closed in 1841 "in consequence of the almost complete ex- 
tinction of the tribes." The missionary in charge reported 
that "the peculiar habits of the natives are serious draw- 
backs to missionary enterprise and to their own spiritual 
and civil advancement : for however much they may and 
do become useful to Europeans in trifling employments, they 
remain uninstructed in Christian principles and become by 
such intercourse mere initiates in vice." 

The same result awaited another attempt made at Welling- 
ton in the west, under the Church Missionary Society, and 
again supported by Government. The mission was established 
in 1832, was visited by the Rev. S. Marsden, and was watched 
with interest by Archdeacon Broughton, who arranged to 
place at the disposal of the missionaries Threlkeld's "Ele- 
mentary Introdu'ction to the Native Language," and one 
or two translations of Biblical passages. Already, however, 


in 1832, it was reported that "the Aborigines are fast wast- 
ing away wherever the white get a footing." Particularly 
was this so when the type of white men with whom the 
aborigines were brought into contact consisted largely of 
"prisoner sto'ckkeepers," ex-convicts employed on the sheep 
stations. This mission, too, which from 1837 till 1841 was 
under the charge of the Rev. J. Gunther, was abandoned in 
the latter year, in view of the rapid shrinking of the blacks 
in the neighbourhood : and the opinion gradually took shape, 
and has since very largely prevailed, that the inevitable des- 
tiny of the aboriginal people of Australia is complete extinc- 
tion. The following from an article in the South Australian 
Register of i August 1840, not unfairly sums up the posi- 
tion as it was at that date, and as it has largely been since. 
"We say distinctly and deliberately that nothing compara- 
tively has yet been done . . . that the natives have hitherto 
acquired nothing of European civilization but European 
vices and diseases, and that the speedy extinction of the 
whole race is inevitable, save by the introduction of means 
for their civilization on a scale much more comprehensive 
and effectual than any yet adopted." Again in 1850, at the 
great missionary gathering in Sydney described later in this 
chapter, Mr Charles Cooper declared that : "Thousands and 
thousands of pounds had been spent in endeavouring to 
Christianize and civilize these natives, but without avail"; 
and that "there was now in the Colony of New South Wales 
no trace of any efforts to civilize the native races, except 
a corps of native mounted police, who were in effect mere 
bloodhounds to hunt down their own race who were addicted 
to the crime of cattle-stealing." 

Meanwhile greater success had attended Australian mis- 
sionary enterprise in another field, and honourably associated 
with the name of Samuel Marsden. The attention of the 
latter had been drawn to New Zealand as a sphere of mis- 
sionary work by a Maori chief, Duaterra, who had acted as 
a common sailor in a series of vessels, including the Ann, 


on which Marsden himself returned to Port Ja'ckson in 
1809, and had received generous hospitality from Marsden 
at his Parramatta home. The latter secured, with considerable 
difficulty, the concurrence in his proposed visit to New 
Zealand, of the then Governor, Macquarie, and on 28 No- 
vember 1814 sailed in the brig Active, which had been pur- 
chased a year or two earlier expressly for missionary ser- 
vice, on what has been described as "The first and one of 
the greatest 'civilising missionary enterprises emanating from 
the shores of Australia." 1 A landing was made at the Bay 
of Islands on 19 December, and on Christmas Day the first 
service was held, and the British flag erected as "The signal 
of the dawn of civilization, liberty, and religion in that 
dark and benighted land." Two hundred acres of land were 
purchased for twelve axes, the property being vested with 
the Church Missionary Society, and a beginning was made 
of an industrial mission, the results of which won the un- 
stinted admiration of Charles Darwin wfien he saw them in 
1835 Marsden himself made no less than seven voyages to 
New Zealand in connexion with this mission, undoubtedly 
the greatest work of his life. The last was made in 1837, 
only a year before his death, when he left behind a repu- 
tation for "excellent good sense and apostolic enthusiasm 
displayed in all his work for New Zealand. 2 

It was at the end of the following year that Broughton 
himself, who. on his enthronement as Bishop of Australia, 
succeeded Bishop Daniel Wilson of Calcutta as Patron of 
the New South Wales Auxiliary of the Church Missionary 
Society, paid a visit to New Zealand, spending the months 
from December 1838 until March 1839, in carrying out a 
request by the parent society in London that he would do 
so, and thus "acquire for the Mission" established by 
Marsden and maintained by the Society "such an exercise 

1 S. M. Johnstone, Samuel Marsden, p. 120. 
'Australian Encyclopaedia. Art. MARSDBN. 


of the episcopal functions as the case would admit." 3 A 
full report of his visit was presented to the Society on his 
return and is preserved among its records. 

A few years later (in 1847) began the work among the 
islands of the South Pacific, which bore fruit in the Melane- 
sion Mission and diocese. Bishop G. A. Selwyn, consecrated 
first Bishop of New Zealand in 1841, found that according 
to the terms of the letters patent under which he was ap- 
pointed, his diocese extended "from the Auckland Islands to 
the Carolines, i.e. from 50 S. Lat. to 34 N. Lat. . . . upwards 
of 80 deg. of latitude by 20 of longitude." In other words, 
whether by accident or design, his diocese was not con- 
fined to New Zealand alone but included the islands to the 
north as far as the Bismarck Archipelago. This drafter's 
error, if such it was, was converted by the Bishop into a 
call to a magnificent and dangerous enterprise. He declared 
himself prepared, if adequate support were available, "to 
undertake the personal inspection and supervision of the 
whole of Melanesia, that is of all islands lying between the 
meridian of the east cape of New Zealand or nearly 180 
degrees to the meridian of Cape York and the eastern 
coast of Australia." 4 

By the end of 1847 he had broken the back of the initial 
work of organizing his diocese, and rapid progress had been 
made in the conversion of the Maoris to Christianity. He 
felt himself at liberty therefore to pay a preliminary visit 
of inspection to the islands to the north, and in December 
of that year embarked on H. M.S. Dido as temporary chap- 
lain and instructor. He thus visited the Friendly, Navi- 
gator, and New Hebrides groups, and established friendly 
personal relations with the natives. He also formed the 
plan of missionary strategy on which he subsequently acted, 
viz., "To select a few promising youths from all the islands, 

3 Johnstone, History of the Church Missionary Society in Australia 
and Tasmania, p. 185. 

4 H. W. Tucker, Memoir of the Life and Episcopate of George 
Augustus Selwyn, vol. i, p. 375. 



to prove and test them, first by observation of their habits 
on board a floating school, then to take them for further 
training to New Zealand : and lastly when they are suffi- 
ciently advanced to send them back as teachers to their own 
people, if possible with some English missionary, to give 
effect and regularity to their work." 5 

For this purpose he purchased the Undine, a small 
schooner of twenty tons, and with no reliable charts to 
guide him set out on his second island voyage in July 1849, 
his hope being "to bring back with me some swarthy youths 
for edu'cation at our Polynesian College." On i October 
he returned to Auckland, and burst in on his wife with the 
words "I've got them," producing "five wild little islanders, 
the forerunners of the indigenous clergy of Melanesia." 
These were nursed, taught, and cared for at the Bishop's 
College, St John's, Auckland, during the next few months, 
and in May 1850 he set out on his third visit to the Islands. 
On 17 May he wrote: "The object of my present voyage 
has been to carry back my native scholars to their own 
homes, lest the damp and cold of our New Zealand winter 
should take effect upon them." Thus a plan of action had 
been laid down, and the beginning made of carrying it into 
effect, for missionary enterprise in the South Pacific. Some- 
thing more, however, was needed both here and in other 
fields than individual efforts, however heroic, if the task 
was to be adequately faced. It must be made the recognized 
responsibility of the whole Church. On 13 September 1850, 
Bishop Selwyn wrote that he was "now on my way to meet 
the Bishops of the Australian Province on the 1st October." 
He wrote again on the subject: "We have many important 
subjects to consider, amongst others the formation of a 
Board of Missions for the dark and almost unknown archi- 
pelago into the skirts of which I have thrice penetrated, the 
third time with some clear hope of su'ccess, by the intro- 

6 ibid., vol. i, p. 316. 


duction from the five scholars whom I carried back in 
May last to the Loyalty Islands and New Caledonia." 

The conference of Australasian bishops, now six in num- 
ber, met in Sydney as arranged on i October 1850, and sat 
for a whole month. The nature and importance of this 
conference has been dwelt upon elsewhere in this memoir. 
Amongst, however, the most outstanding of the results of 
the Synod was the establishment of "an Australasian Board 
of Missions, to be supported by voluntary contributions 
from the six dioceses of Sydney, New Zealand, Tasmania, 
Adelaide, Melbourne and Newcastle, and having for its 
object the propagation of the Gospel among the heathen 
races in the province of Australasia, New Caledonia, the 
Loyalty Islands, the New Hebrides, the Solomon Islands, 
New Hanover, New Britain, and the other islands of the 
Western Pacific." The Board was formally established at 
a public meeting held in the Infant Schoolroom, Castlereagh 
Street, on Tuesday, 29 October, at which the six bishops 
of the Australasian Province were all present, and which 
was attended by a large and enthusiastic gathering com- 
puted at 1300 persons. On the Sunday night preceding, a 
sermon had been preached on the subject by Bishop Selwyn 
in St James's Church. The chair was taken at 7 o'clock 
by the Bishop of Sydney ; and both he and his five compro- 
vincials all spoke, the speeches being fully reported in the 
Sydney Morning Herald of the following Saturday. 6 

Bishop Broughton naturally enough confined his remarks 
to the subject of the aborigines of the colony, and expressed 
the hope and belief that "crushed and fallen as they were 
. . . some even of that despised and unfortunate people 
might be saved and converted by the redeeming grace of 
their Blessed Saviour." He also quoted at some length 
from an address which he had delivered to the clergy of 
the colony twenty-one years earlier, in 1829, when as Arch- 
deacon he gave his first visitation charge, showing that 

6 Sydney Morning Herald, 2 November 1850. 


already at that early date he was deeply concerned for the 
welfare of the Australian native and hoped that the Church 
of England would justify her unique position "by leading 
the way as a missionary, and by becoming the mother of 
missionaries who should attempt the recovery of this un- 
happy generation." 

The same plea was pressed by Bishop Short of Adelaide 
in a resolution which claimed "that sufficient evidences of 
God's blessing upon the past work has been afforded to 
encourage us to expect more enlarged success for the 
future." In his speech he admitted that "the Australian 
native had almost ceased to be regarded as a being capable 
of being civilized and Christianized." Yet he claimed that 
"the Australian native had a peculiar claim on their sym- 
pathies. They had possession of the land which formerly 
belonged to this race, and all the vices of civilization had 
been communicated to this unhappy race without any com- 
munication of the redeeming virtues." He pointed out the 
capacity shown by aboriginal children when regularly 
taught, and urged the necessity of providing some further 
means of training and discipline, as they grew to manhood 
and womanhood, "before they could be warranted in speak- 
ing of the Australian black as a race beyond the pale of 
salvation and impute to the hand of God the 'consequences 
of their own laggardness." He was able to point to the 
preparation then being made in his own diocese for the 
"formation of an establishment at Baston Is., Port Lincoln, 
to which the natives who had been trained in the schools 
of Adelaide might be removed, and where by a separation 
of 200 miles from the presence and influence of other tribes, 
they might be more readily trained in the paths of righteous- 
ness and civilization." Thus he affirmed the necessity of 
that principle of rigid segregation which subsequent ex- 
perience has shown to be the only efficacious method of 
handling the aboriginal problem. 

The Bishop of New Zealand moved: "That the foreign 


efforts of the Australian Board of Missions be first directed 
to the islands lying nearest to Australia, viz., New Caledonia 
and the Loyalty Islands : in the hope that by the blessing of 
God, its missions may hereafter be extended to all the 
heathen rates inhabiting the islands of the western Pacific." 
The speech opened with a glowing tribute to Samuel Mars- 
den and the splendid courage with which he had carried 
the Gospel to New Zealand and planted there the banner of 
the Church. The work begun by Marsden at the Bay of 
Islands had been extended southwards, and Maoris in- 
structed in the faith had themselves acted as missionaries 
to their countrymen. The same results had been achieved 
in the Chatham Islands, where on the occasion of a visit 
he had found "no less than 300 candidates for Baptism." 
Bishop Selwyn went on to give a vivid account of his 
voyages to the islands nearest to Australia, and of the 
method which he had adopted of training young natives 
of these islands at his college at Auckland with a view 
to their returning to the islands as teachers of their people. 
He pointed out the climatic drawbacks to the permanent 
residence of white missionaries in the islands. The early 
months of the year, he said: "were most unhealthy for 
Europeans" but "in the intermediate period between these 
unhealthy seasons the islands might be visited by a small 
vessel and a teacher left from whom the people would 
receive some instructions, and by whom some arrangement 
might be made for getting some of the younger natives to 
accompany him to the place of their destination." The 
great variety of island diale'cts, he maintained, made it 
advisable to use English as the medium of instruction at 
the training college. 

The resolutions moved by the last two episcopal speakers, 
the Bishops of Melbourne and Newcastle, dealt with the 
formation of the proposed Australasian Board of Missions 
and its organization both provincial and diocesan. The 
governors of the Australian colonies were to be requested 


to act as patrons of the Board. The Bishop of Sydney was 
elected President. Treasurers and secretaries, both clerical 
and lay, were to be appointed, and St John's College, New 
Zealand, was to be "provisionally recognized as a mission- 
ary college for the purposes of the Board." A further 
interesting provision was to the effect that "the Bishops 
of New Zealand and Newcastle be requested to act as 
missionary bishops." Bishops Selwyn and Tyrrell were 
lifelong friends, and it was arranged that, as a pledge and 
outcome of the partnership between Australia and New 
Zealand in missionary enterprise, these two bishops should 
undertake a voyage to the Islands together, in order to con- 
solidate and carry farther the work of which the former 
had already laid the foundation. The voyage was carried 
out from July till September of the following year, 1851, 
the two bishops travelling in the Border Maid, a vessel of 
100 tons, sailing from Auckland and reaching as far north 
as Malicolo in the New Hebrides. 

It is beyond the scope of this memoir to carry further the 
missionary record of the Church in Australia and New 
Zealand. Inevitably with the growth of the latter into a 
fully established e'cclesiastical province, its missionary or- 
ganization was separated from that in Australia, and in 
course of time a New Zealand Board of Missions was 
formed. The diocese of Melanesia itself as established 
under its first bishop, John Coleridge Patteson, was placed 
within the province of New Zealand, which has always 
had a chief and honourable share in the maintenance of this 
mission. Yet the task has been shared by the Australian 
Church, thus securing that the missionary partnership origi- 
nally formed should be continued. Meanwhile the Aus- 
tralian Board of Missions has had an equally honourable 
record. It has endeavoured to fulfil the primary call, so 
strongly emphasized by Bishop Broughton both in 1829 and 
again in 1850, of work among the aborigines of Australia, 


a great step forward in this field being taken by the estab- 
lishment of the Diocese of Carpentaria in 1900 : while in the 
founding in 1891 of the New Guinea Mission and Diocese, 
which it still maintains, the Australian Board of Missions 
can point to a missionary enterprise of which the whole 
Church may be justly proud. 


AFTER the close of the month's episcopal conference, at the 
end of November 1850, the Bishop of Sydney seems from 
his letters to have given himself for a while to his diocesan 
duties. One of the best known, and certainly most pictur- 
esque, incidents of these pastoral activities is associated 
with the finding of gold in Australia. After the discovery 
of the goldfields at Sofala in the Bathurst district in 1851 
the Bishop promptly visited the men, who were gathering 
by hundreds, and at a big open-air meeting told them he 
was arranging to provide a church for them at once. The 
materials and furniture would, he said, be sent from Bath- 
urst ready for use, and he asked them to join him in putting 
them up so that service could be held on the following Sun- 
day, 13 November; and at 6 a.m. on that day he hoped, if a 
good many of them came to help, they could get the job 
finished in time for the service at nine o'clock. In answer to 
his appeal such a body of men assembled that enough picks 
and shovels could not be provided for all of them. The 
Bishop started the work by tackling one of the post-holes 
with such vigour that he inspired others to a like alacrity. 
The woodwork was rapidly finished, and the building fitted 
with its simple holy table and other immediately necessary 
adjuncts well before service time. At the appointed hour, 
nine o'clock, after the introductory worship, the Bishop went 
up by a ladder to the roof for the special prayers, and then, 
nailing a wooden cross on the entrance gable, dedicated the 


building in the name of Christ Church. A celebration of 
Holy Communion followed, and a quite short and quite 
excellent sermon 1 was preached from St Mark xv, 25 : 
"And it was the third hour, and they crucified him." The 
Bishop also told his unusual congregation that regular cleri- 
cal services would be supplied them. 

Three months after this laymen's meeting the Bishop left 
for England, his departure being marked by a wonderful 
display of respect and affection from all sections of the com- 
munity, including a large number of the laity who had felt 
it their duty to oppose the proposals for securing self-gov- 
ernment for the Australian Church upon the lines laid down 
by the meeting of the Bishop and clergy of 14 April. After 
a celebration of Holy Communion in St Andrew's Cathe- 
dral on Saturday morning, 14 August, the congregation filled 
the parish hall. The Bishop received a farewell address 
from, the clergy, and his acknowledgment of it was his last 
public utterance in Australia. In concluding it the Bishop 
said : 

For myself I desire with much earnestness two things first, the 
benefit of your continual intercession for me before the Throne of 
Grace; and secondly, that if in the discharge, during so many years, 
of the duties of my office I have ever through misuse of the dis- 
cretion which is attached to it given cause of offence to any, they 
will forgive the wrong at my present earnest solicitation and on my 
humble confession of it. It has never been an intentional wrong 
you may be assured. Forgive me this wrong I pray you; as I do 
most freely and from my heart forgive if any have offended me. 
We have partaken together, it may possibly be for the last time 
upon earth, of that Blessed Communion which is not only an out- 
ward symbol, but ought verily and indeed to fill us with the sub- 
stance, of that peace which Christ left as His last bequest to His 
followers ; and in the fellowship of which we are made one with 
Him. Thus let us separate, remembering the precepts "Be ye kind 
to one another, tender hearted, forgiving one another, even as God 
for Christ's sake hath forgiven you"; and may the blessing of God 
Almighty, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, be upon you, 
and remain with you for ever. Amen. 

The Sydney Morning Herald in its report says that "the 
1 W. Grant Broughton, Sermons on the Church of England, p. 197. 


address was listened to with the greatest attention, and many 
were moved to tears." One of the leading laymen, Mr 
Charles Campbell, said he had been requested to assure the 
Bishop that had more time been available he would have 
received an address from the laity, expressive of their affec- 
tionate and respectful sympathy with him on the eve of a 
long and probably eventful journey. Bishop Broughton's 
last public official act before starting for England was the 
laying of the foundation-stone of the new nave of St John's, 

The regular mail packet communication with England was 
just then disorganized by disaffection among the seamen, 
so on Monday, 16 August, the Bishop sailed by the Salicia 
for Lima, the capital of Peru, where the first part of his 
voyage ended. His energy impelled him to occupy his time 
before he could be taken on to England in exercising his 
office among the few Church of England families in Lima. 
There was an English chaplain, but the services were held 
in a room at the quarters of the British Embassy. The 
Bishop, besides ministering the Sacraments, frequently 
preached, and was the first Anglican bishop who had visited 
that part of the South American coast. He promptly re- 
ported the position to the S.P.C.K., and the Society for- 
warded Bibles and Prayer Books for use in public worship. 
At the S.P.C.K. welcome to Broughton in London he spoke 
of his time at Lima, and urged that an effort should be made 
to build a small church there. If the British Government 
supported the proposal, the Roman Catholic authorities 
would not, probably, oppose it. 

The Bishop's next stage was by steamer to Panama, and 
thence across the isthmus "on mules and by canoes," as he 
reported in writing to Coleridge, and then on by thirty miles 
of railroad to St Thomas's, to join the West Indian mailboat, 
La Plata, for Southampton. The crossing of the isthmus 
involved fording streams on the mules and ploughing through 
malarial swamps, and it is believed that from these plague 


spots the Bishop carried away infection that developed into 
the severe bronchial trouble which soon after attacked him. 
In a letter to Coleridge after the La Plata had been put 
in quarantine at Southampton, he says : 

We have had a most calamitous passage from the West Indies, 
having lost our captain, purser, one of the engineers, and seven or 
eight men, chiefly by yellow fever. I have escaped that scourge, 
although I was, during a week or ten days, lamentably unwell, 
reduced to such a state of debility that it was burdensome to me 
even to go up and down stairs from my cabin to the saloon; and 
my voice was entirely lost. The first time that I got out of bed 
to attend the funeral of a sailor my power of utterance was so 
impaired that, being quite unable to be heard, I requested the cap- 
tain, who stood next to me, to read the lesson, and when I looked 
at the poor fellow who lay at my feet ready to be slipped into the 
surge, I could not suppress the thought that not improbably I might 
be the next to be laid low. Yet how mysterious and unsearchable 
are the appointments of the Almighty! Within four days I was 
standing again in the gangway, to perform the same solemn office 
over the lifeless body of our much respected captain, whose assist- 
ance I had so lately solicited to supply my own infirmity. We have 
just lost another of the crew, who will be buried this afternoon, and 
there are five others ill, but I trust not dangerously. The passengers 
are all well. 

Upon pratique being granted, the Bishop remained on the 
ship as there were two sailors seriously ill, and when they 
both died the next day and the vessel went out to sea for 
the burial, at the end of the service he gave a brief address 
to the crew, who were said to have been obviously impressed 
by it. The La Plata steamed into Southampton harbour 
in the afternoon of Saturday, 20 November, and the Bishop 
landed after his tragic experiences. The Times reference 
to them roused widely expressed admiration for the Bishop's 
devotion to duty. 

But he became seriously ill almost immediately after get- 
ting on shore, and his long yearned for meeting with his 
aged mother, who was living in Warwickshire, had to be put 
off for some time. Of the incidents of that meeting Brough- 
ton, naturally, spoke with reserve, but he did tell his friends 
how, overcome by emotion, he knelt while mother and son 
mingled their tears of gratitude, before the Bishop gave his 


benediction to her to whom he often publicly declared he 
"owed everything." At the end of the days which they both 
must have felt to have been all too few, Broughton, follow- 
ing a brief visit to Joshua Watson, returned to London to 
fulfil a long programme of engagements. Though still in 
weak health, after a short rest, towards the middle of Decem- 
ber he undertook in one day interviews on the Colonial 
Churches self-government question at 9.30 a.m. with the 
Bishop of Oxford ; another with the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury at noon; a third with the Bishop of London at one 
o'clock; and a fourth with Gladstone at 2.30 p.m. Brough- 
ton comments: "A good day's work for a convalescent," 
and adds: "Of course no conclusions of any practical im- 
portance were arrived at, but I think there was an approach 
to some." Later on, under date 22 December, when staying 
at Belgrave Square, he writes : "On my arrival here today I 
found seventeen letters awaiting me, and had before that 
more than forty unanswered, although I must have written a 
hundred or more since landing. How to keep pace with my 
correspondents (many of them personally unknown to me), 
I know not. It is the same as to visits. Every leisure 
moment I spend riding in a fly, and yet with all my assi- 
duity I have not gone through more than a third of my 
list." It seems evident, then, that the Colonial Church 
question was attracting a good deal of quiet attention in 
England. In a January letter he reminds Coleridge "of a 
convention of colonial bishops which I think I mentioned to 
you as having been proposed by me, and which is now or- 
ganized, with the express approval of the Archbishop" as 
being on the eve of meeting at the offices of the S.P.G. 
The other colonial bishops in England were: Bishop Moun- 
tain of Quebec (who was consecrated Bishop of Montreal, 
Lower Canada, with Broughton in 1836), and the Bishops 
of Toronto, Antigua, Newfoundland, and Capetown. The 
Archbishop proposed to receive them in further conference 
after their convention, but Broughton's fatal illness pre- 


vented this from being then done, and there seems no record 
of the Convention having been formally resumed. 

Some personal incidents associated with Broughton's 
crowded London life in January 1853 are of interest. He 
met Keble and heard him preach, but thought the sermon 
"lacked unction." An invitation to Hursley Broughton pro- 
posed to fit in with his next visit to Hampshire. The Bishop 
of Oxford also invited him to Cuddesdon. A suggestion 
that he should preach at St Paul's, London, he regretted 
not to be able to consider, as his medical advisers warned 
him against any great strain upon his vocal organs. Never- 
theless, he shared in some services and public meetings. 
At the S.P.C.K. welcome to him on 4 January, after grate- 
fully acknowledging the substantial help given him by the 
Society, he made a powerful plea for a definite present- 
ment of the Church of England as holding the historic 
faith of Christendom. 2 About a fortnight later the S.P.G. 
offered their greetings. The Bishop of London presided, 
and the secretary, the Rev. Ernest Hawkins, read the cor- 
dial address which was presented to Bishop Broughton, who 
replied in a speech in which he reviewed his Australian 
career. It has, therefore, historic value, but is also memor- 
able as the Bishop's last platform deliverance, excepting a 
missionary address at Barnet, where he lived as a boy be- 
fore going to the King's School, Canterbury. One of the 
Canadian bishops suggested to the Rev. E. Hawkins, who 
had charge of Curzon Street Chapel, London, as well as 
his S.P.G. secretaryship, that the colonial bishops might 
be invited to the celebration of Holy Communion in the 
chapel on the festival of the Conversion of St Paul, and 
upon this being arranged the Metropolitan of Australasia 
was asked to be both celebrant and preacher, to which he 
assented. His text was Acts xix, 15. In the morning of 
Sunday, 30 January, the Bishop preached at Lambeth parish 
church upon the occasion of the unveiling of an east window 

'Colonial Ghuroh Chronicle, vol. vi, pp. 308-15. 


to the memory of Archbishop Howley of Canterbury, the 
principal consecrator when Broughton was admitted to the 
episcopate. The sermon, 3 from the nth verse of the Epistle 
of St Jude, was a spirited claim for opposition to un- 
sound doctrine and unworthy living in the Church by the 
zealous propagation of her divine origin as witnessed to 
by the apostolic ministry, and the guarding of purity in life 
by the Gospel and the Sacraments. This was the Bishop's 
last message as a preacher, and hence must always have a 
special interest. In the week following he went to Farn- 
ham (the only parochial appointment excepting the curacy 
of Hartley Westpall that he held in England) to visit the 
Bishop of Winchester, his diocesan in the old days, and some 
of his former parishioners. On his return to London he 
had another severe attack of bronchitis when a guest of 
Lady Gipps, widow of Sir George Gipps, a governor of 
New South Wales in Broughton's time, and a schoolfellow 
of his at the King's School, Canterbury. 

Edward Coleridge, devoted friend of Broughton and the 
Australian Church, had been often in touch with the Bishop 
since his landing in England, so far as was possible with 
Broughton's crowded programme of engagements and Cole- 
ridge's work at Eton. Upon hearing of the Bishop being 
again ill Coleridge hurried to him, and his letter to the 
Bishop of New Zealand of his experiences in that house of 
sickness, though belonging to a class of correspondence sel- 
dom submitted for public reading, yet surely may be accepted 
as an exception to the rule, because of its valuable witness 
as to how a heroic servant of God can face the close of the 
earthly life. Coleridge wrote : 

I did not see him till Tuesday, February isth, when I hastened to 
London on hearing that he was dangerously ill at Lady Gipps' house. 
On my arrival I found him in a high state of delirium, partly from 
a violent attack of bronchitis, partly from the stimulants which were 
absolutely necessary for the maintenance of life. But the instant 
I spake to him he sat up in bed, and said in evident delight "God 

3 W. Grant Broughton, Sermons on the Church of England, p. 346. 


bless my soul, my dear Coleridge, how glad I am to see you; now 
let us sail at four today." Then he wandered again. But whenever 
I repeated Scripture or prayed by his bedside, he seemed immediately 
to be recalled to himself ; he would correct the minutest mistake in 
my quoting a text, and would follow the intonation of my voice in 
the Lord's Prayer. I was with him again on Thursday I7th and 
found him at first calm and collected, but in a few minutes he wan- 
dered again; but his wanderings of mind and his words were then 
and during his whole illness free from any carnal or secular taint, 
showing how pure his mind, how holy his life, had been. He was 
always occupied either in prayer or rehearsal of the Psalms, or 
preaching to imaginary congregations, or advising on synodal matters, 
or sailing for his diocese. On no one occasion did anyone around 
him hear him refer to any simple worldly matter. He seemed to 
be in constant communion with God. On the following day he 
was so much better that one of his physicians wrote to me (for 
I could not leave Eton) to announce that he was out of danger. He 
was declared on Saturday "substantially better" ; he was seen at 
ten that night by the apothecary and was thought to be going on 
favourably. At twelve Lady Gipps went to look at him before she 
went to bed, thought him much altered, sent for the apothecary, 
who came and found him dying. He breathed his last, sweetly and 
softly, at fifteen minutes past one on Sunday morning, after re- 
peating in a firm and rational voice with his very last breath: 
"The earth is full of the glory: full of the glory of the Lord, as 
the waters cover the sea." I had previously arranged to be with 
him again on Sunday afternoon, unless sent for_by electric telegraph. 
On Saturday he more than once asked Lady Gipps : "When is Cole- 
ridge coming? I want to see him." When she said that I was 
coming up tomorrow, he said: "Tomorrow; that will be too late." 
Owing to the suddenness of his death and to there being no electric 
telegraph on Sunday, I remained in ignorance of what had happened 
until I reached the door about five p.m. and saw all the blinds 
down. You may easily believe how much I was shocked at so unex- 
pected termination of an illness the pressing danger of which I had 
been led to believe was averted. Dear good man! He must have 
died very easily, for there was no struggle at the time, and after- 
wards there remained no mark of pain on his countenance. . . . 
Richmond, 4 to whom he has sat twice, came and observed his coun- 
tenance carefully, and had a very good caste taken of his head 
and shoulders; so that we hope we have secured a perfect likeness 
for a print and for a monumental effigy. 

The Dean and Chapter of Canterbury upon hearing of 
the Bishop's death, asked that the burial might be in Can- 
terbury Cathedral, with which in his early life Broughton 
had such close contact and associations. So it was decided 

4 The celebrated portrait painter. 


that his tomb should be in the south aisle, near to that of 
Sir George Gipps, his former schoolfellow and friend. An- 
other notable incident is that Broughton was the first bishop 
buried in the cathedral since the English Reformation. 

On Saturday, 26 February, the body was moved from the 
cloisters into the Cathedral for the funeral, which was 
marked by "every circumstance of simple yet most impres- 
sive solemnity," the choristers in procession chanting Dr 
Croft's setting of the burial office. They were preceded by 
the masters and fifty scholars of the King's School. Then 
came lay clerks, minor canons, and the canons who were 
immediately in front of the body. The pall bearers were: 
the Bishop of Quebec; Bishop Carr (formerly of Bombay) ; 
the Rev. H. Bailey, Warden of St Augustine's College; 
the Revs Ernest Hawkins (secretary of S.P.G.) and Ed- 
ward Coleridge; and Mr George Gipps. After the mourners 
were the staff and students of St Augustine's College, and 
then the robed clergy. The whole service was taken by 
Archdeacon Harrison, canon of Canterbury. The Secretary 
of State for the Colonies and the Chancellor of the Exche- 
quer had arranged to be present but were detained in London 
by public business. 

Immediately after the funeral it was decided to inaugu- 
rate a "Bishop Broughton Memorial Fund," and on 17 
March, at a meeting at the S.P.G. house in London, over 
which the Bishop of London presided, resolutions were 
adopted recommending an effigy tomb in Canterbury Cathe- 
dral and a replica for the cathedral at Sydney ; the founda- 
tion of a "Broughton Scholarship" at St Augustine's Col- 
lege for students intending to serve the Church in Austra- 
lia; two "Broughton Prizes" at the King's School, Canter- 
bury, for Latin and Ecclesiastical History. All these 
proposals have been carried into effect, and also other edu- 
cational endowments at The King's School, Parramatta, 
which was founded by Bishop Broughton, and other places 
in Australia. 


Many tributes appeared in the English and Australian 
Press, both religious and secular, to Bishop Broughton's 
remarkable career and achievements, but historically it seems 
enough to put on record a brief extract from the speech 
of Sir Alfred Stephen, C.J., at the meeting in Sydney on 30 
May 1853, in connexion with the "Bishop Broughton 
Memorial Fund." Sir Alfred said : 

No man ever went down to his grave full of years and honours 
carrying with him more deservedly the respect and veneration of his 
fellow churchmen and fellow colonists than Bishop Broughton. I 
knew him well, and I had also a large opportunity of knowing how 
his work was appreciated by those not of his own' Church, and I 
believe that by all classes and by all sects no man in the colony was 
more, universally respected than Bishop Broughton. I can unhesi- 
tatingly say that if the late Bishop was not a man universally loved 
in the colony, he was a man universally respected and esteemed. 
Outside of his Church, indeed, he knew no sect, no party, and his 
whole efforts were for the common good. If ever there was a 
patriot, in the best and highest sense of the word, that patriot, in 
the colony of New South Wales, was Bishop Broughton. There was 
not one great object for the promotion of civilisation and social ad- 
vancement in .the colony with which he was not connected; there 
was not one effort to raise its name in the estimation of the world 
with which his name was not identified. 

This panegyric by the Chief Justice of New South Wales 
ought greatly to help in forwarding the purpose for which 
this book has been written to promote an -adequate idea 
of the place due in Australian history to the first Bishop of - 




So ended the episcopate and the life of one whose name 
must always hold a primacy of honour in the early annals 
of the Church in Australia. The twenty-three years of his 
service in Australia were a period of rapid transition not 
only in the ecclesiastical but in the social and political 
spheres, and demanded gifts of exceptional quality to meet 
the demands of a rapidly-changing so'cial order. When 
Broughton arrived as Archdeacon of New South Wales in 
1829, the colony had still a largely penal character. Trans- 
portation was still in full force, and the social and economic 
system prevailing in New South Wales still rested on a 
basis of convict labour. Out of a total population in 1829 
of some 36,500, according to Broughton's own a'ccount, not 
less than 17,000 were Crown prisoners. In face, however, 
of a rising tide of free immigration and of a growing public 
sentiment against the indignity involved in the colony still 
being treated as England's major penitentiary, transpor- 
tation was abolished in 1840, and the attempt to revive it ten 
years later was effectually blocked by the strength of colonial 
opposition, and particularly by that of the free artisans and 
workmen who saw their standard of living threatened by 
the competition of convicts and assigned labourers. It was 
indeed the immigration in increasingly large numbers of free 
settlers, the vast majority by aid from the State, which trans- 
formed not only the size but the 'character of the popula- 


tion. During the period 1829-50 not less than 117,600 free 
persons arrived in Australia, destined to settle in the country 
districts, but actually in great numbers remaining in the 
cities. Between 1833 and 1846, both dates well within the 
period of Broughton's Australian life, the population of 
Sydney grew from 16,232 to 38,358, and that of New 
South Wales from 60,794 to 189,609. 

Moreover this vastly enlarged number was scattered over 
an increasingly large area. The wool industry came into 
its own as the major source of Australia's wealth: and what 
rendered this possible was the magnificent feats of explora- 
tion which, beginning with the penetration of the coastal 
range in 1813, opened up to occupation and development 
great tracts of 'country to north, west, and south. And 
following the track of the explorers, indeed themselves 
often the pioneers of exploration, came the squatters occupy- 
ing the plains with their flocks of sheep, and wandering and 
settling either within "the pale" or without, either as free 
grantees, nominal leaseholders, or occupiers without lease 
and without rent. It was this indeed, the pastoralist squatter 
class, which with its demands for cheap labour determined 
the economic chara'cter of the colony, with its demand for 
social recognition sought to establish itself as a landed and 
even a titled aristocracy, and with its demand for political 
representation hastened the process by which the colony 
acquired the right of self-government from the mother 

For alongside the growth of the population, and the 
transformation of the social structure of the colony, came 
successive instalments of autonomy extorted from the Home 
Government, which altered the political order from a mili- 
tary autocracy into a representative and responsible govern- 
ment. The Act of 1823 establishing an Advisory Council 
to act with the Governor was followed by that of 1842 
giving to the Council a more fully representative character 
and increased powers, and was 'crowned by that of 1850, 


which left the Australian colonies free to set up organs of 
government of their own, choosing and resulted in the 
(establishment of responsible government in New South 
Wales in 1855. Meanwhile the New State Movement of 
the period resulted in both Victoria (1851) and Queensland 
(1859) being separated from the parent colony and launched 
on their independent ways. 

Last but not least, and still within the period of Brough- 
ton's Australian life, came the discovery of gold in Feb- 
ruary 1851 and the inrush of gold diggers, both from the 
cities and from overseas. Broughton himself, as has been 
noted elsewhere, paid a personal visit in November 1851 
to one of the earliest gold-digging settlements, near Bath- 
urst, for the purpose, with the co-operation of the diggers 
themselves, of erecting a church in the settlement: and his 
own departure for England was delayed and his proposed 
route altered by the difficulty of securing a passage in 1852, 
ship after ship being held up through the desertion of the 
crews in favour of the superior attraction of the diggings. 
This new and lucrative industry resulted, though its results 
carry us some few years beyond the end of Broughton's 
career, once again in a vast accession to the population of 
Australia (between 1851 and 1861 it was almost trebled), 
and what is equally important, once again in a transforma- 
tion of the social and political basis of the Australian com- 
munity, and the beginnings of that egalitarian democracy 
which has sin'ce and increasingly been its predominant char- 

These profound changes in the political and social struc- 
ture of the colony do not indeed bulk largely in Broughton's 
correspondence and addresses, though echoes of them are 
constantly heard in his written and spoken words. Yet they 
were undoubtedly the background of very much of his 
activity, and largely determined its direction. The grow- 
ing population both of Sydney and of the pastoral and agri- 
cultural areas made, as we have seen, constant and over- 


whelming demands on his capacity to supply the spiritual 
needs of the widely scattered settler communities, and to 
provide the necessary buildings and 'clergy so required. 
It rendered necessary not only the undertaking on his part 
of long and arduous pastoral journeys, enabling him to 
gain personal touch with his people and their problems, but 
also a visit to England undertaken in 1834 with the express 
purpose of placing before the authorities at Home the heavy 
demands on men and money for religious and educational 
objects which the growing colony was making. It involved 
also and inevitably the imperative need of a division of his 
vast diocese, a need which was met by the ('establishment 
of the See of Tasmania in 1842 and those of Newcastle, 
Melbourne, and Adelaide in 1847. 

Corresponding again too, and in large part occasioned by, 
the changes in the political constitution of the colony, came 
changes in the status and government of the Church. It 
was only four years before Broughton's first arrival in the 
colony in 1829 that the period had been ended, during which 
the sole provision for the spiritual needs of the settlement 
had taken the form of chaplains appointed, paid, and con- 
trolled by the Government, and a new ecclesiastical era had 
been inaugurated by placing the colony under the nominal 
jurisdiction of the distant Bishop of Calcutta. As Arch- 
deacon of New South Wales, Broughton was himself 
appointed and paid directly by the State, and held a high 
civil position in the colony. His subsequent appointments 
as Bishop of Australia in 1836, and later as Bishop of 
Sydney in 1848, were still made by letters patent issued by 
the Crown and defining in detail the nature and scope of 
his authority. He lived, however, long enough to take an 
active and leading share in the process by which the Church 
of England in the colony was emancipated from state 
control and a'cquired, on a recognized constitutional basis, 
jts own organs of government. For this freedom the 
Church had, of course, to pay the price. With every stage 


of the process by which the colony itself was accorded 
steadily larger instalments of political independence, the 
Church lost something of its originally "established" and 
privileged status: and Broughton was a witness, and often 
an anxious and pained witness, of the successive stages 
which marked^ the loss by the Church of England of the 
unique privileges of establishment, and its transformation 
into a voluntary society on a legal equality in the eyes of 
the State with other religious bodies. 

Broughton fought indeed hard and long for the retention 
by the Church of England of its originally "established" 
status and the monopoly of privilege which that status 
carried with it : and he continued to fight for some at least 
of the privileges of establishment, even when it had already 
become obvious that they could not be indefinitely pre- 
served. More particularly was this fight maintained in the 
educational domain. He sincerely regretted the final aboli- 
tion in 1833 of the Church and School Lands Corporation, 
which liberally endowed religion and education as provided 
by the Church of England without regard to other religious 
bodies : and one of the greatest triumphs of his life was his 
defeat, in a two hours' speech which led to their with- 
drawal, of the proposals laid before the Legislative Coun- 
cils in 1839, and supported by the then Governor, Sir George 
Gipps, to transform the religious character and control of 
the educational system of the colony. 

If, however, he continued to fight for a privileged 
Church against the inevitable trend of the times, it was so 
not because he valued the legal establishment for its own 
sake, but because he so entirely believed in the historic 
character of the Church of England as the purest and most 
genuine expression of primitive and apostolic Christianity, 
and in her unique mission as the moral and spiritual mother 
of the nations and felt that this should be reflected in her 
legal status. This indeed was not only a belief, but the 
ruling passion of his life. It was this intense belief, the 


fruit of prolonged historical study and of a wide personal 
Experience, which underlay his long, if losing, battle for 
the retention by the Church of England of the control of 
education in the colony. It was this belief, too, which 
prompted his strenuous resistance to what he regarded as 
an unlawful and uncanonical intrusion of a Roman Catholic 
hierarchy into an already occupied province of the English 
Church. It was this belief which nerved him to undertake 
the distant and sometimes perilous journeys by land and 
sea in the discharge of his pastoral office, travels which 
occupied so much of his time and exhausted so mu'ch of his 
energy: and it was this belief finally which inspired the 
effort, beginning with the conference in 1850 and only 
ending with his death, to secure in co-operation with his 
fellow colonial bishops, both Australian and other, those 
powers of self-government, legislative, administrative and 
judicial, which he knew the Church inherently to possess. 
If he suffered defeat in some of the causes for which he 
strove, if in some respe'cts the irresistible tide of events 
was against him, none the less splendid, indeed none the 
less victorious, was the battle for the Church which he 
fought. Like the great men who, as his fellow bishops, 
fought at his side in the later years of his episcopate, he 
was east in heroic mould ; a leading figure among the leaders 
who laid those firm and lasting foundations of the Church 
in this continent on which succeeding generations have been 
content and thankful to build. 


No. i 





... It is my duty in this public manner, and on this solemn occasion, 
to represent some circumstances, almost peculiar, so far as I know, to 
these latter ages, and in a more extended degree, perhaps, to this 
country, than to any other upon earth. I allude to that disposition, 
arising, I would persuade myself, not so much from selfishness, as 
from forgetfulness or want of better information, which has led 
so many men, the professed friends of religion, and members of 
the Church, to believe, that they may lawfully and blamelessly appro- 
priate the entire possession of the soil of the territory to the use 
and benefit of themselves and their descendants, without bestowing 
a thought upon the means by which provision should be made for the 
perpetual support of the Christian faith. It is, I believe, an example 
almost without precedent of so much as one century's standing. As 
my warrant for making this perhaps unwelcome observation, let me 
remark that the whole extent of landed property set apart by private 
devotion for the support of the Church of England, from the founda- 
tion of the colony to the present time, does not perhaps amount 
to a tenth part of the extent which individuals have obtained for 
their own portion: and yet by far the most numerous section of 
such landowners have been, and are professedly members of our 
communion. On every side may be seen instances of those who have, 
from motives of personal advantage or convenience, set themselves 
down in positions where they knew before hand they must be cut 
off from all communion with the visible Church, and yet have ap- 
parently felt no anxiety (for indeed they have made no effort), to 
provide that the word of God may have free course, and God him- 
self may be glorified by the institution among them of the sacra- 
ments and ministry of the Gospel. We find, at the same time, ex- 
pectations entertained by them that the ordinances of religion, and 
its converting and sanctifying influences, will, through some unknown 
and independent agency, be ministered unto them: forgetful of the 
conditional promise, "Seek and ye shall find," as well as of the 


assurance that "the hand of the diligent maketh rich" in a t spiritual 
much more even than in a worldly sense. And if the instances 
which we witness of this description within the settled limits of 
the colony could justly (though I fear they cannot) be considered 
as exceptions only to a general rule of better character, what must 
we say when we turn our attention to the districts beyond the 
boundaries, where an absolute repudiation of Christianity, in form 
at least and, it is to be feared, too much in substance also, has been 
the rule with scarcely an exception. I trust that this community 
will do me the justice to remember that in my capacity as a member 
of the former Legislative Council I did bring this crying grievance 
under its consideration. It is not my intention to say more than 
that the reception which that proposal received was not such as to 
encourage a repetition of it; and the only resource to prevent the 
total disuse of the ordinances of Christianity throughout those ex- 
tensive regions, from which temporal profits were constantly accru- 
ing, was found in the extraordinary liberality of the most venerable 
and blessed of the associations now labouring on behalf of the 
Church of Christ militant here on earth I mean the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. By its assistance, and 
by its assistance alone, have means been provided for sending forth 
five clergymen, who are now labouring, not without fruit or effect, 
in those deserted portions of the vineyard of the Lord of Hosts. 
God is my witness, how willingly I would have put myself at the 
head of any portion of the Church of England which would have 
suffered itself to be stirred up to the height of this great under- 
taking; but the deaf and unheeding ear which was turned (I have 
in too many instances found) to my suggestion of the duty which 
their very position imposed upon all who derived advantage from 
the occupation of those wide tracts, forced me back upon the liberality 
of others at a distance, upon whom there was no claim, except 
that which is to the religious mind the most powerful of all; and 
for their listening to this application the blessing of many who were 
ready to perish shall come upon them. 

. . . The principle of Church education is everywhere one and the 
same. It conduces to hold in check that diseased action to which 
the mind of society is inevitably subject, when abandoned too freely 
to its own impulses, from having been left to pick up a scanty and 
erroneous acquaintance with the articles of the Christian Faith, 
instead of being trained in the knowledge of them and in the fear 
of God by the agency of the Church as the appointed witness and 
keeper of the Holy Writ. I can but express my own confirmed 
and painful conviction that the adoption of any of the now favourite 
theories of general education founded upon an exclusion of the 
Church^ from its appointed province, would but aggravate the evil 
which it is designed to remove. In place of the opposition which 
Truth has now to encounter from rooted ignorance there would be 
substituted a more embittered spirit of opposition from unsanctified 
knowledge ; vice, in the mean while, being not diminished in amount, 
but rendered only more specious and refined. 


And now to speak candidly my apprehensions: they are, let me 
say, two-fold. First, it is to be dreaded that the governments of 
the earth, in arriving at a decision upon this great question, will 
suffer themselves to be influenced by motives of immediate expediency 
and of apparent utility which may prove deceptive ; _ instead of being 
governed by principles which are eternal and imperishable, and con- 
tain in them a pledge of ultimate security. Such policy must ter- 
minate in te own defeat; and they who, through irresolution, are 
led to adopt it, will ultimately find a vast unmanageable power grow- 
ing up, unaccountably to them, to interfere with and reverse the 
relations which ought to prevail between rulers and subjects. It is 
also much to be apprehended that too large a proportion of _ the 
Church of England, out of aversion to endure the burden (for it is 
a burden) of maintaining what they hear incessantly questioned, and 
for no other reason than because it is so questioned, will surrender 
their own judgment and opinions. They thus lie almost at the 
mercy of any party that keeps up a persevering attack; of which 
the abettors of innovation, political or religious, are well aware. 
Their system is, first of all, to attach (which they find easy means 
of doing) a certain notion of invidiousness or unpopularity to the 
maintenance of a view opposed to theirs; and it is found to re- 
quire more strength of mind than the generality of men possess, to 
be able to face this. Thus have we witnessed many questions car- 
ried to our disadvantage : our own members, under this vague dread 
of doing something unpopular, having been reduced to neutrality, or 
induced even to take an active part against what they all the time 
professed to be supporting. II avail myself of this public oppor- 
tunity of warning the Church of England, that in the same adverse 
manner will the question of General Education be determined, if by 
such temporizing acquiescence they dissipate their inherent powers; 
which ought _ to be sufficient for the preservation in our own hands 
of the direction of our own affairs. As to those who separate from 
us, I encourage no interference with them; nor does that which I 
do encourage and require, imply the slightest ill-will or want of 
charity towards them. My business is with those who are by 
profession members of the Church of England. Unfortunately I 
say unfortunately both for themselves and for society there are 
too many who regard this connexion as merely nominal, and acci- 
dental, and are, therefore, unprepared and unwilling to adopt any 
such decided course in their capacity and character of churchmen, 
as they would do, if they saw (which is the truth) that every man's 
determination regarding Church principles, whether it be favourable, 
neutral, or _ adverse, must tell more or less upon the issue of that 
contest which is in progress, between the ascendancy of the evil 
principle and the establishment of the dominion of true holiness 
and righteousness. They speak strongly of their attachment to the 
Reformation. To me it seems that the Reformation was worth the 
struggles and sufferings by which it was accomplished only so far 
as it placed the Church in a better position to promote the spiritual 
renovation of all things. This is its proper occupation. This is the 


real question at issue. It is because we believe that God knew best 
what kind of organization it was necessary to bestow upon the 
Church, in order to fit it for accomplishing His work, with security 
to herself, and effectively for this purpose that we so earnestly 
contend for, pur right to bring up its children in an acquaintance 
with everything which the Scriptures present as essential to its 
constitution. But we do insist that the Church itself, by its faithful 
clergy and people, and not seceders from it, shall be the judges of 
what is pronounced in Scripture to be necessary to this end. General 
Education is the question which has brought these principles to a 
crisis; and the Church of England has pronounced against a com- 
promise. She will teach the Truth, whole and undefined ; and will be 
limited only by the compass of her own Articles and Liturgy, inter- 
preted by one another, and not by the extent to which she may 
find those who are without, disposed to proceed with her. Sophistry 
and intimidation have so unsettled the determinations of men, that 
many shrink from this course, as it would involve them in a charge 
of exclusiveness. And if it do, what then? Truth is exclusive- 
ness ; though exclusiveness is not necessarily truth. The Gospel and . 
the Church proceed, both of them, upon that assumption "There is 
one faith." Our whole application is only that we may be assisted 
in teaching our children neither more nor less than that faith, ac- 
cording to our own opinion of what it embraces. And I must con- 
fess my astonishment that they who have set aside our whole eccle- 
siastical constitution in order that none might be constrained to fre- 
quent a church where he should hear either more or less than was 
agreeable to his own views of the truth, should now repudiate their 
own principle by saying that, either we shall have no schools at 
the public expense, or shall be constrained to frequent those in which 
the Christian doctrine, if taught at all, must, from the very nature 
of the system, be taught imperfectly; which, as we think, is the 
same thing as being taught falsely. 

Questions of importance seem to multiply upon us as we pro- 
ceed. There are others which I could not without a censurable 
omission leave unnoticed, as they conduce to show what is the true 
position (or at least what I have conceived to be the true position) 
of the Church of England; upon a just comprehension of which so 
much of the character and practical effect of religion among us 
must hereafter depend. The first of these subjects is the Protest 
which, in fulfilment of a most solemn duty, I felt it necessary to issue 
in opposition to the groundless pretension of the Bishop of Rome 
to exercise spiritual jurisdiction within this, my proper, lawful, and 
canonical diocese. In connexion with this subject, I wish first of all 
to direct your attention to the fact that, for well considered reasons, 
I rested this objection exclusively upon ecclesiastical grounds, with- 
out reference to those which our civil constitution, were it not be- 
come in this respect almost a dead letter, would oppose to so unpre- 
cedented and unjustifiable a proceeding. I preferred that my voice 
should be heard as that of the Christian Church itself, confiding in 
her internal powers and exercising her inherent right to remonstrate 


against that dictatorial authority which assumes a privilege at its 
own pleasure to render asunder the body with a perpetual schism, 
under the guise of contending for the maintenance of undivided 
unity. It is my duty to make you, my brethren, the presbyters of 
my Church, parties to the views which directed me, and I therefore 
beg you will regard this proceeding not as intended or expected to 
produce any immediate apparent effect. My thoughts were directed 
to futurity; and my purpose was to establish a point of resistance, 
upon which my successors in this seat may fall back with advantage, 
and may rally round them the faithful supporters of the true con- 
stitution of the Church, when they (as will happen) shall be hemmed 
in by a pressure above measure; which shall warn them, as it did 
the Apostle, under a fellowship of difficulties, not to trust in them- 
selves but "in God which raiseth the dead." In fact, therefore, my 
opposition was rested upon the terms of the Thirty-seventh Article, 
and of the Oath of Supremacy. Out of this a difficulty may appear 
to arise, which must now be noticed, lest it should be hereafter 
imputed to me that I had overlooked it. As relates to myself, I can 
have no scruple in declaring upon oath, or in administering such 
oath to others, that no foreign prelate has, by right, or ought to have, 
in fact (which is the meaning of the oath) any ecclesiastical or 
spiritual jurisdiction within Her Majesty's realm; because I believe 
in my conscience, that this is the exact truth. It may be said, this is 
also the opinion of the Government; and so far as relates to the 
individuals composing the Government, it is probably so. But the 
important question is, whether the Government, in its corporate 
capacity, does not place itself in an inconsistent, not to say even an 
hazardous position, by continuing to require an oath to such effect, 
when its own proceedings virtually admit the directly contrary con- 
clusion? My disposition is, to "submit to every ordinance of man," 
so long as nothing which aggrieves the conscience is required. Still, 
inconsistencies are not desirable to be retained; and can hardly fail 
to excite uncomfortable feelings : and therefore, as the civil power, 
for the defence of which this oath was originally devised, appears 
to have essentially dissented from the terms of it, the oath is be- 
come unmeaning and unnecessary, and should, I think, be repealed. 
( There is one other occurrence, concerning which a few observa- 
tions must be offered, upon the same ground of your right to be 
fully informed as to the reasons of my several episcopal proceedings ; 
such especially as involve important principles. The occurrence 
which I allude to is my ordination, according to the Anglican form, 
of two heretofore Presbyterian Ministers, approved by me out of 
several who had presented themselves with similar views. 

As my previous enquiries, with a view to satisfy myself of the 
lawfulness and propriety of this step, were cautious and unremitting, 
my present reference to it shall be correspondingly brief and tem- 
perate; for I desire to give none offence. But some public notice 
of such an occurrence is necessary, lest it should be thought that I 
shrank from my own act ; and still more because this example, taken 
in connexion with what has been said upon the preceding topic, will 


best illustrate the position truly claimed by the English Church. 
Entertaining the persuasion, which I most firmly and conscientiously 
do entertain, that the government of the Church by bishops is the 
rule appointed by the direction of Christ himself, that through them 
alone can be derived a legitimate and sufficient authority to dispense 
the ordinances of the Gospel, and that peace and unity cannot, under 
any other appointment, be permanently maintained, I must be under 
an obligation to do, in such instances as offered themselves, that 
which, if done universally, I feel assured would operate more effec- 
tually than any other proceeding to heal the sores of the Church, 
and to cause it to flourish in internal _ security and peace. My 
opinion is perfectly well known, and I will now repeat it, that the 
visible Church of the Redeemer is not limited to any one com- 
munion, whether episcopal or not; but embraces all who believe and 
are baptized after the ordinance of Christ. I the more regret to 
hear this questioned, because the opposite principle appears to me 
uncharitable, having a tendency to extinguish any disposition which 
dissenters may feel to associate themselves with us "in the house of 
God as friends," and contradicting, as my judgment leads me to think, 
the declared sense of the Church of England itself. In the prayer 
for Christ's Church militant here in earth, "the Universal Church" 
is plainly described as synonymous with the term, "all they that do 
confess thy Holy Name" ; and in interceding "more especially for 
the Catholic Church," we define it as consisting of "all who profess 
and call themselves Christians." It may be objected that if you thus 
admit that all who believe and are baptized are already within the 
Church, and, in proportion to the faith of each, partake of the in- 
visible graces of the sacraments at the hands of those who minister 
among them, what further object can be effected by the episcopal 
ordination of the latter ? What is its intent ; what is its value ? My 
reply to this is, that I direct my proceedings not so much with re- 
ference to the consciences of the individuals who receive our ordi- 
nation (although I think that this is a consideration of great weight), 
nor to the particular benefit to be derived by those separate flocks 
over which they are now made overseers ; but my concern is for 
the general interest of the Church of Christ, that it "may be in- 
spired continually with the Spirit of truth, unity and concord." If 
the question be specifically of this or that believer, or of any num- 
ber of individuals, I will not take upon myself to pronounce upon 
the state of their souls, even though they transgress what I believe 
to be the appointment of the Lord in taking upon themselves the 
office of the Ministry._ But if you enquire concerning a Church 
collectively, whether with that irregular constitution it can be relied 
on to keep permanently its portion of the trust which is committed 
to the Church universal, I will not be led to say that it can. in 
this point of view, I do not believe that it affords equal security 
with a church which possesses a ministry derived from those to 
whom was addressed the declaration and the promise, "I have chosen 
you, and ordained you, that you should go and bring forth much 
fruit, and that your fruit should remain." As to the objection which 


we sometimes hear that we lay all the stress upon a mere personal 
devolution of the office, without any regard to the attendant propa- 
gation of the true doctrine, I must be allowed to say that whoever 
urges this is sadly mistaken as to the fact. When we thus trace 
the origin of our ministry to Christ through those whom He had 
chosen and personally sent, we cannot, surely, dissemble that the 
apostolical ordination consisted of two parts "Go ye into all the 
world"; there is the mission, or conveyance of authority; "and 
preach the Gospel" ; there is the commission or appointment of duty, 
and we should reduce ourselves to an absurdity if we did not hold 
that, as God has joined these together it is not warrantable that they 
should be put asunder by the practice of man. The only succession 
truly apostolical is that which united them both. 

No. 2 







(From supplement to the New South Wales Government Gazette 
of 31 December 1847.) 

. . . And We do further will and ordain, that the said Right Rev- 
erend Father in God, William Grant Broughton, Bishop of the said 
See of Sydney, and his Successors, the Bishops thereof for the time 
being, shall be, and be deemed, and taken to be, Metropolitan Bishop 
of Australasia (subject nevertheless to the general superintendence 
and revision of the Archbishop of Canterbury for the time being, 
and subordinate to the Archi-episcopal See of the Province of Can- 
terbury:) And We will and ordain, that the said Bishops of New- 
castle, Adelaide, and Melbourne, and also the Bishop of Tasmania, 
respectively, shall be Suffragan Bishops to the said Bishop of Sydney, 
and his Successors : And We further will and ordain, that the 
said Bishop of New Zealand, and his Successors, shall also become 
Suffragan Bishops to the said Bishop of Sydney, and his Successors, 
in such manner, and at such time, as We, or Our Successors, shall 
hereafter, with the consent of the said Bishop of New Zealand, or 
upon a vacancy of the said See, be pleased by Letters Patent under 
the Great Seal of Our said United Kingdom, to order and direct: 
And We will and grant to the said Bishop of Sydney, and his Suc- 
cessors, full power and authority, as Metropolitan of Australasia, to 
perform all functions peculiar and appropriate to the office of Metro- 
politan within the limits of the said Sees of Newcastle, Adelaide, 
Melbourne, and Tasmania, and also within the limits of the said 
See of New Zealand, whenever We shall, as aforesaid, be pleased 


to order and direct; and to exercise Metropolitan jurisdiction over 
the Bishops of the said Sees, and their Successors, and over all 
Archdeacons, Dignitaries, and all other Chaplains, Ministers, Priests, 
and Deacons in Holy Orders of the United Church of England and 
Ireland within the limits of the said Diocese : And We do by these 
presents give and grant unto the said Bishop of Sydney, and his 
Successors, full power and authority to visit once in five years, or 
oftener if occasion shall require, as well the said several Bishops, 
and their Successors, as all Archdeacons and Dignitaries, and all 
other Chaplains, Ministers, Priests and Deacons in Holy Orders of 
the United Church of England and Ireland, resident in the said 
Dioceses, for correcting and supplying the defects of the said Bishops, 
and their Successors, with all and all manner of visitorial jurisdic- 
tion, power, and coercion: And We do hereby authorize and em- 
power the said Bishop of Sydney, and his Successors, to inhibit, 
during any such visitation of the said Dioceses, the exercise of all, 
or of such part or parts of the Ordinary Jurisdiction of the said 
Bishops, or their Successors, as to him, the said Bishop of Sydney, 
or his Successors, shall seem expedient, and during the time of such 
visitation to exercise by himself, or themselves, or his or their Com- 
missaries, such powers, functions, and jurisdictions, in and over the 
said Dioceses as the Bishops thereof might have exercised if they 
had not been inhibited from exercising the same : And We do 
further ordain and declare that if any person against whom a 
judgment or decree shall be pronounced by the said Bishops, or 
their Successors, or their Commissary, or Commissaries, shall con- 
ceive himself to be aggrieved by such sentence, it shall be lawful 
for such person to appeal to the said Bishop of Sydney, or his Suc- 
cessors; provided such Appeal be entered within fifteen days after 
such sentence shall have been pronounced: And We do give and 
grant to the said Bishop of Sydney and his Successors full power 
and authority finally to decree and determine the said Appeals : 
And We do further will and ordain that in case any proceedings 
shall be instituted against any of the said Bishops of Newcastle, 
Adelaide, Melbourne, Tasmania, and New Zealand, when placed 
under the said Metrqpolitical See of Sydney, such proceedings shall 
originate and be carried on before the said Bishop of Sydney, whom 
We hereby authorize and direct to take cognizance of the same. . . . 



Aberdeen, Lord, 58, 60 

Aborigines, responsibility of Church 
to, 38-9, 108, 259-60 ; Broughton's 
early impressions of, 44-5 ; mis- 
sion station at Port Phillip, 94; 
character and customs, 251-2; 
missions, 253-5, 260, 262-3 

Absolution, 185-6 

Active, brig, 256 

Adelaide, Diocese, foundation of 
Synod, 143-4; Coleridge to be 
proposed as bishop, 165-6; see 
established, 176 ; independent 
action by, 225; constitution, 242, 

Albyn River Estate, 26, 121, 145 

All Saints', Parramatta, 14 

Allwood, Rev. R., 76, 126-7, 164-5, 
196, 229, 231, 243 

Ann, schooner, 255-6 

Argyle, county, 40 

Argyle Street, Sydney, 6 

Armidale, 120-1 

Asylum for Aboriginal Children, 

Australasian Board of Missions, 
208, 259-63 

Australian Agricultural Company, 

Australian Board of Missions, 

Australian Military College, 118 

Bailey, Dr, 71 
Bailey, Rev. H., 272 
Banks, Sir Joseph, i 
Baptism, 185, 209-10 
Barker, Frederic, Bishop, 158, 

Barnet, 18, 269 
Baston Island, 260 
Bathurst, 45, 114-16 
Bathurst, Lord, 15-16 
Bathurst Street, Sydney, 147 
Bay of Islands, 14, 256, 261 
Bethell, Sir R. See Westbury, 

Lord Chancellor. 
Bigge, J. T., 14-15, 146-7 
Bishop Broughton Memorial Fund, 

272-3 . 

Bishoprics, erection of new, 160-77 
Bishops' Bill. See Church of Eng- 
land Temporalities Act (1837). 
Blacket, E. T., 95, 150 
Blackheath, 117 
Blacktown, 254 
Bligh Street, Sydney, 8 
Blomfield, C. J., Bishop, 54, 63, 

161-2, 173-4 

Book of Common Prayer, 249 
Border Maid, ship, 261 
Bothwell, 97 
Bourke, Sir Richard, 43, 46, 53, 

55-62, 83-5, 87-8, 90, 93, 102, 

109, 147-8, ISO, 154 
Bowes, Dr Arthur, 6 
Boydell, Mrs W., 26 
Boydell, William, 121, 145 
Brett, Robert, 128 
Bridges, General, 118 
Bright, John, 199 
Brisbane, Sir Thomas, 16, 33 
Brisbane, county, 114 
Briscall, Rev. ., 21-2 
Broughton, Grant, 18 
Broughton, Sarah, Mrs, 20, 32, 57, 

96, 115, 134-5, 166, 178-9 



Broughton, W. G., Bishop, refer- 
ences to, in In Old Australia, 
12 ; tribute to Mars.den, 14 ; early 
life, 18-20 ; ordination, 20 ; mar- 
riage, 20 ; literary work, 21 ; ap- 
pointed Archdeacon of N.S.W., 
22-5 ; diary of voyage out, 26-30 ; 
arrival at Sydney, 31 ; first ser- 
mon and visitation, 34-9; visita- 
tions of Van Diemen's Land, 
40-42; second Sydney visitation, 
46-50; visit to England (1834-5), 
46, 50-64; appointed bishop, 
56-64; return to Sydney, 66-7; 
his friends, 68-79; address from 
Methodists, 80-82; opposition to 
Irish system of education, 84-5, 
102; Legislative Councillor, 85, 
92-3 ; letters on church affairs, 
87-91; appeals for schools and 
clergy, 90-1 ; visitations of Port 
Phillip and Van Diemen's Land, 
92-7; visitation of New Zealand, 
97-9, 256-7; of Norfolk Island, 
99-101; opposition to education 
proposals of Sir George Gipps, 
102-6, 109, 112; primary trien- 
nial visitation, 107-9; country 
towns, 111-22; appeals. for gov- 
ernment grants for clergy, 
112-13; replica of tomb in Christ 
Church, St Lawrence, 120; atti- 
tude to Sydney University, 130; 
defeat of Lowe's proposed act, 
139; building of St Andrew's 
Cathedral, . 148-52 ; glebe lands 
secured, 155-6; part in founding 
of Colonial Bishoprics Fund, 
161, _i63-4; letter to Coleridge 
on his future, 165-6] surrender 
of salary, 170-1 ; death of his 
wife, 178-9 ; his view of the 
Anglican Church, 180-90; de- 
fence of Church Constitution 
against Roman Catholic attacks, 
191-206; efforts for diocesan co- 
operation, 224-6; views on lay 
representation, 229-32; visit to 
England, 233-5; 265-70; concern 
for aborigines, 259-60; illness 

Broughton, W. G. (continued) 
and death, 270-1 ; burial, 271-2 ; 
memorial fund, 272; tributes, 


Broughton Prizes, 272 
Broughton Scholarship, 272 
Burdett Coutts, Baroness, 162 
Burton, Sir W. W., 19, 77-8, 157, 

159, 171 

Cambridge University, n, 19 

Camden, 116-17, 119 

Camden, barque, 66 

Camden, county, 40 

Campbell, Rev, A. M., 51 

Campbell, Charles, 266 

Campbell, George, 117 

Campbell, Robert, 117-18 

Campbell Town, Tasmania, 97 

Campbelltown, 51 

Canberra, 118-19 

Canterbury, 18, 20, 128 

Canterbury Cathedral, 18, 54, 106, 
120, 271-2 

Capetown, Diocese of, 243-4 

Carpentaria, Diocese of, 263 

Carr, Bishop, 272 

Carrington, 44 

Cartwright, Rev. R., 13, 86 

Catholic Emancipation Act (1829), 

Cecil, Lord Robert, 19 

Chatham Islands, 261 

Christ Church, Queanbeyan, 118 

Christ Church, St Lawrence, 76, 
119-20, 149-50 

Christ Church, Sofala, 264-5 

Church Act (1836), 83-4, 107 

Church and School Lands Cor- 
poration, 42-4, 46, 48, 107, 152-5, 

Church Constitution Bill (Vic- 
toria), 241 

Church in Australia, control in 
early days of settlement, 5; first 
service at Sydney . Cove, 6-7 ; 
first church, 8-9; first parishes, 
9; first Sunday-school, 12; first 
Archdeacon, 15-17; in Diocese 
of Calcutta, 15-16, 33, 35, 41-2, 



Church in Australia (continued) 
46-7; Church and School Cor- 
poration Charter revoked, 42-4; 
state in 1821 and 1834, 5*-2 ; es- 
tablishment of bishopric, 56-64; 
Diocesan Committee of S.P.G. 
and S.P.C.K. established, 82-3; 
need foj schools and clergy, 
90-1, _ 123-5; primary triennial 
visitation, 107-9; proposals for 
supply and training of clergy, 
126-33 ; state 'endowment, 152-5 ; 
private endowments, 156-9; sub- 
division of the see, 160-4; bish- 
ops appointed, 168-77; Archdea- 
con of Sydney appointed, 178; 
Broughton's view of the Church, 
180-90 ; constitution defended 
against Roman Catholic attacks, 
193-206; royal supremacy, 201-6, 
219, 222, 227-8, 232, 234, 237-8; 
conference of bishops, 207-18; 
constitution, 212, 223-5, 227-50; 
synods established, 213-17; con- 
ventions of laity, 216-17, 223, 
225-34; voluntary basis, 220-1; 
connexion with the Mother 
Church in England, 248-9 

Clarence Street, Sydney,, 147 

Clergy, discipline and status, 

Clergy training institution, Syd- 
ney, 126-8 

Colenso Case, 220 

Coleridge, Bishop, 64, 70, 166 

Coleridge, Rev. Edward, 54, 64-5, 
70-2, 83, 87, 89, 116, 125, 128-9, 
131, 138-9, 159, 161, 165-7, 174, 
181, 189, 233, 266-8, 270-2 

Coleridge, J. T, Judge, 65, 70, 162, 
167 _ 

Colonial Bishoprics Fund, 161-4, 
169^172, 175 

Colonial Church Chronicle, 169, 

175, 209, 216-17 

Colonial Church Regulation Bill 
(1853), 237 
Conference of Bishops (1850), 

207-18, 236, 259 
Confession, 185-6 

Confirmation, 40-1 
Consistorial court, 86-7 
Convict chaplains, 142 
Convicts, 1-2, 5-6, lo-n, 28-9, 34, 

37-8, 50-3, 99-IOI, 117, 274 
Convocation, 223-4 
Conway, H.M.S., 93 
Cooper, Charles, 255 
Corporation Act, 203 
Cotton, Lord Justice, 72 
Council of Education, no 
Court of Appeal, 249 
Cowper, William, 2 
Cowper, William, Archdeacon, 13, 

66, 86, 107, 151, 178 
Cowper, W. M., Dean, 178 
Crocodile, H.M.S., 40 
Curzon Street Chapel, 269 

Darling, Sir Ralph, 39 

Darwin, Charles, 256; quoted, 251 

Davies, Rev. R. R., 40 

Denison, ., 114 

Dido, H.M.S., 257 

Diocesan Committee of S.P.G. and 

S.P.C.K., 82-3, 97, 99, 103, 106, 


Diocesan independence, 247-8 
Diocesan Registry, Sydney, 26 
Docker, Rev. Joseph, 35 
Duaterra, 13, 255 
Dumaresq. Col. H., 32 
Dundas, Rt. Hon. H., 8 
Duntroon, 117-18 
Durham, county, 114 

Ecclesiastical Law (Phillimore), 

Ecclesiastical Titles Bill (1851), 

Eclectic Society, 2-4 

Education, grants in aid by S.P.G., 
4; Archdeacon Scott's first 
charge, 17; his work praised by 
Broughton, 37; religious basis 
urged by Broughton, 37, 42; 
Church and School Corporation 
Charter revoked, 42-4; Irish 
national system supported by Sir 
R. Bourke, 46, 84, 102 ; parochial 



Education (continued) 
schools, 48-9, 90-1 ; Broughton's 
objections to Bourke's plan, 61 ; 
aid sought from England, 90-1 ; 
Sir George Gipps's scheme, 
102-6, 109, 112; attempt to intro- 
duce Irish system, 109-10; 
boards appointed, no; govern- 
ment aid to denominational 
schools abolished, no; constitu- 
tion of University of Sydney, 
130; denominational colleges es- 
tablished, 130; report of Con- 
ference of Bishops, 2H-I2 

Elland Society, u 

Endeavour, barque, i 

Episcopal Church in America, 230 

Episcopal government, 184-5, 213- 
26, 238-40 

Episcopal prerogative, 139-44 

Erastianism, 202-5 

Ewing, T. J., 97 (note) 

Farnham, 21, 25, 270 

Field, Barren, quoted, 251 

First Fleet, 5-6 

Fitzgerald, ., 115 

FitzRoy, Sir Charles, 170, 195 

Fletcher, Rev. ]. W., 2 

Flynn, Rev. J. F., 41 

Forbes, Lieut. J. D., 26 

Forrest, Rev. R., 127 

Francis, Rev. John, 18, 135 

Francis, Sarah, 20, 135. See also 

Broughton, Mrs W. G. 
Franklin, Sir John, 87, 140-1, 165, 

Friendly Islands, 257 

Geelong, 94-6 

George Street, Sydney, 6, 41, 146-8 

George Street Cemetery, 146 

Gilbert, Canon, 148 

Gillett, C. J., 130 

Gipps, Lady, 270-1 

Gipps, George, 272 

Gipps, Sir George, 70, 102-6, 109, 

_i 12-13, 253, 270, 272, 278 
Gippsland, 96 
Gladstone, Rt Hon. W. E., 162, 

169-72, 175-6, 199, 233, 235-8, 268 

Glebe lands, Sydney, 155-6, 171 
Glenelg, Lord, 43, 53, 57-62, 93, 

Goderich, Viscount. See Ripon, 


Gold discovery, 264, 276 
Golden Grove, storeship, 5-6 
Gorham Case, 185, 209-10 
Goulburn, Dean, 72 
Goulburn Diocese, 12, 245-6 
Gray, Robert, Bishop, 168, 214 
Greenway, F. H., 146 
Grey, Lord, 195, 218, 233, 236 
Grey, Sir George, 53 
Groom, Sir Littleton, 119 
Gmrdian, the, 129 
Guardian, the (Sydney), 196 
Gunther, Rev. J., 255 

Hadfield, Octavius, Bishop, 98 
Hale, W. H., 162 
Hamilton, Tasmania, 97 
Harrison, Archdeacon, 272 
Hartley Wespall, 20-1, 28, 63 
Hassall, Rev. ]. S., 12, 126 
Hassall, Rowland, 12 
Hassall, Rev. Thomas, 12 
Hatton, Hannah, 26 
Hatton, Samuel, 26 
Hawkesbury River, 113 
Hawkins, Rev. Ernest, 161, 163, 

169, 269, 272 

Heber, Reginald, Bishop, 16 
Hercules, transport, 16 
Hill, Rev. Richard, 35, 66 
History of the Catholic Church in 

Australia, 41 
Hope, Beresford, 128-9 
Howe, Lord, 2 
Howley, Archbishop, 63, 74/161, 

170, 173, 270 
Hubbard, J. G., 162 
Hunt, John, 28 

Hunter, Admiral John, 8-10 

Hunter River, 114, 132 

Hunter Street, 8 

Hutchins, William, Archdeacon, 

20, 86, 140 

Hutchins Grammar School, 97 
Hutchisson, Rev. H. J., 20 



Ideal of the Church, 176 
Ikon Basilike, 21 
Immigration, 274-5 
Immigration, Committee on, 117 
In Old Australia, 12 
Inglis, Sir 1 R., 97 

Irish national system of education, 
46, 84-5, 102, 109-10 

James, Bishop, 46, 167 
Jeffcott, fudge, 95 
John, transport, 26-30 
Johnson, Rev. Richard, 2-13, 34, 


Kearns, ., 115 

Keate, Dr John, 20 

Keble, Rev. John, 70, 181, 269 

Kemp, Rev. C., 126 

Kent Street, Sydney, 147 

King Street, Sydney, 146 

King's School, Canterbury, 18, 54, 

102, 270, 272 
King's School, The, Parramatta ; 

49, 85, 90, 154, 165, 272 

Lake Macquarie, 254 

Lambeth Palace; 162 

Lambeth Palace Chapel, 63-5, 173 

Lambeth Palace Library, 108 

Lambeth Parish Church, 269 

Lampeter College, 12 

Langhorne, George, 94 

La Plata, ship, 266-7 

Latrobe, C. J., 95-6 

Launceston, 97 

Lay Conventions, 216-17, 223, 225- 

34, 249-50 
Letters patent of bishops, 62-3, 

85-7, 97-8, 140-1, 201-4, 213-14, 

218-20, 239-40, 289-90 
Lima, 266 

Limestone Plains, 118-19 
Liquor, consumption of, 48 
Liturgy, 210 
Liverpool, 51, 156-8 
London Missionary Society, n 
Long v. Capetown Case, 220, 244 
Longford, 40 
Lonsdale, Captain W., 94 

Love, ., Surgeon,- R.N., 26 
Lowe, Robert. See Sherbrooke. 


Loyalty Islands, 259, 261 
Lyndhurst, 126-8 

Macarthur, Elizabeth, 117 

Macarthur, John, 116 

Macquarie, Lachlan, Governor, 51, 
145-8, 156, 254, 256 

Magdalen Tower, 148 

Makinson, Rev. J. C., 196 

Malicplo, 261 

Maoris, 13-14, 98, 255-7, 261 

Marriott, Archdeacon. 142 

Marsden, Rev. Samuel, 11-14, 34, 
So, 66, 84, 86. 98, 115, 151, 254-6, 

Matra, J. M., 1-2 

Melanesia, Diocese of, 261 

Melanesian Mission, 257-8 

Melbourne, Lord, 55-6 

Melbourne Diocese, visitations by 
Broughton, 94-6; establishment 
of _ see, 169, 176 ; independent 
action by, 225 ; constitution, 241-2 

Methodist Conference (1933), no 

Methodists, 80-2, 84, 109 

Middleton, Bishop, 65, 73 

Milne, Joseph, n 

Missions, 251-63 

Molesworth, Rev. J. E. N., 64 

Monk, Bishop, 63 

Montgomery, Bishop, 71-2, 74, 108 

Moore, Archbishop, 3-4, 8 

Moore, Thomas, 151, 156-8 

Moore College, 158, 165 

Moorebank, 158 

Moran, Cardinal, 41 

Morice, Dr, 3 

Mountain, J. G., Bishop, 63, 268 

Navigator's Islands, 257 
Nepean, Sir Evan, 8 
Nepean River, 39 
New Britain, 2.S9 
New Caledonia, 259, 261 
New England, 120-1 
New Guinea Mission, 263 
New Hanover, 259 



New Hebrides, 257, 259, 261 

New Norfolk, 97 

New Town, Hobart, 97 

New Zealand, Diocese of, inde- 
pendent action by, 225 ; consti- 
tution, 243, 246 

New Zealand Board of Missions, 

New Zealand Mission, 13-14, 34, 
2 55-7 ; visited by Broughton, 92, 
97-9; C.M.S. contribution to 
bishopric fund, 162; establish- 
ment of See of New Zealand, 

Newcastle, Duke of, 244 

Newcastle, 51 

Newcastle Diocese, establishment 
of see, 176; co-operation with 
Diocese of Sydney, 212; synod, 

Newman, Cardinal, 167-8, 181, 187, 

189, 197 

Newton. Rev. J., 2-4 
Nixon, F. R., Bishop, 86, 141-3, 

165, 173, 175, 199 
Noel, Rev. B., 2 
Norfolk Island, 34, 50, 86, 92 
Normanby, Marquis of, 112, 192 
Norris, Rev. H. H., 24, 55, 74-6, 


Norsworthy, Capt. R., 26 
Northcote, Sir Stafford, 72 
Norton, James, 86, 151 

Oiki, 14 

Oxford Movement, 70, 187, 197 

Palaeoromaica, 21 
Papal claims, 181-206 
Parkes, Sir Henry, no 
Parochial schools, 4, 17, 37, 42-4, 

46, 48-9, 61, 90-1, 94, 104-6, 

108-10, 112 
Parramatta, 9, 12-14, 34, 39, 82, 

85, 254 

Parry, Sir Edward, 44 
Patteson, Judge, 65, 70 
Patteson, J. C, Bishop, 72, 79, 261 
Pelorus, H.M.S., 97, 99 
Perry, Charles, Bishop, 176, 209, 

225, 241-2 

Phillimore, Lord, 21-2 

Phillip, Admiral, Arthur, 5-7 

Pilgrim Inn, us 

Pitt, Rt Hon. William, 2-3 

Folding, J. B., Archbishop, 65, 

Port Macquarie, 51 

Port Phillip, 92-6 

Port Stephens, 44-5 

Presbyterians, official recognition 
urged by Sir R. Bourke, 43 ; 
government grants, 83-4; oppo- 
sition to Irish system of educa- 
tion, 84; schools, 109 

Public Instruction Act (1880), no 

Public Schools Act (1866), no 

Pulteney Hotel, 82 

Pusey, ., 131-3, 176, i8r, 188 

Queanbeyan, 118 

Radford, L. B., Bishop, 12 

Rangihona, 98 

Reformation, The, 181-3, 224 

Reqister (Adelaide), 255 

Religious Education. See Educa- 
tion; Parochial schools. 

Responsible government, 275-6 

Richmond, George, 271 

Richmond, Tasmania, 97 

Ripqn, Earl, 90 

Robinson, Dr F. W., 118-19 

Roman Catholics, official recogni- 
tion urged by Sir R. Bourke, 
43; government grants to, 65, 
83-4; Bourke's alleged partial- 
ity to, 88-9; view of episcopal 
powers of Anglican bishops, 
97-8; education proposals of Sir 
G. Gipps, 102-6, 109, 112; 
Broughton's warning to clergy, 
108; parochial schools, 109; 
archbishopric established, 165, 
J 93 i papal claims, 181-206 

Ross, Major R., 7 

Royal supremacy, 201-6, 219, 222, 
227-8, 232, 234, 237-8 

Rumball, John, 18 

Russell, Lord John, 112, 140, 198, 



Sacraments, 185 
St Andrew's, Parish of, go 
St Andrew's Cathedral, memorial 
to Rev. R. Johnson, 10-11; 
memorial to Archdeacon Scott, 
17; Broughton's rochet placed 
in, 26; Macquarie's proposed 
church on site of, 51-2, 145-7; 
building of cathedral, 148-52; 
provision for new cathedral, 
152; bequest by Thomas Moore, 
157; Conference of Bishops 
(1852), 227; Broughton memo- 
rial, 272 

St Augustine's College, Canter- 
bury, 128-30, 162, 167, 272 

St David's, Hobart, 40, 97 

St George's, Hobart, 97 

St James's, Melbourne, 95-6 

St James's, Sydney, 16, 34-5, 42, 
46, 51, 54, 66, 76, 78, 82, 85, 99, 
107, 126, 146, 150, 164, 179, 182, 
187, 194, 259 

St James's College, 128 

St John's, Ashfield, 119 

St John's, Camden, 116 

St John's, Canberra, 118-19 

St John's, Launceston, 40 

St John's, Parramatta, 9, 12-14, 
51, 82, 266 

St John's College, Auckland, 258, 

St Lawrence, Parish of, 90. See 
also Christ Church, St Law- 

St Margaret's, Westminster, 18 

St Mary's, Albyn River, 25-6, 121, 

St Mary Aldermary's, London, 10 

St Mary's Cathedral, 90 

St Mary's, Oxford, 148 

St Peter's Cathedral, Armidale 

St Peter's, Melbourne, 95-6 
St ? hi iP' s > Sydney, 9, 34, Si, 54, 


St Stephen's, Newtown, 119 
Sahcia, ship, 266 
Salisbury, Marquess of, 18-19 
Sconce, Rev. R. K., 196-7 

Scott, J. H., Archdeacon, 15-17, 

22, 32-4, 37, 43, 146, 151 
Selwyn, G. A., Bishop, 63-4, 70, 
98, 125-6, 128, 150, 172-3, 175-7, 
214, 245, 257-62 
Selwyn, John, Bishop, 72 
Sharpe, Rev. Thomas, 85, 100 
Shelley, W., 254 
Sherbrooke, Viscount, 109, 139 
Short, Augustus, Bishop, 143-4, 

176, 242, 260 
Simeon, Rev. C, 2 
Sirius, H.M.S., 5, 7 
Smith, Goldwin, 72 
Smith, James, 94 
Smith, Canon W. I. Carr, 35 
Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge, 3-4, 36, 52-4, 65, 
7i-5, 82-3, 87-8, 97, 99, 103, 106, 
108, 125, 136, 161-2, 177, 266, 

' Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel, 3-4, IQ, 34, Si-2, 54, 
6.5. 7i, 73, 75, 77, 82-4, 88, 93, 
97, 99-ior, 103, 106, 108, 112-13, 
124-5, 136, 157, 161-2, 177, 191, 
195, 268-9, 272 
Sofala, 264 
Solomon Islands, 259 
South Creek, 115 
Stack, Rev. William, 107 
Stanley, Lord, 59, 169, 193 
State of Religion and Education 

in New South Wales, 77 
Stephen, Sir Alfred, 78-9, 273 
Stevens, Hon. B. S. B., no 
Stockade, The, 115, 117 
Strathfieldsaye, 21-3 
Strathmore, Countess of, 18 
Stroud, 44-5 
Success, frigate, 23 
Sumner, Richard, Archbishop, 25, 

63, 163, 237, 240, 242 
bunday-schools, 12, 108 
Supply, H.M.S., 5 
Sydney, Lord, i, 5-6 
Sydney Cove, 6 

Sydney Diocese, constitution, 243-7 
Sydney Ga-sette, 16, 66 
Sydney Morning Herald, 107-9, 
207, 231, 259, 265-6 



Synod, general, 247-8 

Synods, diocesan, 143-4, 213-7, 

223-6, 244-8; lay representation 

in, 228-31, 249-50 
Synods, provincial, 245-8 
Tahiti, n, 254 

Tasmania, state of church on 
Broughton's arrival, 34; his 
visitations, 40-2, 92, 96-7; ap- 
pointment of archdeacon, 86; of 
bishop, 86; episcopal preroga- 
tive in, 140-3; establishment of 
see, 172; independent action of 
diocese, 225 

Tench, Capt. W., 6 

Test Act, 203 

Theological Library, Sydney, 131, 


Thomas, Mesac, Bishop, 245 
Thomas, Samuel, 7 
Thompson, Rev. A. C., 95-6 
Thornton, John, 2, 4 
Threlkeld, Rev. L. E., 254 
Times, The, quoted, 193, 267 
Tingcomb, John, 121 
Todd, Archdeacon, 140 
Tomline, Bishop, 20 
Tongey, 115 

Tower of London, 21-2, 24 
Tractarian Movement, 167-8, 176, 

Transportation, abolition of, 117, 

Tyrrell, William, Bishop, 130, 

176-7, 208, 212, 214, 222, 225, 

231, 243-6, 262 

Undine, schooner, 258 

Universities, theological faculties 
in, 130-1 

University Colleges, denomina- 
tional, 130 

University of Sydney, 130, 211 

Venn, Rev. H., 2-3 
Veto, power of, 230 
Victoria, Queen, 171-3 
Voluntary system, 137-8 

Walsh, Rev. W. H., 76-7, 119 
Warneford, Rev. S. W., 158-9 
Watson, Joshua, 71-5, 77-8, 87, 

89, 97, 125, 136, 140, 155, 157-9, 

161, 268 

Weatherboard, 115 
Wellington, Duchess of, 25 
Wellington, Duke of, 21-4, 62 
Wellington Aboriginal Mission, 


Westbury, Lord Chancellor, 143 
Westminster Abbey, 173-4 
White, Capt., 156 
Wilberforce, William, 2-3, 12 
William IV, 54 
Willis's Rooms, London, 162-3 
Wilson, Daniel, Bishop, 41, 47 

150, 256 

Winchester Chapel, 23 
Windsor, 34, 51, 115 
Windsor Parsonage, 14 
Wiseman, Cardinal, 197-8, 201-3 
Woodd, Rev. G. N., 107 

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